Bend, Oregon

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Bend, Oregon
Looking west from Pilot Butte
Looking west from Pilot Butte
Location in Oregon
Location in Oregon
Coordinates: 44°3′N 121°18′W / 44.050°N 121.300°W / 44.050; -121.300Coordinates: 44°3′N 121°18′W / 44.050°N 121.300°W / 44.050; -121.300
CountryUnited States
IncorporatedJanuary 4, 1905
 • MayorJim Clinton
 • City33.27 sq mi (86.17 km2)
 • Land33.01 sq mi (85.50 km2)
 • Water0.26 sq mi (0.67 km2)
Elevation3,623 ft (1,104.3 m)
Population (2010)[2]
 • City76,639
 • Estimate (2013[3])78,280
 • Density2,321.7/sq mi (896.4/km2)
 • Metro162,520
Time zonePST (UTC-8)
 • Summer (DST)PDT (UTC-7)
ZIP code97701, 97702, 97707–97709
Area code(s)458 and 541
FIPS code41-05800[6]
GNIS feature ID1137914[7]
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Not to be confused with North Bend, Oregon.
Bend, Oregon
Looking west from Pilot Butte
Looking west from Pilot Butte
Location in Oregon
Location in Oregon
Coordinates: 44°3′N 121°18′W / 44.050°N 121.300°W / 44.050; -121.300Coordinates: 44°3′N 121°18′W / 44.050°N 121.300°W / 44.050; -121.300
CountryUnited States
IncorporatedJanuary 4, 1905
 • MayorJim Clinton
 • City33.27 sq mi (86.17 km2)
 • Land33.01 sq mi (85.50 km2)
 • Water0.26 sq mi (0.67 km2)
Elevation3,623 ft (1,104.3 m)
Population (2010)[2]
 • City76,639
 • Estimate (2013[3])78,280
 • Density2,321.7/sq mi (896.4/km2)
 • Metro162,520
Time zonePST (UTC-8)
 • Summer (DST)PDT (UTC-7)
ZIP code97701, 97702, 97707–97709
Area code(s)458 and 541
FIPS code41-05800[6]
GNIS feature ID1137914[7]

Bend is a city in and the county seat of Deschutes County, Oregon, United States.[8] It is the principal city of the Bend, Oregon Metropolitan Statistical Area. Bend is Central Oregon's largest city, and despite its modest size, is the de facto metropolis of the region, owing to the low population density of that area. Bend recorded a population of 76,693 at the time of the 2010 US Census,[9] up from 52,029 at the 2000 census. The estimated population of Bend as of 2013 is 78,280 [10]

Bend's metro population was estimated at 162,520 as of July 1, 2013.[11] The Bend MSA is the 5th largest metropolitan area in Oregon.

Bend is located on the eastern edge of the Cascade Range along the Deschutes River. Here the Ponderosa Pine forest transitions into the high desert, characterized by arid land, junipers, sagebrush, and bitter-brush. Originally a crossing point on the river, settlement began in the early 1900s. Bend was incorporated as a city in 1905. Economically, it started as a logging town but is now identified as a gateway for many outdoor sports, including mountain biking, fishing, hiking, camping, rock climbing, white-water rafting, skiing, paragliding and golf.


Downtown circa 1920

The name Bend was derived from "Farewell Bend", the designation used by early pioneers to refer to the location along the Deschutes River where the town was eventually platted, one of the few fordable points along the river.

For at least 12,000 years, until the winter of 1824, the Bend area was known only to Native Americans who hunted and fished there. That year, members of a fur trapping party led by Peter Skene Ogden visited the area. John C. Frémont, John Strong Newberry, and other Army survey parties came next. Then pioneers heading farther west passed through the area and forded the Deschutes River at Farewell Bend.

Constructed in May 1901, the Pilot Butte Development Company's little plant was the first commercial sawmill in Bend. The original location was at the rear of the Pilot Butte Inn of later years. Steidl and Reed also set up a small mill in Bend in 1903. This was on the Deschutes River just below the Pioneer Park area. The mill was operated by water power.[12] A small community developed around the area, and in 1904, a city was incorporated by a general vote of the community's 300 residents. On January 4, 1905, the city held its first official meeting as an incorporated municipality, appointing A. H. Goodwillie as the first mayor. The settlement was originally called "Farewell Bend", which was later shortened to "Bend" by the U.S. Postal Service.

In 1910, Mirror Pond was created by the construction of the Bend Water, Light & Power Company dam on the Deschutes River in Bend. The dam provided the city with its initial source of electricity. The dam has been owned by Pacific Power since 1926 and still produces electricity that supplies approximately 200 Bend households.[13] In 1918, Deschutes County, Oregon was formed from the western half of Crook County and Bend was designated as the county seat. In 1929, Bend amended the charter and adopted the council-manager form of government.


Mirror Pond from Drake Park during autumn
Pilot Butte
Mirror Pond from Drake Park during the winter

Bend sits on the boundary of the Eastern Cascades Slopes and Foothills, a Level III ecoregion designated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the U.S. states of Oregon, Washington, and California, and the Deschutes River Valley, a Level IV ecoregion within the Blue Mountains Level III ecoregion.[14] The Deschutes River runs though Bend where it is dammed forming Mirror Pond.[13] Bend's elevation is 3,623 feet (1,104 m).[15]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 33.27 square miles (86.17 km2), of which, 33.01 square miles (85.50 km2) is land and 0.26 square miles (0.67 km2) is water.[1]

Inside the city limits is Pilot Butte State Scenic Viewpoint, an old cinder cone. Bend is one of three cities in the continental U.S. (with Portland, Oregon and Jackson, Mississippi) to have an extinct volcano within its city limits.[16] It is reached by U.S. Route 20.

A lesser known characteristic of Bend, the Horse Lava Tube System enters and borders the eastern edge of the city.[17][18]

Just south of Bend is Newberry National Volcanic Monument on U.S. Route 97.


Bend, Oregon
Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Source: NOAA

Bend's climate is typical of the high desert with cool nights and sunny days, classified as semi-arid (Köppen BSk). Annual precipitation averages 11.2 in (280 mm), with an annual average snowfall of 23.8 inches (60.5 cm).[19] The winter season in Bend provides a mean temperature of 31.1 °F (−0.5 °C) in December.[19] Nighttime temperatures are not much lower than daytime highs during the winter. According to the USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map, annually, the lowest nighttime temperature is typically −5 °F (−21 °C) to −10 °F (−23 °C).[20]

Central Oregon summers are marked by their very large diurnal temperature ranges, with a July daily average of 64.5 °F (18.1 °C), and an average diurnal temperature variation approaching 35 °F (19 °C).[19] Hard frosts are not unheard of during the summer months. Autumn usually brings warm, dry days and cooler nights, and Bend is known for its annual Indian summer.

Bend's growing season is short; according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Resources Conservation Service, in half of the years between 1971 and 2000, the USDA weather station in Bend recorded the last below-freezing temperatures after July 3 and the first below-freezing temperatures before August 31.[21] Based on 1981–2010 normals, the average window for freezing temperatures is September 13 through June 19.

Monthly and Annual Average Temperatures (deg F), Bend, 1981–2010[19]
Mean number of days

Max 90 or more

Min 32 or less24.624.
Max 32 or less4.42.70.20000000.
Min 0 or less0.30.5000000000.31.02.2


Historical population
Location of the Bend-Prineville CSA and its components:
  Bend Metropolitan Statistical Area
  Prineville Micropolitan Statistical Area

Bend is the larger principal city of the Bend-Prineville CSA, a Combined Statistical Area that includes the Bend metropolitan area (Deschutes County) and the Prineville micropolitan area (Crook County),[24][25][26] which had a combined estimated population of 216,310 by the United States Census Bureau in 2008.[6]

2010 census[edit]

As of the census[2] of 2010, there were 76,639 people, 31,790 households, and 19,779 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,321.7 inhabitants per square mile (896.4 /km2). There were 36,110 housing units at an average density of 1,093.9 per square mile (422.4 /km2). The racial makeup of the city was 91.3% White, 0.5% African American, 0.8% Native American, 1.2% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 3.4% from other races, and 2.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.2% of the population.

There were 31,790 households of which 31.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.9% were married couples living together, 9.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.4% had a male householder with no wife present, and 37.8% were non-families. 27.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.91.

The median age in the city was 36.6 years. 23.7% of residents were under the age of 18; 8.7% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 30% were from 25 to 44; 25.1% were from 45 to 64; and 12.4% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 49.0% male and 51.0% female.

2000 census[edit]

As of the census[6] of 2000, there were 52,029 people, 21,062 households, and 13,395 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,624.8 people per square mile (627.4/km²). There were 22,507 housing units at an average density of 702.9 per square mile (271.4/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 93.98% White, 0.28% African American, 0.79% Native American, 1.00% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 1.75% from other races, and 2.12% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 4.61% of the population.

There were 21,062 households, out of which 31.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.2% were married couples living together, 9.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.4% were non-families. 26.1% of all households were made up of individuals, and 8.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42, and the average family size was 2.92.

The age distribution was 24.5% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 31.1% from 25 to 44, 21.9% from 45 to 64, and 12.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.6 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $40,857, and in 2006 the median income for a family of four is $58,800. Males had a median income of $33,377 versus $25,094 for females. The per capita income for the city was $21,624. About 6.9% of families and 10.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.8% of those under age 18 and 5.8% of those age 65 or over.


Tourism is one of Bend's largest sectors. The Mount Bachelor ski resort brings in tourists from all over Oregon, Washington, and California. The nearby Cascade Lakes are also a large draw for tourists. Recreational activities include downhill and cross country skiing, hiking, biking, rafting, golfing, camping, fishing, picnicking, rock climbing, and general sightseeing.

Bend is also home to the Deschutes Brewery, the 5th largest craft brewery in the nation and the largest of over a dozen microbreweries in the city.[citation needed] Each year the city hosts many events celebrating its brewing culture including: The Bend Oktoberfest, The Little Woody Barrel Aged Brew and Whiskey Fest, Bend Brewfest, and Central Oregon Beer Week. Beer aficionados can also visit many of the breweries along The Bend Ale Trail. Since 2004, Bend has also hosted the one of the top indie film festivals in the nation The BendFilm Festival.[27]

In 2005, Bend's economic profile comprised five industry categories: tourism (7,772 jobs); healthcare and social services (6,062 jobs); professional, scientific and technical services (1,893 jobs); wood products manufacturing (1,798 jobs); and recreation and transportation equipment (1,065 jobs).

Much of Bend's rapid growth in recent years is also due to its attraction as a retirement destination. The rapid population growth has fostered organizations such as Central Oregon Landwatch and Oregon Solutions.[28]

Major companies[edit]

As of 2009, the top 20 private regional (Deschutes, Jefferson, and Crook counties) employers[29] were:

1984 photo of lumber mill and Pilot Butte

Other Bend-based companies[edit]

Construction and real estate[edit]

Downtown construction in Bend

According to the U.S. Department of Commerce's Bureau of Economic Analysis, in 2005 construction and real estate accounted for 17.3 percent of all jobs in the Bend metropolitan statistical area (MSA), which constitutes all of Deschutes County.[30] This figure is about 70 percent more than the proportion of construction and real estate jobs in the Oregon and national economies.[31] However, construction activity in Bend appears to be slowing - the number of building permit applications received by the Bend City Building Division fell from 826 in August 2006 to 533 in August 2007, a 35 percent decrease.[32]

A large influx of new residents drawn by Bend's lifestyle amenities, along with the low interest rates and easy lending that fostered a national housing boom in 2001−05, resulted in increased activity in Bend's construction and real estate sectors and have caused the rate of home price appreciation in Bend to grow substantially during that period.[citation needed] Median home prices in the Bend MSA increased by over 80% in the 2001−05 period.[33]

In June 2006, Money magazine named the Bend MSA the fifth most overpriced real estate market in the United States.[34] By September 2006, the Bend metro area ranked second in the list of most overpriced housing markets, and in June 2007 it was named the most overpriced housing market in America.[35][36]

The 2008−09 housing downturn had a strong effect on Bend's housing and economic situation. According to the Seattle Times,[37] single-family home prices dropped more than 40 percent from a peak of $396,000 in May 2007 to $221,000 in March 2009. Additional signs of the housing downturn include an April 2009 Deschutes county unemployment rate of 12.6 percent and in a tri-county area of Deschutes, Crook and Jefferson counties a 66 percent rise in homelessness from 2006 to 2,237.[37]

In May 2010 the Federal Housing and Finance Agency released a report in which Bend had the largest price drop in the country, 23 percent, from first quarter of 2009 to the first quarter of 2010.[38]

Museums and other points of interest[edit]

Historic Tower Theatre


Bend is home to the Bend Elks of the West Coast Collegiate Baseball League. The Elks play at historic Vince Genna Stadium. Bend is also the home of the Central Oregon Hotshots of the International Basketball League. The Central Oregon Steelheaders, continually one of the top teams in the NW conference of the Premier Arena Soccer League (PASL), play at the Central Oregon Indoor Sports Center in Bend.

Bend is the home of the professional cross-country ski team XC Oregon, which competes in races locally, regionally, nationally and internationally.[39]

Bend recently has had success in landing major sporting events such as the 2008 and 2009 USA Winter Triathlon National Championships, the 2008 and 2009 XTERRA Trail Running National Championships, and the 2009 and 2010 United States National Cyclo-cross Championships as well as the 2009 and 2010 USA Cycling Elite Road National Championships.

A popular spot for cycling, Bend has over 300 miles (480 km) of mountain bike trails and is the home to the Cascade Cycling Classic, the nation's longest running stage race for road bicycle racing. Bend was recently named the top mountain bike city in Mountain Bike Action magazine.

Bend features the Bend Roughriders RFC, a men's division 3 Rugby Football Club.[40]

Bend's Lava City Roller Dolls became a member of the Women's Flat Track Derby Association in April, 2009.[41]

Bend's Pole Pedal Paddle is one of the Pacific Northwest's premier athletic events. It is a relay race held each spring with six legs that include alpine skiing/snowboarding, cross-country skiing, biking, running, canoeing/kayaking and sprinting.

Bend is also home to the Deschutes County Rocks amateur boxing team.

Running is also a popular sport in Bend. Bend is home to the Cascade Lakes Relay, Haulin' Aspen Trail Marathon, XTERRA Trail Running National Championships, and the Pilot Butte Challenge. One of the largest running clubs in Bend is CORK (central Oregon running klub). In 2006 Bend was named the best trail running city by Outside magazine,[42] because of 51 miles (82 km) of in-town trails.[43] Runners also enjoy parks such as Shevlin, Tumalo Falls, and Deschutes river trail.

Parks and recreation[edit]

Farewell Bend Park


The Bend area is served by Bend-La Pine Schools. There are four high schools (Bend, Marshall, Mountain View, and Summit), four middle schools, (Cascade, High Desert, Pilot Butte, and Sky View), 12 elementary schools, and four magnet schools. There are several private schools within the area as well, including Cascades Academy of Central Oregon, Seven Peaks, Waldorf School of Bend, St. Francis of Assisi, Morning Star Christian, and Trinity Lutheran [1]. Central Oregon Community College (COCC) and the OSU-Cascades Campus of Oregon State University (OSU) serve the community with both two- and four-year programs.







The nearest commercial airport is Roberts Field in Redmond, 18 miles (29 km) north. Horizon Airlines, SkyWest Airlines (flying as both United Express and Delta Connection) provide direct service to Portland, Seattle, Salt Lake City, San Francisco, Los Angeles, Las Vegas and Mesa, Arizona. The U.S. Forest Service operates an air base and training center for firefighting, and Butler Aircraft, a fixed-base operator, flies DC-4 aircraft for firefighting efforts.

Bend Municipal Airport (KBDN) is located 5 miles (8.0 km) northeast of the city and serves general aviation. Several significant general aviation companies are based at Bend Airport, including Precise Flight, which develops oxygen systems, speed brakes, landing lights and other modifications for general aviation aircraft, and Epic Aircraft.


The Bend Hawthorne Transit Center is a hub for the Cascades East Transit center with connections to intercity bus services including the HighDesert Point, Eastern Point, and the Central Oregon Breeze.[45][46]

Bend was previously the only metropolitan area west of the Mississippi River without a public bus system. A measure that would have created a transit district was on the November 2004 ballot, but was defeated 53 to 41 percent. As of August 2006, however, funding was acquired and the B.A.T. (Bend Area Transit) bus service began on a limited basis. Buses have been running since September 27, 2006.[47]

During the Summer of 2007, not a single bus purchased was in operation (though several were due to weak A/C systems) and litigation was underway.[48]


Bend lies at the intersection of U.S. Route 20 and U.S. Route 97. The latter runs on an expressway alignment through the city known as the Bend Parkway; a business route for US 97 runs along 3rd Street. The city is also served by the Century Drive Highway No. 372 which provides access to Mount Bachelor.


A BNSF mainline runs north-south through the city; there are numerous spurs off of the mainline which serve industrial rail customers. The closest Amtrak service is in the town of Chemult, approximately 65 miles (105 km) to the south; this station is served by the Coast Starlight route.

Sister cities[edit]

Bend has multiple sister cities:

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-12-21. [dead link]
  2. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-12-21. 
  3. ^ "Population Estimates for Oregon and Its Counties" (PDF). Portland State University. Retrieved February 2, 2014. 
  4. ^ "Renaissance Bendites: Two among us who do it all". The Source Weekly. 17 October 2012. Retrieved 28 September 2013. 
  5. ^ Jasper, David (19 April 2013). "Bendites show at ceramic showcase". The Bulletin. Retrieved 28 September 2013. 
  6. ^ a b c "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  7. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  8. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  9. ^ "2010 Census Redistricting Data". US Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-03-15. 
  10. ^ "Population Estimates for Oregon and Its Counties" (PDF). Portland State University. Retrieved February 2, 2014. 
  11. ^ "Estimates for Oregon and Its Counties" (PDF). Portland State University. Retrieved February 2, 2014. 
  12. ^ Phil F. Brogan. "Visitor Information Service" (PDF). Deschutes National Forest. 1969 (pg 116). 
  13. ^ a b "Mirror Pond". Retrieved 4 April 2012. 
  14. ^ File:Level IV ecoregions, Pacific Northwest.png
  15. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  16. ^ "Mt. Tabor Park". Portland Parks & Recreation. Retrieved 2007-08-03. 
  17. ^ Skeels, Matt (2012-02-05). "Horse Lava Tube System". Retrieved 2012-12-21. 
  18. ^ Champion, Duane E. (2002-05-14, abstract). "Mapping Newberry Volcano's Extensive North Flank Basalts". Retrieved 2009-07-27. 
  19. ^ a b c d e "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2013-07-01. 
  20. ^ Ramon Jordan (2012-01-24). "USNA - USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map: North-West US". Retrieved 2014-07-24. 
  21. ^ "National Water & Climate Center - Climate Information". Retrieved 2014-07-24. 
  22. ^ Moffatt, Riley. Population History of Western U.S. Cities & Towns, 1850-1990. Lanham: Scarecrow, 1996, 206.
  23. ^ "Subcounty population estimates: Oregon 2000-2007" (CSV). United States Census Bureau, Population Division. 2009-03-18. Retrieved 2009-04-29. [dead link]
  24. ^ METROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREAS AND COMPONENTS[dead link], Office of Management and Budget, 2007-05-11. Accessed 2008-08-01.
  25. ^ MICROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREAS AND COMPONENTS[dead link], Office of Management and Budget, 2007-05-11. Accessed 2008-08-01.
  26. ^ COMBINED STATISTICAL AREAS AND COMPONENT CORE BASED STATISTICAL AREAS[dead link], Office of Management and Budget, 2007-05-11. Accessed 2008-08-01.
  27. ^ "Bend Film Festival". Retrieved 2014-07-24. 
  28. ^ Oregon Solutions[dead link]
  29. ^ "EDCO". 1998-03-22. Retrieved 2014-07-24. 
  30. ^ "BEA : Local Area Personal Income". 2011-05-23. Retrieved 2014-07-24. 
  31. ^ "Economy endures in housing slump | The Bulletin". Retrieved 2014-07-24. 
  32. ^ Welcome to the City of Bend Oregon Website - Statistics - Building Division[dead link]
  33. ^ "MONEY Magazine Real Estate: Bend". CNN. [dead link]
  34. ^ Christie, Les (2006-06-12). "'Overpriced' housing gets more overpriced". CNN. 
  35. ^ Christie, Les (2006-09-21). "More home markets 'extremely' overvalued". CNN. 
  36. ^ Christie, Les (2007-06-15). "Overheated housing markets cool down". CNN. 
  37. ^ a b Bernton, Hal (2009-04-12). "Oregon's "New West" tumbles, another sign of hard times". The Seattle Times. 
  38. ^ Bjork, Nick (28 May 2010). "Bend leads nation in home depreciation". The Daily Journal of Commerce. 
  39. ^ "XC Oregon". XC Oregon. Retrieved 2014-07-24. 
  40. ^ "Bend Rugby". Bend Rugby. Retrieved 2014-07-24. 
  41. ^ "Official Site". Lava City Roller Dolls. Retrieved 2012-10-22. 
  42. ^ "Best Outside Towns: Bend, Oregon | Bend". Retrieved 2012-10-22. 
  43. ^ "Trail Running and Running Events in Bend Oregon". Retrieved 2012-10-22. 
  44. ^ "KOHD Official Website". Copyright 2006 by KOHD, Inc. Retrieved 2007-02-04. 
  45. ^ "The Point - Public Oregon Intercity Transportation". Retrieved 2012-10-22. 
  46. ^ "COIC Ribbon Cutting - Cascade Business News". 2011-07-12. Retrieved 2012-10-22. 
  47. ^ Preusch, Matthew. "Fixed-route buses are coming to Bend". The Oregonian. Retrieved 2006-11-08. 
  48. ^ Sachs, Peter. "Why Aren't Any Of Bend's Big Blue Buses On The Road?". Bend Bulletin. Retrieved 2007-08-28. 
  49. ^ "Oregon Sister Relationships". [Economic and Community Development Department / Way Back Machine]. Archived from the original on 2005-03-13. Retrieved 2009-08-07. [dead link]
  50. ^ "City Edition > August 2009". City of Bend. Retrieved 2009-08-07. 
  51. ^ "Condega Open House" (PDF). October 10, 2007. Retrieved 30 July 2009. 
  52. ^ "Sister City". April 1, 2009. Retrieved 30 July 2009. 
  53. ^ "10_13_08_Work_Session" (PDF). October 13, 2008. p. 4. Retrieved 30 July 2009. 
  54. ^ "Bend’s New Sister City Belluno, Italy - Cascade Business News". 2011-05-31. Retrieved 2014-07-24. 
  55. ^ "Bend Sister City Foundation". Bend Sister City Foundation. Retrieved 2014-07-24. 

External links[edit]