Baudouin of Belgium

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Baudouin I
King of the Belgians
Reign17 July 1951 – 31 July 1993
PredecessorLeopold III
SuccessorAlbert II
ConsortFabiola de Mora y Aragón
Full name
Baldwin Albert Charles Leopold Axel Maria Gustaf
HouseHouse of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
FatherLeopold III of Belgium
MotherAstrid of Sweden
Born(1930-09-07)7 September 1930
Stuyvenberg Castle, Belgium
Died31 July 1993(1993-07-31) (aged 62)
Villa Astrida, Motril, Spain
 
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Baudouin I
King of the Belgians
Reign17 July 1951 – 31 July 1993
PredecessorLeopold III
SuccessorAlbert II
ConsortFabiola de Mora y Aragón
Full name
Baldwin Albert Charles Leopold Axel Maria Gustaf
HouseHouse of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
FatherLeopold III of Belgium
MotherAstrid of Sweden
Born(1930-09-07)7 September 1930
Stuyvenberg Castle, Belgium
Died31 July 1993(1993-07-31) (aged 62)
Villa Astrida, Motril, Spain
Belgian Royalty
House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha
State coat of arms of Belgium.svg
Leopold I
Children
Crown Prince Louis-Philippe
Leopold II
Philippe, Count of Flanders
Charlotte, Empress of Mexico
Grandchildren
Prince Baudouin
Princess Joséphine Marie
Princess Henriette, Duchess of Vendome and Alençon
Joséphine Caroline, Princess of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
Albert I
Leopold II
Children
Louise-Marie, Princess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Leopold, Duke of Brabant
Stéphanie, Crown Princess of Austria
Clémentine, Princess Napoléon
Albert I
Children
Leopold III
Prince Charles
Marie-José, Queen of Italy
Leopold III
Children
Joséphine-Charlotte, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg
Baudouin
Albert II
Prince Alexander
Princess Marie-Christine
Princess Maria-Esmeralda
Baudouin
Albert II
Children
Philippe, Duke of Brabant
Astrid, Archduchess of Austria-Este
Prince Laurent
Grandchildren
Princess Elisabeth
Prince Gabriel
Prince Emmanuel
Princess Eléonore
Princess Louise
Prince Nicolas
Prince Aymeric

Baudouin (Dutch: Boudewijn Albert Karel Leopold Axel Marie Gustaaf van België [ˈbʌu̯dəˌʋɛi̯n ˈɑlbərt ˈkaːrəl ˈleˑjoˑˌpɔlt ˈɑksəl maˑˈri ɣʏsˈtaˑf vɑn ˈbɛlɣijə], French: Baudouin Albert Charles Léopold Axel Marie Gustave de Belgique [bodwɛ̃ albɛʁ ʃaʁl leopɔld aksɛl maʁi ɡystav də bɛlʒik]; 7 September 1930 – 31 July 1993) reigned as King of the Belgians, following his father's abdication, from 1951 until his death in 1993. He was the eldest son of King Leopold III (1901–83) and his first wife, Princess Astrid of Sweden (1905–35). Having had no children, the crown passed on to his brother, Albert II of Belgium, following his death. He is the first cousin of King Harald V of Norway, Princess Astrid of Norway, and Princess Ragnhild of Norway. Baudouin is the French form of his name, the form most commonly used outside Belgium; his Dutch name is Boudewijn. Very rarely, his name is anglicized as Baldwin.

Contents

Ascent to the throne

Baudouin was born in Stuyvenberg Castle, near Laeken, Brussels, in Belgium, in 1930, the son of Prince Leopold, the Duke of Brabant and his wife, Astrid of Sweden. His father became King of the Belgians, as Leopold III, in 1934. Baudouin's mother died in 1935.

Part of Leopold III's unpopularity was the result of a second marriage in 1941 to Mary Lilian Baels, an English-born Belgian commoner, later known as Princess de Réthy. More controversial had been Leopold's decision to surrender to Nazi Germany during World War II, when Belgium was invaded in 1940; many Belgians questioned his loyalties, but a commission of inquiry exonerated him of treason after World War II. Though reinstated in a plebiscite, the controversy surrounding Leopold led to his abdication.

King Leopold III requested the Belgian Government and the Parliament to approve a law delegating his royal powers to his son, Prince Baudouin, who took the constitutional oath before the United Chambers of the Belgian Parliament as Prince Royal on 11 August 1950. He ascended the throne and became the fifth King of the Belgians upon taking the constitutional oath on 17 July 1951, one day following his father's abdication.

The Congolese called the young king Mwana Kitoko ("beautiful boy").

Marriage

On 15 December 1960, Baudouin was married in Brussels to Doña Fabiola de Mora y Aragón. The King and Queen had no children; all of the Queen's five pregnancies ended in miscarriage.[1]

Notable events

During Baudouin's reign the colony of Belgian Congo became independent. The King personally attended the festivities; he gave a speech that received a blistering response by Congolese Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba.[2]

In 1976, on the 25th anniversary of Baudouin's accession, the King Baudouin Foundation was formed, with the aim of improving the living conditions of the Belgian people.

He was the 1,176th Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece in Spain in 1960 and the 930th Knight of the Order of the Garter.[citation needed]

Baudouin of Belgium was the godfather of Prince Leka of Albania.[citation needed]

Religious influences

Baudouin was a devout Roman Catholic. Through the influence of Leo Cardinal Suenens, Baudouin participated in the growing Catholic Charismatic Renewal and regularly went on pilgrimages to the French shrine of Paray-le-Monial.

In 1990, when a law submitted by Roger Lallemand and Lucienne Herman-Michielsens, liberalising Belgium's abortion laws, was approved by Parliament, he refused to give Royal Assent to the bill. This was unprecedented; although Baudoin was nominally Belgium's chief executive, Royal Assent has long been a formality (as is the case in most constitutional and popular monarchies). However, due to his religious convictions, Baudouin asked the Government to declare him temporarily unable to reign so that he could avoid signing the measure into law.[3] The Government under Wilfried Martens complied with his request on 4 April 1990. According to the provisions of the Belgian Constitution, in the event the King is temporarily unable to reign, the Government as a whole fulfills the role of Head of State. All members of the Government signed the bill, and the next day (5 April 1990) the Government declared that Baudouin was capable of reigning again.

Death, succession, and legacy

Baudouin reigned for 42 years. He died of heart failure on 31 July 1993 in the Villa Astrida in Motril, in the south of Spain.[4] His death was unexpected, and sent much of Belgium into a period of deep mourning. Within hours the grids of the Royal Palace were covered with flowers that people spontaneously brought. A viewing of the body was organised at the Royal Palace in central Brussels; 500,000 people (5% of the population) turned up to pay their respects. Many waited in line up to 14 hours in sweltering heat to get to see their King one last time. Queen Elizabeth II attended the funeral in person; by tradition the British monarch attends only those funerals which are of close family members (they were only third cousins) or such politicians as prime ministers who die while in office.[citation needed]

King Baudouin was interred in the royal vault at the Church of Our Lady of Laeken, Brussels, Belgium. He was succeeded by his younger brother, who became King Albert II.

Ancestry

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
16. Leopold I of Belgium
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
8. Prince Philippe, Count of Flanders
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
17. Princess Louise-Marie of Orléans
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4. Albert I of Belgium
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
18. Charles Anthony, Prince of Hohenzollern
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
9. Princess Marie of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
19. Princess Josephine of Baden
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2. Leopold III of Belgium
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
20. Duke Maximilian Joseph in Bavaria
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10. Duke Karl-Theodor in Bavaria
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
21. Princess Ludovika of Bavaria
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
5. Duchess Elisabeth in Bavaria
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
22. Miguel of Portugal
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
11. Infanta Maria Josepha of Portugal
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
23. Princess Adelaide of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Baudouin of Belgium
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
24. Oscar I of Sweden
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
12. Oscar II of Sweden
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
25. Duchess Josephine of Leuchtenberg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
6. Prince Carl, Duke of Västergötland
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
26. William, Duke of Nassau
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
13. Princess Sofia of Nassau
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
27. Princess Pauline of Württemberg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3. Princess Astrid of Sweden
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
28. Christian IX of Denmark
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
14. Frederick VIII of Denmark
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
29. Princess Louise of Hesse-Kassel
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
7. Princess Ingeborg of Denmark
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
30. Charles XV of Sweden
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
15. Princess Louise of Sweden
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
31. Princess Louise of the Netherlands
 
 
 
 
 
 
Monarchical styles of
King Baudouin of the Belgians
Royal Monogram of King Baudouin I, King of the Belgians.svg
Reference styleHis Majesty
Spoken styleYour Majesty
Alternative styleSire

Titles and styles

See also

References

  1. ^ Koningin Fabiola had vijf miskramen
  2. ^ http://www.africawithin.com/lumumba/independence_speech.htm, delivered 30 June 1960. Accessed 20 January 2009.
  3. ^ "Belgium: Commoner for A Day, or Two". Time. 16 April 1990. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,969868,00.html. Retrieved 26 April 2010. 
  4. ^ Lyons, Richard D. "Baudouin I, King of Belgium, Dies at 62," New York Times. August 1, 1993.

Bibliography

External links

Baudouin of Belgium
Cadet branch of the House of Wettin
Born: 7 September 1930 Died: 31 July 1993
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Leopold III
King of the Belgians
1951–1993
Succeeded by
Albert II
Royal titles
Preceded by
Leopold
Duke of Brabant
1934–1951
Succeeded by
Philippe
Preceded by
New creation
Count of Hainaut
1930–1934
Succeeded by
In disuse