Beechcraft 1900

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Beechcraft 1900
An Air Labrador Beechcraft 1900D
RoleRegional airliner, cargo, and corporate aircraft
ManufacturerBeechcraft
First flightSeptember 3, 1982[1]
IntroductionFebruary 1984
Primary usersSilver Airways
Great Lakes Airlines
Ameriflight
Eagle Airways
Produced1982-2002
Number built695
Unit costUS$ 4.995 million (2001)[1]
Developed fromBeechcraft Super King Air
 
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Beechcraft 1900
An Air Labrador Beechcraft 1900D
RoleRegional airliner, cargo, and corporate aircraft
ManufacturerBeechcraft
First flightSeptember 3, 1982[1]
IntroductionFebruary 1984
Primary usersSilver Airways
Great Lakes Airlines
Ameriflight
Eagle Airways
Produced1982-2002
Number built695
Unit costUS$ 4.995 million (2001)[1]
Developed fromBeechcraft Super King Air

The Beechcraft 1900 is a 19-passenger, pressurized twin-engine turboprop airplane manufactured by the Beechcraft Division of the Raytheon Company (now Hawker Beechcraft). It was designed, and is primarily used, as a regional airliner. It is also used as a freight aircraft, corporate transport, and by the United States military and other governments.

The aircraft is designed to carry passengers in all weather conditions from airports with relatively short runways. It is capable of flying in excess of 600 miles (970 km), although few operators use its full-fuel range. In terms of the number of aircraft built and its continued use by many passenger airlines and other users, it is one of the most popular 19-passenger airliners in history.[2]

Contents

Development

The 1900 is Beechcraft's third regional airliner. The Beechcraft Model 18 was a 6- to 11-passenger utility aircraft produced from 1937 to 1970, used by the military, airlines, charter operations, corporations for executive transport, and freight carriers. The 15-passenger Beechcraft Model 99 Airliner was designed to replace the Beech 18, and was produced between 1966 and 1975, and from 1982 to 1986. It was also commercially successful and remains in common use with freight airlines such as Ameriflight.

The Beechcraft 1900's design lineage began in 1949 with the Beechcraft Model 50 "Twin Bonanza", a 5 passenger, reciprocating engine utility aircraft designed for the U.S. Army. A larger passenger cabin was added to the Twin Bonanza's airframe, and called the Model 65 "Queen Air." This aircraft was, in turn, further modified by adding turboprop engines and cabin pressurization, and named the Model 90 "King Air." A stretched version of the King Air was later developed and designated the Model 200 "Super King Air". Beechcraft developed the Beechcraft 1900 directly from the Beechcraft Super King Air, in order to provide a pressurized commuterliner to compete with the Swearingen Metro and the British Aerospace Jetstream.[3]

The 1900 first flew on September 3, 1982, with Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification awarded on November 22, 1983 under Special Federal Aviation Regulation (SFAR) 41C airworthiness standards.[3] Like the 1900, the 1900C was certified under SFAR 41C, but the later 1900D version was certified to FAR Part 23 "Commuter Category" standards.[4]

The 1900 entered service in February 1984,[3] with the first ExecLiner corporate version delivered in 1985. A total of 695 Beechcraft 1900 aircraft were built, making the airliner the best-selling 19-passenger airliner in history.[2][5] With market trends favoring larger 50- to 90-seat regional jets, Raytheon ended production of the Beechcraft 1900 in October 2002. Many airlines continue to fly the 1900.

Design

A USAF-owned Beechcraft 1900C (UB-42) taxis at Mojave Spaceport on February 1, 2007.

Since the 1900 is derived from the King Air, all 1900s share certain characteristics with that aircraft. Cockpit controls and operations are similar to those of the King Air. While Federal Aviation Regulations require two pilots for airline operations, the 1900 is designed and certificated for single-pilot operation in corporate or cargo settings, as is the King Air.

Propulsion

The 1900 is powered by two Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A turboprop engines. The 1900 and 1900C use two PT6A-65B engines, each flat rated at 1,100 shaft horsepower. The 1900D uses two PT6A-67D engines, each rated at 1,279 shaft horsepower.

The propellers are manufactured by Hartzell, with four blades on each propeller. The blades are made from composite materials.

Jet A is the recommended fuel; however the engines are also approved for limited operations on other types of jet fuel or aviation-grade gasoline.[6]

Performance

The 1900D cruises at about 285 knots (328 mph or 528 km/h) true airspeed. Ordinary trip lengths range from 100 to 600 miles (20 minutes to two hours), but with full fuel tanks, the aircraft is capable of flying well in excess of 1,000 nautical miles (1,900 km). Airlines often prefer the 1900 over jet aircraft for shorter routes due to its fuel efficiency, and because trip times are not significantly longer on distances up to 300 miles (480 km).[6]

The Beechcraft 1900 can operate safely on relatively short airstrips and it can take off and land on grass and rough runways.

The airplane is certified to fly up to an altitude of 25,000 feet (7,600 m) above mean sea level with its pressurized cabin.[6] It is designed to operate in most weather conditions, including icing conditions, and it is usually equipped with weather radar to help pilots avoid severe weather.[6] The aircraft can be fitted with an optional lavatory, using space otherwise available for passenger seating and cargo storage.[6]

The Beechcraft 1900 is used by the FAA for its Airline Transport Pilot knowledge test section on operating and performance data. Pilots are tested on center of gravity calculations, takeoff and landing performance and en route fuel burn.

ICAO aircraft designator

The ICAO designator for the 1900 is B190.[7] This is used in ATC flight plans and pilot reports, as well as for aircraft type identification on ATC radar.

Variants

1900

The original design is known simply as the Beechcraft 1900. It features two "airstair" passenger boarding doors: one near the tail of the aircraft much like the smaller King Airs, and a second at the front just behind the cockpit. It has a small cargo door near the tail for access to the baggage compartment, which is behind the passenger compartment. Only three airframes were built, with "UA" serial numbers of UA-1, UA-2, and UA-3. UA-1 and UA-2 are stored at a Beechcraft facility in Wichita, Kansas. As of September 2006, UA-3 is in service with Bolivia's Ministry of National Defence in La Paz.

1900C

A Republic of China Air Force 1900C-1 at CCK Airfield in central Taiwan.

It immediately became clear that two airstair doors were redundant on an aircraft holding only 19 passengers. Beechcraft kept the front airstair, but eliminated the aft airstair door, installing an enlarged cargo door in its place. The changed aircraft was renamed 1900C. Other than the redesigned door layout, the early 1900Cs were substantially similar to the original 1900s. These were assigned serial numbers starting with the letters UB. A total of 74 UB version were built, many of which remain in service.[4] Aircraft in the UA and UB series employ a bladder-type fuel tank system in the wings. Later 1900Cs use a "wet wing" fuel system: entire sections of the wing are sealed off for use as fuel tanks. This design change allowed more fuel to be stored, substantially increasing the 1900C's range. The wet wing 1900Cs were assigned serial numbers beginning with "UC." These aircraft are also referred to as 1900C-1s. The wet wings proved popular, and the UC is the most common version of the low-ceiling 1900, with 174 UC airframes built.[4]

Raytheon manufactured six 1900C aircraft for use by the U.S. military. These were assigned "UD" serial numbers, UD-1 through UD-6.

1900D

Danish Air Transport Beechcraft 1900C
Beechcraft 1900D of the Swiss Air Force
Facing forward in the passenger cabin of a CommutAir Airlines Beechcraft 1900D

While the 1900C had become a popular regional airliner, Beechcraft undertook a substantial redesign of the aircraft, and in 1991 introduced a new version called the 1900D.

The 1900 and 1900C, like most 19-passenger airliners and business jets, have fairly small passenger cabins, with ceilings so low that passengers cannot walk through the interior without bending forward. The 1900D was designed to remedy this by providing a "stand-up cabin," which would allow most passengers to walk upright. It is one of only two 19-seat airliners with this feature. The other being the British Aerospace Jetstream 31/32.[4]

Because the taller passenger cabin adds both weight and drag to the airplane, other elements of the 1900D were also changed. More powerful engines and modified propellers were installed, winglets were added to reduce drag and increase the wings' efficiency, and the tail was made larger in response to the more powerful engines. The cockpit was updated with an Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS). The 1900D was certified under the then-new FAR Part 23 "Commuter Category" standards, which had replaced the earlier SFAR 41C. Since the UD serial numbers were already in use by the military 1900s, the 1900D airplanes have serial numbers beginning with UE. The 1900D is the most popular version of the airliner, with 439 of the 1900D built.[4]

Military C-12J

The U.S. military designation for the Beechcraft 1900C is C-12J. This is a variant of the C-12 Huron, which is the most common designation for military King Airs. The C-12J includes the 6 UD series Beechcraft 1900s built for the U.S. military, as well as other 1900Cs in U.S. military service.

Examples of C-12J aircraft in military service include one used for GPS jamming tests at the 586th Flight Test Squadron, Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico,[8] and three based at the 459th Airlift Squadron, Yokota Air Base, Japan.[2] The U.S. Army operates both C-12J and 1900D aircraft along with other C-12 (King Air) aircraft.[9]

King Air ExecLiner

The King Air ExecLiner was a marketing name for a corporate version of the Beechcraft 1900C.

Operators

Civilian operators

The last 16 Beechcraft 1900D airliners built were sold to Eagle Airways to provide regional services for Air New Zealand. According to Flight International magazine, 419 1900s remained in civilian service in July 2009.[10] As of July 2011, the number in service had increased to 443. These included 137 1900Cs; with major operators being Alpine Air (9), Ameriflight (22) and Pacific Coastal Airlines (6) and just over 50 other airlines operating smaller numbers of the type. There were also 306 1900Ds; major operators included Air Georgian (14), Central Mountain Air (14), Eagle Airways (18), Great Lakes Airlines (31), Gulfstream International Airlines (22), SEARCA (14) Solenta Aviation (6), SonAir (11), Twin Jet (10) Wasaya Airways (6) and Sunwest Aviation (6). Just under 100 other airlines also operated the type in smaller numbers.[11]

Military operators

Military and government operators include:[12]

 Algeria
 Australia
 Bolivia
 Colombia
 Egypt
 France
 Republic of China
 Switzerland
 Thailand
 United Arab Emirates
 United Nations
 United States

Accidents and incidents

Specifications (Beechcraft 1900D)

Data from Raytheon: Beechcraft 1900D Passenger Specifications and Performance[31]

General characteristics

Performance

Avionics

See also

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

References

  1. ^ a b Jackson 2003, pp. 535–536.
  2. ^ a b c C-12J overview, GlobalSecurity.org
  3. ^ a b c Francillon 2001, p. 57.
  4. ^ a b c d e "Raytheon Airline Aviation Services". Archived from the original on 17 October 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071017014046/http://airliner.raytheonaircraft.com/raas/. Retrieved 26 August 2011.
  5. ^ The Fairchild Swearingen Metroliner series outsold the 1900 series, but many were built as corporate Merlins and purpose-built Expediter freighters. The 19-seat de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter outsold both types, but it is typically used in different operations.
  6. ^ a b c d e Beechcraft 1900D Aircraft Flight Manual, Raytheon Aircraft Corporation
  7. ^ [1][dead link]
  8. ^ Holloman Air Force Base fact sheet
  9. ^ U.S. Army Aviation website
  10. ^ Flight International 2009 World Airliner Census
  11. ^ Flight International 2011 World Airliner Census retrieved 21 August 2011
  12. ^ Beech 1900 image database from Airliners.net
  13. ^ "ASN Aircraft accident Beechcraft 1900C N401RA Homer Airport, AK (HOM)". Aviation-safety.net. 1987-11-23. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19871123-0. Retrieved 2012-03-29.
  14. ^ Military Aviation Accidents, TaiwanAirPower.org
  15. ^ "Introduction to conflicting N811BE Accident Investigation Reports". Iprr.org. http://www.iprr.org/comps/AAR93intro.html. Retrieved 2012-03-29.
  16. ^ Instructor blamed in mystery crash
  17. ^ "ASN Aircraft accident Beechcraft 1900C N811BE Block Island, RI". Aviation-safety.net. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19911228-0. Retrieved 2012-03-29.
  18. ^ Aviation Safety Network accident synopsis
  19. ^ 1995 Air St. Martin Beech 1900 crash
  20. ^ NTSB Report: United Express Flight 5925
  21. ^ Commuter Aircraft Strikes Terrain During Unstabilized, Homemade Approach
  22. ^ Air Midwest Flight 5481
  23. ^ "UPDATE ON NTSB INVESTIGATIONS INTO RECENT BEECH 1900D ACCIDENTS AND INCIDENTS." National Transportation Safety Board. November 21, 2003. Retrieved on February 13, 2009.
  24. ^ Missing plane, dead crew found in Obudu
  25. ^ Engine fault caused Sudan crash
  26. ^ Correction: South Sudan declares three-day mourning for crash victims Sudan Tribune 3 May 2008
  27. ^ aviation-safety.net: Accident description
  28. ^ National Transportation Safety Board preliminary report of accident involving Beechcraft 1900C registration N112AX retrieved 2010-03-29
  29. ^ No survivors in Karachi plane crash
  30. ^ 19 dead after tourist plane crashes in Nepal
  31. ^ Raytheon: Beechcraft 1900D Passenger Specifications and Performance Retrieved on 30 December 2010
  32. ^ (1,353 equivalent shaft horsepower, including thrust from jet exhaust), 3,950 foot-pounds Torque
  • Francillon, René J. "1900 for 2000: The 'Son of Beech' - Raytheon 1900 Airliner". Air International (January 2001): pp. 56–58. ISSN 0306-5634.
  • Jackson, Paul (2003). Jane's All the World's Aircraft 2003–2004. Coulsdon, UK: Jane's Information Group Limited. ISBN 0-7106-2537-5.
  • Phillips, Edward H. Beechcraft - Pursuit of Perfection, A History of Beechcraft Airplanes. Flying Books, Eagan, Minnesota 1992.ISBN 0-911139-11-7

External links