Beetroot

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

Beetroots, cooked
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy180 kJ (43 kcal)
9.96 g
Sugars7.96 g
Dietary fiber2.0 g
.18 g
1.68 g
Vitamins
Vitamin A equiv.
(0%)
2 μg
Thiamine (B1)
(3%)
.031 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(2%)
.027 mg
Niacin (B3)
(2%)
.331 mg
(3%)
.145 mg
Vitamin B6
(5%)
.067 mg
Folate (B9)
(20%)
80 μg
Vitamin C
(4%)
3.6 mg
Trace metals
Calcium
(2%)
16 mg
Iron
(6%)
.79 mg
Magnesium
(6%)
23 mg
Manganese
(14%)
0.3 mg
Phosphorus
(5%)
38 mg
Potassium
(6%)
305 mg
Sodium
(5%)
77 mg
Zinc
(4%)
.35 mg
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
 
Jump to: navigation, search
"Beets" redirects here. For other uses, see Beets (disambiguation).
A bundle of beetroot
"Beet" redirects here. For the plant species and its numerous varieties, see Beta vulgaris. For other uses, see Beet (disambiguation).

The beetroot is the taproot portion of the beet plant,[1] also known in North America as the table beet, garden beet, red or golden beet, or informally simply as the beet. It is several of the cultivated varieties of beet (Beta vulgaris) grown for their edible taproots and their greens. These varieties have been classified as B. vulgaris subsp. vulgaris Conditiva Group.[2]

Other than as a food, its uses include food coloring and as a medicinal plant. Many beet products are made from other Beta vulgaris varieties, particularly sugar beet.

Food[edit]

Section through taproot

The usually deep purple roots of beetroot are eaten either grilled, boiled, or roasted as a cooked vegetable, cold as a salad after cooking and adding oil and vinegar, or raw and shredded, either alone or combined with any salad vegetable. A large proportion of the commercial production is processed into boiled and sterilised beets or into pickles. In Eastern Europe, beet soup, such as borscht, is a popular dish. In Indian cuisine, chopped, cooked, spiced beet is a common side dish. Yellow-coloured beetroots are grown on a very small scale for home consumption.[3]

The green, leafy portion of the beet is also edible. It is most commonly served boiled or steamed, in which case it has a taste and texture similar to spinach. Those selected should be bulbs that are unmarked, avoiding those with overly limp leaves or wrinkled skins, both of which are signs of dehydration.

Beetroot can be peeled, steamed, and then eaten warm with butter as a delicacy; cooked, pickled, and then eaten cold as a condiment; or peeled, shredded raw, and then eaten as a salad. Pickled beets are a traditional food of the American South, and are often served on a hamburger in Australia, New Zealand, and the United Arab Emirates.[4]

A traditional Pennsylvania Dutch dish is pickled beet egg. Hard-boiled eggs are refrigerated in the liquid left over from pickling beets and allowed to marinate until the eggs turn a deep pink-red colour.

In Poland, beet is combined with horseradish to form popular ćwikła, which is traditionally used with cold cuts and sandwiches, but often also added to a meal consisting of meat and potatoes.

When beet juice is used, it is most stable in foods with a low water content, such as frozen novelties and fruit fillings.[5] Betanins, obtained from the roots, are used industrially as red food colourants, e.g. to intensify the colour of tomato paste, sauces, desserts, jams and jellies, ice cream, sweets, and breakfast cereals.[3]

Beetroot can also be used to make wine.[6]

Food shortages in Europe following World War I caused great hardships, including cases of mangelwurzel disease, as relief workers called it. It was a consequence of eating only beets.[7]

Nutrients and phytochemicals[edit]

Beetroots, cooked
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy180 kJ (43 kcal)
9.96 g
Sugars7.96 g
Dietary fiber2.0 g
.18 g
1.68 g
Vitamins
Vitamin A equiv.
(0%)
2 μg
Thiamine (B1)
(3%)
.031 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(2%)
.027 mg
Niacin (B3)
(2%)
.331 mg
(3%)
.145 mg
Vitamin B6
(5%)
.067 mg
Folate (B9)
(20%)
80 μg
Vitamin C
(4%)
3.6 mg
Trace metals
Calcium
(2%)
16 mg
Iron
(6%)
.79 mg
Magnesium
(6%)
23 mg
Manganese
(14%)
0.3 mg
Phosphorus
(5%)
38 mg
Potassium
(6%)
305 mg
Sodium
(5%)
77 mg
Zinc
(4%)
.35 mg
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Beetroot is an excellent source of folate and a good source of manganese,[8] and contains betaines which may function to reduce the concentration of homocysteine,[9] a homolog of the naturally occurring amino acid cysteine. High circulating levels of homocysteine may be harmful to blood vessels and thus contribute to the development of heart disease, stroke, or peripheral vascular disease.[10] This hypothesis is controversial as it has not yet been established whether homocysteine itself is harmful or is just an indicator of increased risk for heart disease.[10][11]

The red colour compound betanin is not broken down in the body, and in higher concentrations may temporarily cause urine and stool to assume a reddish colour; in the case of urine this is called beeturia.[12] This effect may cause distress and concern due to the visual similarity to hematuria (blood in the urine) or blood in the stool, but is completely harmless and will subside once the food is out of the system.

Preliminary research[edit]

In preliminary research, beetroot juice reduced blood pressure in hypertensive individuals[13] and so may have an effect on mechanisms of cardiovascular disease.[14][15]

Dietary nitrate, such as that from consuming beets, may be a source for the biological messenger nitric oxide which induces the endothelium of arteries to signal smooth muscle, triggering vasodilation and increased blood flow.[16]

Other uses[edit]

Betanin, obtained from the roots, is used industrially as red food colorant, to improve the color and flavor of tomato paste, sauces, desserts, jams and jellies, ice cream, sweets, breakfast cereals, etc.[3] Beetroot dye may also be used in ink.[citation needed]

Historical uses[edit]

From the Middle Ages, beetroot was used as a treatment for a variety of conditions, especially illnesses relating to digestion and the blood. Bartolomeo Platina recommended taking beetroot with garlic to nullify the effects of 'garlic-breath'.[17]

Cultivars[edit]

Below is a list of several commonly available cultivars of beets. Generally, 55 to 65 days are needed from germination to harvest of the root. All cultivars can be harvested earlier for use as greens. Unless otherwise noted, the root colours are shades of red and dark red with different degrees of zoning noticeable in slices.

Variously coloured varieties

References[edit]

  1. ^ "beet". def. 1and 2. also "beet-root". Oxford English Dictionary Second Edition on CD-ROM (v. 4.0) © Oxford University Press 2009
  2. ^ "Sorting Beta names". Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database. The University of Melbourne. Archived from the original on 2013-04-15. Retrieved 2013-04-15. 
  3. ^ a b c Grubben, G.J.H. & Denton, O.A. (2004) Plant Resources of Tropical Africa 2. Vegetables. PROTA Foundation, Wageningen; Backhuys, Leiden; CTA, Wageningen.
  4. ^ Weird Foods from around the World
  5. ^ Francis, F.J. (1999). Colorants. Egan Press. ISBN 1-891127-00-4. 
  6. ^ Making Wild Wines & Meads; Pattie Vargas & Rich Gulling; page 73
  7. ^ MacMillan, Margaret Olwen (2002) [2001]. "We are the League of the People". Paris 1919: Six Months That Changed the World (1st U.S. ed.). New York: Random House. p. 60. ISBN 0375508260. LCCN 2002023707. "Relief workers invented names for things they had never seen before, such as the mangelwurzel disease, which afflicted those who lived solely on beets." 
  8. ^ "Nutrition Facts for Beets, Raw per 100 g". Conde Nast. 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2013. 
  9. ^ Pajares, M. A.; Pérez-Sala, D (2006). "Betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase: Just a regulator of homocysteine metabolism?". Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 63 (23): 2792–803. doi:10.1007/s00018-006-6249-6. PMID 17086380.  edit
  10. ^ a b A.D.A.M., Inc., ed. (2002). Betaine. University of Maryland Medical Center 
  11. ^ Potter, K.; Hankey, G. J.; Green, D. J.; Eikelboom, J. W.; Arnolda, L. F. (2008). "Homocysteine or Renal Impairment: Which is the Real Cardiovascular Risk Factor?". Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 28 (6): 1158. doi:10.1161/ATVBAHA.108.162743. 
  12. ^ Frank, T; Stintzing, F. C.; Carle, R; Bitsch, I; Quaas, D; Strass, G; Bitsch, R; Netzel, M (2005). "Urinary pharmacokinetics of betalains following consumption of red beet juice in healthy humans". Pharmacological Research 52 (4): 290–7. doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2005.04.005. PMID 15964200.  edit
  13. ^ Lundberg JO et al. (2011). "Roles of dietary inorganic nitrate in cardiovascular health and disease". Cardiovasc Res 89 (3): 525–32. doi:10.1093/cvr/cvq325. PMID 20937740.  |first3= missing |last3= in Authors list (help); |first4= missing |last4= in Authors list (help)
  14. ^ Hobbs, D. A.; Kaffa, N.; George, T. W.; Methven, L.; Lovegrove, J. A. (2012). "Blood pressure-lowering effects of beetroot juice and novel beetroot-enriched bread products in normotensive male subjects". British Journal of Nutrition 108 (11): 2066–2074. doi:10.1017/S0007114512000190. PMID 22414688.  edit
  15. ^ Siervo, M.; Lara, J.; Ogbonmwan, I.; Mathers, J. C. (2013). "Inorganic Nitrate and Beetroot Juice Supplementation Reduces Blood Pressure in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". Journal of Nutrition 143 (6): 818–826. doi:10.3945/jn.112.170233. PMID 23596162.  edit
  16. ^ Webb, Andrew J.; Patel, N; Loukogeorgakis, S; Okorie, M; Aboud, Z; Misra, S; Rashid, R; Miall, P et al. (2008). "Acute Blood Pressure Lowering, Vasoprotective, and Antiplatelet Properties of Dietary Nitrate via bioconversion to Nitrite". Hypertension 51 (3): 784–790. doi:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.107.103523. PMC 2839282. PMID 18250365.  |first10= missing |last10= in Authors list (help); |first11= missing |last11= in Authors list (help); |first12= missing |last12= in Authors list (help); |first13= missing |last13= in Authors list (help);
  17. ^ Platina De Honesta Voluptate et Valetudine, 3.14
  18. ^ a b "AAS winners 1933 to present". Retrieved 2011-11-04.