Bauhinia

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Bauhinia
Bauhinia divaricata.jpg
Bauhinia divaricata flowers
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Eudicots
(unranked):Rosids
Order:Fabales
Family:Fabaceae
Subfamily:Caesalpinioideae
Tribe:Cercideae[1]
Genus:Bauhinia
L.[2]
Type species
Bauhinia divaricata
L.
Species

239–334; see text.

Synonyms[2][3]
  • Alvesia Welw.
  • Amaria S. Mutis ex Caldas
  • Ariaria Cuervo
  • Cansenia Raf.
  • Cardenasia Rusby
  • Caspareopsis Britton & Rose
  • Casparia Kunth
  • Mandarus Raf.
  • Monoteles Raf.
  • Pauletia Cav.
  • Perlebia Mart.
  • Schnella Raddi
  • Telestria Raf.
 
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Bauhinia
Bauhinia divaricata.jpg
Bauhinia divaricata flowers
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Eudicots
(unranked):Rosids
Order:Fabales
Family:Fabaceae
Subfamily:Caesalpinioideae
Tribe:Cercideae[1]
Genus:Bauhinia
L.[2]
Type species
Bauhinia divaricata
L.
Species

239–334; see text.

Synonyms[2][3]
  • Alvesia Welw.
  • Amaria S. Mutis ex Caldas
  • Ariaria Cuervo
  • Cansenia Raf.
  • Cardenasia Rusby
  • Caspareopsis Britton & Rose
  • Casparia Kunth
  • Mandarus Raf.
  • Monoteles Raf.
  • Pauletia Cav.
  • Perlebia Mart.
  • Schnella Raddi
  • Telestria Raf.

Bauhinia /bˈhɪniə/[4] is a genus of more than 200 species of flowering plants in the subfamily Caesalpinioideae of the large flowering plant family Fabaceae, with a pantropical distribution. The genus was named after the Bauhin brothers, Swiss-French botanists.

Many species are widely planted in the tropics as orchid trees, particularly in northern India, Vietnam and southeastern China. Other common names include Mountain Ebony and Kachnar (India and Pakistan). In the United States of America, the trees grow in Hawaii, coastal California, Texas, Louisiana, and Florida. Bauhinia ×blakeana is the floral emblem of Hong Kong—a stylized orchid tree flower appears on the Hong Kong flag and Hong Kong Airlines uses 'Bauhinia' as its radio callsign in air traffic communication.

Description[edit]

Bauhinia trees typically reach a height of 6–12 m and their branches spread 3–6 m outwards. The lobed leaves usually are 10–15 cm across.

The five-petaled flowers are 7.5–12.5 cm diameter, generally in shades of red, pink, purple, orange, or yellow, and are often fragrant. The tree begins flowering in late winter and often continues to flower into early summer. Depending on the species, Bauhinia flowers are usually in magenta, mauve, pink or white hues with crimson highlights.

Cultivation[edit]

Propagation of Bauhinia species is from seeds or cuttings. They prefer acidic soils and do not tolerate salty conditions. Full sun exposure is preferred but they can be grown under partial sun. Generous watering is needed during summer; moderate moisture required in winter.

Bauhinia acuminata flower in Hyderabad, India.
Bauhinia racemosa flowers & fruits in Hyderabad, India.
Bauhinia tomentosa flowers in Hyderabad, India.

Species[edit]

Accepted species[edit]

Bauhinia comprises the following species:[5][6][7]

  • Bauhinia accrescens Killip & J.F. Macbr.
  • Bauhinia acreana Harms
  • Bauhinia aculeata L.
    • subsp. aculeata L.
    • subsp. grandiflora (Juss.) Wunderlin
  • Bauhinia acuminata L.—Dwarf White Orchid Tree
  • Bauhinia acuruana Moric.
  • Bauhinia amambayensis Fortunato
  • Bauhinia ampla Span.
    • var. ampla Span.
    • var. schlechteri (Harms) K.Larsen & Sunarno
  • Bauhinia anatomica Link
  • Bauhinia andersonii K. Larsen & S.S. Larsen
  • Bauhinia andrieuxii Hemsl.
  • Bauhinia angulicaulis Harms
  • Bauhinia ankarafantsikae Du Puy & R. Rabev.
  • Bauhinia anomala Hassl.
  • Bauhinia apertilobata Merr. & F.P. Metcalf
  • Bauhinia arborea Wunderlin
  • Bauhinia argentinensis Burkart
    • var. argentinensis Burkart
    • var. megasiphon (Burkart) Fortunato
  • Bauhinia armata Otto
  • Bauhinia aromatica Ducke
  • Bauhinia augusti Harms
  • Bauhinia aurantiaca Bojer
  • Bauhinia aurea H. Lev.
  • Bauhinia aureifolia K. Larsen & S.S. Larsen—Gold Leaf Bauhinia
  • Bauhinia aureopunctata Ducke
  • Bauhinia baina J.F. Macbr.
  • Bauhinia bartlettii B. L. Turner
  • Bauhinia bartlettii B.L. Turner
  • Bauhinia bauhinioides (Mart.) J.F. Macbr.
  • Bauhinia beguinotii Cufod.
    • var. beguinotii Cufod.
    • var. gorgonae (Cowan) Wunderlin
  • Bauhinia bicolor D. Dietr.
  • Bauhinia bombaciflora Ducke
  • Bauhinia bowkeri Harv.
  • Bauhinia brachycalyx Ducke
  • Bauhinia brachycarpa Wall. ex Benth.
    • var. brachycarpa Benth.
    • var. cavaleriei (H.Lev.) T.Chen
    • var. densiflora (Franch.) K.Larsen & S.S.Larsen
  • Bauhinia brasiliensis Vogel
  • Bauhinia brevicalyx Du Puy & R. Rabev.
  • Bauhinia brevipedicellata Jarvie
  • Bauhinia brevipes Vogel
  • Bauhinia burbidgei Stapf
  • Bauhinia burchellii Benth.
  • Bauhinia buscalionii Mattei
  • Bauhinia calciphila D.X. Zhang & T.C. Chen
  • Bauhinia calliandroides Rusby
  • Bauhinia caloneura Malme
  • Bauhinia calycina Gagnep.
  • Bauhinia campanulata S.S. Larsen
  • Bauhinia campestris Malme
  • Bauhinia candelabriformis Cowan
  • Bauhinia capuronii Du Puy & R. Rabev.
  • Bauhinia carcinophylla Merr.
  • Bauhinia cataholo Hoehne
  • Bauhinia catingae Harms
  • Bauhinia cercidifolia D.X. Zhang
  • Bauhinia chalcophylla L. Chen
  • Bauhinia chalkos Cowan
  • Bauhinia chapadensis Malme
  • Bauhinia chapulhuacania Wunderlin
  • Bauhinia cheilantha (Bong.) Steud.
  • Bauhinia cinnamomea DC.
  • Bauhinia claviflora L. Chen
  • Bauhinia clemensiorum Merr.
  • Bauhinia coclensis R. Torres
  • Bauhinia concinna Drake
  • Bauhinia concreta Craib
  • Bauhinia conwayi Rusby
  • Bauhinia cookii Britton & Rose
  • Bauhinia corniculata Benth.
  • Bauhinia coronata Benth.
  • Bauhinia coulteri J.F. Macbr.
  • Bauhinia cupulata Benth.
  • Bauhinia curvula Benth.
  • Bauhinia cuyabensis Steud.
  • Bauhinia damiaoshanensis T. Chen
  • Bauhinia decandra Du Puy & R. Rabev.
  • Bauhinia deserti (Britton & Rose) Lundell
  • Bauhinia dewitii K. Larsen & S.S. Larsen
  • Bauhinia didyma L. Chen
  • Bauhinia dimorphophylla Hoehne
  • Bauhinia dioscoreifolia L. Chen
  • Bauhinia dipetala Hemsl.
  • Bauhinia divaricata L.
  • Bauhinia dolichocalyx Merr.
  • Bauhinia dumosa Benth.
  • Bauhinia eilertsii Pulle
  • Bauhinia ellenbeckii Harms
  • Bauhinia endertii K. Larsen & S.S. Larsen
  • Bauhinia erythrocalyx Wunderlin
  • Bauhinia erythropoda Hayata
  • Bauhinia esquirolii Gagnep.
  • Bauhinia estrellensis Hassl.
  • Bauhinia excurrens Stapf
  • Bauhinia exellii Torre & Hillc.
  • Bauhinia fabrilis (de Wit) K. & S.S. Larsen
  • Bauhinia farek Desv.
  • Bauhinia flagelliflora Wunderlin
  • Bauhinia floribunda Desv.
  • Bauhinia forficata J.H.F.Link—Brazilian Orchid Tree
    • subsp. forficata J.H.F.Link
    • subsp. pruinosa (Vogel) Fortunato & Wunderlin
  • Bauhinia franckii K. Larsen & S.S. Larsen
  • Bauhinia fryxellii Wunderlin
  • Bauhinia fusconervis D. Dietr.
  • Bauhinia galpinii N.E. Br.—Red Orchid Tree
  • Bauhinia gardneri Benth.
  • Bauhinia geminata Vogel
  • Bauhinia gilesii F. Muell. & Bailey
  • Bauhinia glaziovii Taub.
  • Bauhinia godefroyi Gagnep.
  • Bauhinia goyazensis Harms
  • Bauhinia grandidieri Baill.
  • Bauhinia grandifolia D. Dietr.
  • Bauhinia grevei Drake
  • Bauhinia guentheri Harms
  • Bauhinia gypsicola McVaugh
  • Bauhinia hagenbeckii Harms
  • Bauhinia hainanensis Merr. & Chun
  • Bauhinia haughtii Wunderlin
  • Bauhinia havilandii Merr.
  • Bauhinia herrerae (Britton & Rose) Standl. & Steyerm.
  • Bauhinia hiemalis Malme
  • Bauhinia hildebrandtii Vatke
  • Bauhinia hirsuta Weinm.
  • Bauhinia hirsutiflora Vaz
  • Bauhinia hirsutissima Wunderlin
  • Bauhinia hirta Steud.
  • Bauhinia huberi Ducke
  • Bauhinia humilis Rusby
  • Bauhinia hypochrysa T. Chen
  • Bauhinia hypoglauca T. Chen
  • Bauhinia integerrima Benth.
  • Bauhinia involucrans Gagnep.
  • Bauhinia jenningsii P. Wilson
  • Bauhinia jucunda Brandegee
  • Bauhinia kalantha Harms
  • Bauhinia kingii Prain
  • Bauhinia kleiniana Burkart
  • Bauhinia kostermansii K. Larsen & S.S. Larsen
  • Bauhinia lakhonensis Gagnep.
  • Bauhinia lamprophylla Harms
  • Bauhinia leiopetala Benth.
  • Bauhinia leptantha Malme
  • Bauhinia leucantha Thulin
  • Bauhinia lingyuenensis T. Chen
  • Bauhinia longicuspis Benth.
    • var. bicuspidata (Benth.) G.P.Lewis
    • var. longicuspis Benth.
  • Bauhinia longifolia (Bong.) Steud.
  • Bauhinia longipedicellata Ducke
  • Bauhinia longistipes T. Chen
  • Bauhinia lorantha Gagnep.
  • Bauhinia macranthera Hemsl.
  • Bauhinia macrophylla Poir.
  • Bauhinia madagascariensis Desv.
  • Bauhinia malacotricha Harms
  • Bauhinia malacotrichoides Cowan
  • Bauhinia marginata D. Dietr.
  • Bauhinia martinensis J.F. Macbr.
  • Bauhinia membranacea Benth.
  • Bauhinia mendoncae Torre & Hillc.
  • Bauhinia miriamae R. Torres
  • Bauhinia mollis (Bong.) D. Dietr.
    • var. mollis (Bong.) D. Dietr.
    • var. notophila (Griseb.) Fortunato
  • Bauhinia mombassae Vatke
  • Bauhinia monandra Kurz—Pink Orchid Tree
  • Bauhinia morondavensis Du Puy & R. Rabev.
  • Bauhinia multinervia (Kunth) DC.
  • Bauhinia natalensis Hook.
  • Bauhinia nitida Benth.
  • Bauhinia obtusata Vogel
  • Bauhinia ombrophila Du Puy & R. Rabev.
  • Bauhinia ovata Vogel
  • Bauhinia ovatifolia T. Chen
  • Bauhinia oxysepala Gagnep.
  • Bauhinia pansamalana Donn. Sm.
  • Bauhinia paucinervata T. Chen
  • Bauhinia pauletia Pers.
  • Bauhinia pentandra (Bong.) Steud.
  • Bauhinia pervilleana Baill.
  • Bauhinia pes-caprae Cav.
  • Bauhinia petersiana Bolle
    • subsp. macrantha (Oliv.) Brummitt & J.H.Ross
    • subsp. petersiana Bolle
  • Bauhinia petiolata (DC.) Hook.
  • Bauhinia pichinchensis Wunderlin
  • Bauhinia picta (Kunth) DC.
  • Bauhinia pinheiroi Wunderlin
  • Bauhinia platypetala Benth.
  • Bauhinia platyphylla Benth.
  • Bauhinia podopetala Baker
  • Bauhinia pottsii G.Don
    • var. decipiens (Craib) K.Larsen & S.S.Larsen
    • var. mollissima (Prain) K.Larsen & S.S.Larsen
    • var. pottsii G.Don
    • var. subsessilis (Craib) de Wit
  • Bauhinia prainiana Craib
  • Bauhinia pringlei S. Watson
  • Bauhinia pulchella Benth.
  • Bauhinia pulla Craib
  • Bauhinia quinanensis T. Chen
  • Bauhinia racemosa Lam.
  • Bauhinia rahmatii Merr.
  • Bauhinia ramirezii Reynoso
  • Bauhinia ramosissima Hemsl.
  • Bauhinia rhodacantha Desv.
  • Bauhinia richardiana DC.
  • Bauhinia ridleyi Prain
  • Bauhinia roxburghiana Voigt
  • Bauhinia rubeleruziana Donn. Sm.
  • Bauhinia rubro-villosa K. Larsen & S.S. Larsen
  • Bauhinia rufescens Lam.
  • Bauhinia rusbyi Britton
  • Bauhinia rutenbergiana Vatke
  • Bauhinia saccocalyx Pierre
  • Bauhinia saigonensis Gagnep.
  • Bauhinia scal-Asimiae Sandwith
  • Bauhinia seleriana Harms
  • Bauhinia seminarioi Harms ex Eggers
  • Bauhinia semla Wunderlin
  • Bauhinia sessilifolia (DC.) Quinones
  • Bauhinia smilacifolia Benth.
  • Bauhinia somalensis Pic. Serm. & Roti Mich.
  • Bauhinia steenisii K. Larsen & S.S. Larsen
  • Bauhinia stenantha Diels
  • Bauhinia stenocardia Standl.
  • Bauhinia stenoloba (Britton & Killip) Wunderlin
  • Bauhinia subclavata Benth.
  • Bauhinia subrotundifolia Cav.
  • Bauhinia taitensis Taub.
  • Bauhinia tarapotensis Benth.
  • Bauhinia tenella Benth.
  • Bauhinia tessmannii Harms
  • Bauhinia tianlinensis T.C. Chen & D.X. Zhang
  • Bauhinia tomentosa L.
  • Bauhinia tumupasensis Rusby
  • Bauhinia ungulata L.
  • Bauhinia urbaniana Schinz
  • Bauhinia urocalyx Harms
  • Bauhinia uruguayensis Benth.
  • Bauhinia venustula T. Chen
  • Bauhinia verrucosa Vogel
  • Bauhinia vespertilio S. Moore
  • Bauhinia vestita (Benth.) J.F. Macbr.
  • Bauhinia viorna J.F. Macbr.
  • Bauhinia viridescens Desv.
    • var. laui (Merr.) T.Chen
    • var. viridescens Desv.
  • Bauhinia viscidula Harms
  • Bauhinia vulpina Rusby
  • Bauhinia weberbaueri Harms
  • Bauhinia wunderlinii R. Torres
  • Bauhinia wuzhengyii S. S. Larsen
  • Bauhinia xerophyta Du Puy & R. Rabev.

Species names with uncertain taxonomic status[edit]

The status of the following species is unresolved:[7]

  • Bauhinia abyssinica A.Rich.
  • Bauhinia acuminata Bruce
  • Bauhinia aimouta Steud.
  • Bauhinia amatlana Wunderlin
  • Bauhinia andax DeWitt
  • Bauhinia angularis Harms ex Glaz.
  • Bauhinia angulata Vell.
  • Bauhinia articulata Oliv.
  • Bauhinia audax (de Wit) G.Cusset
  • Bauhinia aurea H. Lév.
  • Bauhinia ayabacensis Wunderlin
  • Bauhinia bacuria Buch.-Ham. ex Wall.
  • Bauhinia baueriana Steud.
  • Bauhinia benzoin Kotschy ex Schweinf.
  • Bauhinia bequaerti De Wild.
  • Bauhinia bryoniflora Franch.
  • Bauhinia burkeana Benth. ex Harv. & Sond.
  • Bauhinia cancara Buch.-Ham. ex Steud.
  • Bauhinia candelabriformis R.S. Cowan
  • Bauhinia choriophylla Vogel
  • Bauhinia cissoides Welw. ex Oliv.
  • Bauhinia compacta Regel
  • Bauhinia cookii Rose
  • Bauhinia corymbosa Roxb. ex DC.
  • Bauhinia crocea Drake
  • Bauhinia cucullata Desv.
  • Bauhinia cumingiana (Benth.) Fern.-Vill.
  • Bauhinia damiaoshanensis T.C. Chen
  • Bauhinia depauperata Glaz.
  • Bauhinia dobbierum Rose
  • Bauhinia dubia G. Don
  • Bauhinia eriophora Ten.
  • Bauhinia esmeraldasensis Wunderlin
  • Bauhinia eximia Miq.
  • Bauhinia fabrilis (de Wit) K. Larsen & S.S. Larsen
  • Bauhinia farec Desv.
  • Bauhinia geniculata Wunderlin
  • Bauhinia grahami Steud.
  • Bauhinia grandifolia Steud.
  • Bauhinia herrerae (Britton & Rose) Standl. & Steyerm.
  • Bauhinia holzei F.Muell.
  • Bauhinia hostmanniana Miq.
  • Bauhinia hypochrysa T.C. Chen
  • Bauhinia hypoglauca Tang & F.T. Wang ex T.C. Chen
  • Bauhinia indica Ladd ex Loud
  • Bauhinia isopetala Griff.
  • Bauhinia jenningsii Paul G. Wilson
  • Bauhinia leichhardtii F.Muell.
  • Bauhinia lingyuenensis T.C. Chen
  • Bauhinia longiracemosa Hayata
  • Bauhinia longiseta Fróes
  • Bauhinia longistipes T.C. Chen
  • Bauhinia longistyla Benth.
  • Bauhinia maculata Ten.
  • Bauhinia maglesia Lindl.
  • Bauhinia malacotrichoides R.S. Cowan
  • Bauhinia marlothii Engl.
  • Bauhinia marowijnensis Kleinh.
  • Bauhinia montana Lanza
  • Bauhinia mucora Bolle
  • Bauhinia ovatifolia T.C. Chen
  • Bauhinia parkinsonii C.E.C.Fisch.
  • Bauhinia paucinervata T.C. Chen
  • Bauhinia persichii F.Muell.
  • Bauhinia pinnata Blanco
  • Bauhinia platisiliqua Steud.
  • Bauhinia platysiliqua Perr. ex DC.
  • Bauhinia polyacantha Steud.
  • Bauhinia polyantha Vogel
  • Bauhinia purpurea Wall.
  • Bauhinia pyrrhocarpa Hochst.
  • Bauhinia quinnanensis T.C.Chen
  • Bauhinia reniformis Royle ex Baker
  • Bauhinia rubescens Pers.
  • Bauhinia ruficarpa Desv.
  • Bauhinia scortechinii Prain ex King
  • Bauhinia sellowiana Vogel
  • Bauhinia siamensis K.Larsen & S.S.Larsen
  • Bauhinia sirindhorniae K.Larsen & S.Larsen
  • Bauhinia stenoscypha Baker
  • Bauhinia strychnoidea Prain ex King
  • Bauhinia subclavala Benth.
  • Bauhinia superba Steud.
  • Bauhinia tamarindacea Delile
  • Bauhinia tenuis Span.
  • Bauhinia teysmanniana Scheff.
  • Bauhinia timorensis Decne.
  • Bauhinia timoriana Steud.
  • Bauhinia timoriensis Baker
  • Bauhinia trichosepala (L.P.Queiroz) Wunderlin & Eilers
  • Bauhinia tuichiensis Cayola & A. Fuentes
  • Bauhinia umbriana Britton & Killip
  • Bauhinia vahlii Villar
  • Bauhinia venustula T.C. Chen
  • Bauhinia welwischii Oliv.

Hybrids[edit]

One hybrid is known:[6]

Segregate genera[edit]

Species in the genera Barklya, Gigasiphon, Lasiobema, Lysiphyllum, Phanera, Piliostigma, Schnella, and Tylosema are sometimes included in Bauhinia (sensu lato).

Gallery of Bauhinia racemosa[edit]

Gallery of Bauhinia tomentosa[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sinou C, Forest F, Lewis GP, Bruneau A. (2009). "The genus Bauhinia s.l. (Leguminosae): a phylogeny based on the plastid trnLtrnF region". Botany 87 (10): 947–960. doi:10.1139/B09-065. 
  2. ^ a b "Genus: Bauhinia L.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2007-03-29. Retrieved 2010-12-06. 
  3. ^ Wunderlin RP. (2010). "Reorganization of the Cercideae (Fabaceae: Caesalpinioideae)". Phytoneuron 48: 1–5. 
  4. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607; OED: "Bauhinia"
  5. ^ "ILDIS LegumeWeb entry for Bauhinia". International Legume Database & Information Service. Cardiff School of Computer Science & Informatics. Last edited on 1 November 2005 (rebuilt on 24 April 2013). Retrieved 8 May 2014. 
  6. ^ a b USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. "GRIN species records of Bauhinia". Germplasm Resources Information Network—(GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved 5 May 2014. 
  7. ^ a b "The Plant List entry for Bauhinia". The Plant List. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and the Missouri Botanical Garden. 2013. Retrieved 5 May 2014. 


External links[edit]