Beheading video

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A beheading video is a type of propaganda video in which hostages are graphically decapitated.[1] The videos were popularized in 2004 by Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, a radical Islamic militant. The videos caused controversy among Islamic scholars, some of whom denounced them as against Islamic law; Al-Qaeda did not approve and Osama bin Laden considered them poor public relations. Regardless, they became popular with certain Islamic terrorist groups, such as Islamic State.[2]

Early videos were grainy and unsophisticated, but, according to the Chicago Sun-Times, have been "growing in sophistication, using animated graphics and editing techniques apparently aimed at embellishing the audio to make a victim's final moments seem more disturbing".[3] These videos are often uploaded to the World Wide Web by terrorists, then discussed and distributed by web-based outlets,[4] such as blogs, shock sites, and traditional journalistic media. After a beheading video by a Mexican drug cartel spread virally on Facebook, the Family Online Safety Institute petitioned to have it removed.[5] Initially, Facebook refused to remove the video,[6] then did so,[7] and subsequently clarified their policies, stating that beheading videos would only be allowed if posted in a manner intended for its users to "condemn" the acts.[8]

Videos released[edit]

pre-2004[edit]

2004[edit]

2005–2013[edit]

2014[edit]

Hoax[edit]

A hoax beheading video filmed by Benjamin Vanderford, Robert Martin, and Laurie Kirchner in 2004 received wide attention by the American press.[36] The video used Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad's logo, but not the group's flag.[37] It was originally filmed for Vanderford's local election campaign.[38] He was seeking Matt Gonzalez's seat on the San Francisco Board of Supervisors.[39] Vanderford's second intention was to point out how uncritically the mainstream media would accept an anonymous video.[40] The Islamic Global Media Center claimed to have made the video, but removed it from their website after the hoax was discovered.[41] The video also appeared on other militant websites and was broadcast on Arabic television.[42][43]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Stannard, Matthew B. (May 13, 2004). "Beheading video seen as war tactic". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved November 23, 2010. 
  2. ^ Bloom, Mia (August 22, 2014). "Even al-Qaeda denounced beheading videos. Why the Islamic State brought them back.". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 23, 2014. 
  3. ^ Shrader, Katherine Pfleger (September 29, 2004). "Terrorists sense power in beheading videos". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved August 23, 2014 – via Highbeam Research. (subscription required (help)). 
  4. ^ Palmer, Ewan (August 20, 2014). "James Foley: Police Warn Watching Beheading Video Is A 'Terrorist Offence'". International Business Times. Retrieved 23 August 2014. 
  5. ^ Karis, Hustad (October 31, 2013). "Facebook Graphic Content Woes: When Are Beheading Videos Okay?". The Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on October 31, 2013. Retrieved August 23, 2014 – via Highbeam Research. (subscription required (help)). 
  6. ^ a b Su, Reissa (4 November 2013). "Beheaded Woman in Viral Video on Facebook 'Unknown,' Authorities Not Investigating (VIDEO)". International Business Times. Retrieved 1 November 2014. 
  7. ^ a b Grant, Willl (3 November 2013). "Facebook beheading video: Who was Mexico's Jane Doe?". BBC News Online. Retrieved 1 November 2014. 
  8. ^ Oreskovic, Alexei (October 21, 2013). "Gory videos OK when posted for users to 'condemn': Facebook". Reuters. Retrieved August 23, 2014. 
  9. ^ "Reporter Daniel Pearl Is Dead, Killed by His Captors in Pakistan". Wall Street Journal. February 24, 2002. Retrieved September 19, 2014. 
  10. ^ Ansari, Massoud (May 9, 2004). "Daniel Pearl 'refused to be sedated before his throat was cut'". The Telegraph. Retrieved September 19, 2014. 
  11. ^ Nichols, Bill (May 11, 2004). "Video shows beheading of American captive". USA Today. Retrieved September 19, 2014. 
  12. ^ "American hostage beheaded in Saudi Arabia". USA Today. Associated Press. June 16, 2004. Retrieved September 19, 2014. 
  13. ^ Sohn, Jie-ae; Faraj, Caroline (June 23, 2004). "Pentagon: South Korean hostage beheaded". CNN. Retrieved September 19, 2014. 
  14. ^ Spinner, Jackie; Faiola, Anthony (June 23, 2004). "S. Korean Is Beheaded in Iraq". Washington Post. Retrieved September 19, 2014. 
  15. ^ "Video Shows Beheading of Iraq Hostage". Fox News. Associated Press. August 9, 2004. Retrieved September 19, 2014. 
  16. ^ "Beheading of 2nd Bulgarian captive confirned". NBC News. Associated Press. August 11, 2004. Retrieved September 19, 2014. 
  17. ^ "'Egyptian spy' beheaded in Iraq". Daily Times. August 11, 2004. Retrieved September 18, 2014. 
  18. ^ Youssef, Nancy A. (September 1, 2004). "Extremists in Iraq execute 12 Nepalese workers One was beheaded; the others, shot. The group said they were killed for helping the U.S. against Islam.". Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved September 19, 2014. 
  19. ^ "American Hostage Beheaded in Iraq; Bush, Kerry Agree to Debate; Can Rather Survive Memogate?". CNN. September 20, 2004. Retrieved September 19, 2014. 
  20. ^ a b Faraj, Caroline; al-Hilli, Thaira; Muhy, Bassem; Qasira, Faris; Tawfeeq, Mohammed (September 22, 2004). "Report: Al-Zarqawi group kills American hostage". CNN. Retrieved September 19, 2014. 
  21. ^ Walker, Glen (August 19, 2014). "Video Claims to Show Terrorist Group ISIS Beheading U.S. Journalist James Foley". KTLA. Retrieved September 19, 2014. 
  22. ^ McCarthy, Rory (October 8, 2004). "Sad, bloody end to Bigley saga". The Guardian. Retrieved September 19, 2014. 
  23. ^ Shubert, Atika (October 31, 2004). "Beheaded Japanese to be flown home". CNN. Retrieved September 19, 2014. 
  24. ^ "Video shows beheading of Japanese hostage". NBC News. Associated Press. November 2, 2004. Retrieved September 19, 2014. 
  25. ^ Shah, Saeed (February 9, 2009). "Polish man beheaded in Pakistani militant video". The Guardian. Retrieved September 19, 2014. 
  26. ^ Titterton, Sarah (February 9, 2009). "Horrifying video of militants beheading Polish engineer is released by Pakistani Taliban". Daily Mail. Retrieved September 19, 2014. 
  27. ^ "Militants blame U.S. for their apparent beheading of U.S. journalist". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 20, 2014. 
  28. ^ "IS releases journalist beheading video in a message to the US". ABC Online. August 20, 2014. Retrieved August 23, 2014. 
  29. ^ Carter, Chelsea J.; Ashley, Fantz (September 9, 2014). "ISIS video shows beheading of American journalist Steven Sotloff". CNN. Retrieved September 19, 2014. 
  30. ^ Callimachi, Rukmini; De Freytas-Tamura, Kimiko (September 13, 2014). "ISIS Video Shows Execution of David Cawthorne Haines, British Aid Worker". New York Times. Retrieved September 19, 2014. 
  31. ^ Almasy, Steve; Meilhan, Pierre; Vitagliano, Brian; Mazloumsaki, Sara; Lopez, Elwyn; Fantz, Ashley; Hanna, Jason (September 24, 2014). "French president: Islamic extremists beheaded French hostage". CNN.com. Retrieved September 24, 2014. 
  32. ^ Castillo, Mariano (October 3, 2014). "ISIS video claims to show beheading of Alan Henning; American threatened". CNN.com. Retrieved October 3, 2014. 
  33. ^ Castillo, Mariano; Brumfield, Ben (November 16, 2014). "Obama calls hostage's beheading by ISIS 'pure evil'". CNN.com. Retrieved November 16, 2014. 
  34. ^ "Abdul-Rahman Kassig killing is pure evil, says Obama". BBC. November 16, 2014. Retrieved November 17, 2014. 
  35. ^ Wkye, Thomas (November 16, 2014). "Jihadi John Leads Systematic Beheading of Peter Kassig and 18 Syrian Pilots". International Business Times. Retrieved November 16, 2014. 
  36. ^ Guthrie, Julian; Wallace, Bill (August 8, 2004). "Web hoax fools news services". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved October 3, 2014. 
  37. ^ "'Beheaded hostage' video exposed as hoax". Daily Mail. August 7, 2014. Retrieved October 3, 2014. 
  38. ^ "Man fakes own decapitation in video". The Age. August 8, 2004. Retrieved October 3, 2014. 
  39. ^ DiMassa, Cara Mia; Hollis, Robert (August 8, 2004). "Region & State Man Fakes Own Beheading Video". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 3, 2014. 
  40. ^ "American fakes own decapitation in tape". MSNBC. Associated Press. August 7, 2004. Retrieved November 23, 2010. 
  41. ^ "American's Iraq 'Beheading' a Hoax". Fox News. Associated Press. August 7, 2004. Retrieved October 3, 2014. 
  42. ^ "US man made hoax execution video". BBC. August 7, 2004. Retrieved October 3, 2014. 
  43. ^ "Iraq Beheading Video Of US Man A Hoax". Sky News. August 9, 2004. Retrieved October 3, 2014. 

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