Bell pepper

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Bell pepper
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Red, yellow and green bell peppers. In some countries these three different-coloured peppers are sold in packs of three and are known as "traffic light peppers".

Bell pepper, also known as sweet pepper or a pepper (in the United Kingdom and Ireland) and capsicum (in India, Australia and New Zealand), is a cultivar group of the species Capsicum annuum.[1] Cultivars of the plant produce fruits in different colors, including red, yellow, orange, green, chocolate/brown, vanilla/white, and purple. Bell peppers are sometimes grouped with less pungent pepper varieties as "sweet peppers". Peppers are native to Mexico, Central America and northern South America. Pepper seeds were later carried to Spain in 1493 and from there spread to other European, African and Asian countries. Today, China is the world's largest pepper producer, followed by Mexico and Indonesia.

Ideal growing conditions for bell peppers include warm soil, ideally 21 to 29 °C (70 to 84 °F), that is kept moist but not waterlogged.[2] Bell peppers are sensitive to an abundance of moisture and excessive temperatures.

Nomenclature[edit]

Bell pepper
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The misleading name "pepper" was given by Christopher Columbus upon bringing the plant back to Europe.[citation needed] At that time peppercorns, the fruit of an unrelated plant originating from India, Piper nigrum, was a highly prized condiment; the name "pepper" was at that time applied in Europe to all known spices with a hot and pungent taste and so naturally extended to the newly discovered Capsicum genus. The most commonly used alternative name of the plant family, "chile", is of Mexican origin, from the Nahuatl word chilli or xilli. Bell peppers are botanically fruits, but are generally considered in culinary contexts to be vegetables.

While the bell pepper is a member of the Capsicum genus, it is the only Capsicum that does not produce capsaicin,[3] a lipophilic chemical that can cause a strong burning sensation when it comes in contact with mucous membranes. (An exception to this is the hybrid variety Mexibelle, which does contain a moderate level of capsaicin, and is therefore, somewhat hot). The lack of capsaicin in bell peppers is due to a recessive form of a gene that eliminates capsaicin and, consequently, the "hot" taste usually associated with the rest of the Capsicum genus.[4]

The terms "bell pepper", "pepper" or in India, Australia and New Zealand "capsicum", are often used for any of the large bell shaped fruits, regardless of their color. In British English, the fruit is simply referred to as a "pepper", or additionally by color (as in the term "green pepper", for example), whereas in many Commonwealth of Nations countries, such as Canada, and Malaysia, as well as in the United States, they are called "bell peppers".[citation needed] In some countries in Europe, the term "paprika", which has its roots in the word for pepper, is used – sometimes referred to by their color (e.g., "groene paprika", "gele paprika", in Dutch, which are green and yellow, respectively). The bell pepper is called ’パプリカ’(papurika) in Japan. Paprika also refers to the powdered spice made from the fruits in the Capsicum genus.[5] In Switzerland it is mostly called "peperoni", which is the Italian name of the fruit. In France, it is called "poivron", with the same root as "poivre" (meaning "pepper"), or "piment". In Korea, the word 피망 ("pimang" from the Japanese "Piman") refers to green bell peppers, whereas 파프리카 ("papurika" from paprika) refers to bell peppers of other colors.

Varieties[edit]

Peppers in 5 colors

The color can be green, red, yellow, orange and more rarely, brown, white, rainbow (between stages of ripening) lavender and dark purple, depending on the variety of pepper. Most typically, unripe fruit are green or, less commonly, pale yellow or purple. One variety, Permagreen, maintains its green color even when fully ripe. Some red, yellow, and orange peppers come from different seeds and are different cultivars of pepper. Some red peppers are simply ripened green peppers.[6] Green peppers are less sweet and slightly more bitter than yellow or orange peppers, with red bell peppers being the sweetest. The taste of ripe peppers can also vary with growing conditions and post-harvest storage treatment; the sweetest are fruit allowed to ripen fully on the plant in full sunshine, while fruit harvested green and after-ripened in storage are less sweet.

Nutritional value[edit]

Peppers, sweet, green, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy84 kJ (20 kcal)
Carbohydrates4.64 g
- Sugars2.4 g
- Dietary fiber1.7 g
Fat0.17 g
Protein0.86 g
Vitamin A equiv.18 μg (2%)
- beta-carotene208 μg (2%)
- lutein and zeaxanthin341 μg
Thiamine (vit. B1)0.057 mg (5%)
Riboflavin (vit. B2)0.028 mg (2%)
Niacin (vit. B3)0.48 mg (3%)
Pantothenic acid (B5)0.099 mg (2%)
Vitamin B60.224 mg (17%)
Folate (vit. B9)10 μg (3%)
Vitamin C80.4 mg (97%)
Vitamin E0.37 mg (2%)
Vitamin K7.4 μg (7%)
Calcium10 mg (1%)
Iron0.34 mg (3%)
Magnesium10 mg (3%)
Manganese0.122 mg (6%)
Phosphorus20 mg (3%)
Potassium175 mg (4%)
Sodium3 mg (0%)
Zinc0.13 mg (1%)
Fluoride2 µg
Link to USDA Database entry
Percentages are roughly approximated
using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Capsicum peppers are rich sources of antioxidants and vitamin C. Compared to green peppers, red peppers have more vitamins and nutrients and contain the antioxidant lycopene.[1] The level of carotene, like lycopene, is nine times higher in red peppers. Red peppers have twice the vitamin C content of green peppers.[1]

Red and green bell peppers are high in para-coumaric acid.

The characteristic aroma of green peppers is caused by 3-isoButyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP). Its detection threshold in water is estimated to be 2 ng/L.[7] The same chemical is responsible for characteristic Cabernet Sauvignon green note.

Production[edit]

Bell and Chile pepper production (metric tons)[8]
Country2004200520062007
 People's Republic of China12,031,03112,530,18013,031,00014,033,000
 Mexico1,431,2581,617,2641,681,2771,690,000
 Indonesia1,100,5141,058,0231,100,0001,100,000
 Turkey1,700,0001,829,0001,842,1751,090,921
 Spain1,077,0251,063,5011,074,1001,065,000
 United States978,890959,070998,210855,870
 Nigeria720,000721,000721,500723,000
 Egypt467,433460,000470,000475,000
 Korea, South410,281395,293352,966345,000
 Netherlands318,000345,000318,000340,000
 Romania237,240203,751279,126280,000
 Ghana270,000270,000277,000279,000
 Italy362,430362,994345,152252,194
 Tunisia255,000256,000256,000250,000
 Algeria265,307248,614275,888233,000
 Hungary126,133113,371206,419207,000
 Morocco182,340190,480235,570192,000
 Serbia*159,741167,477177,255150,257
 Japan153,400154,000146,900150,000
 Israel129,100134,700150,677136,000
 World24,587,12425,261,25926,252,90726,056,900

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Pharmacognosy and Health Benefits of Capsicum Peppers (Bell Peppers)
  2. ^ "Growing Peppers: The Important Facts". GardenersGardening.com. Retrieved 10 January 2013. 
  3. ^ http://www.chiliwonders.com/chili.scoville.htm
  4. ^ "The World's Healthiest Foods". Archived from the original on 8 February 2010. Retrieved 23 February 2010. 
  5. ^ Azhar Ali Farooqi; B. S. Sreeramu; K. N. Srinivasappa (2005). Cultivation of Spice Crops. Universities Press. pp. 336–. ISBN 978-81-7371-521-1. Retrieved 22 August 2010. 
  6. ^ "Vegetable of the Month: Bell Pepper". CDC Fruit & Vegetable of the Month. Retrieved 9 April 2012. 
  7. ^ Dominique Roujou de Boubee, School of Oenology, University of Bordeaux II. "Research on 2-methoxy-3-isoButylpyrazine in Grapes and Wine". Retrieved 18 March 2013. 
  8. ^ "Table 64—World bell and chile peppers: Production 1990–2007". United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2011-05-08.