Battle of Long Island

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Battle of Long Island
Part of the American Revolutionary War
BattleofLongisland.jpg
The Delaware Regiment at the Battle of Long Island.
DateAugust 27, 1776
LocationKings County, Long Island, New York
40°39′54″N 73°58′52″W / 40.665°N 73.981°W / 40.665; -73.981Coordinates: 40°39′54″N 73°58′52″W / 40.665°N 73.981°W / 40.665; -73.981
ResultBritish victory[1]
Belligerents
 United States Great Britain
Commanders and leaders
United States George Washington
United States Israel Putnam
United States William Alexander
United States Thomas Mifflin
United States Henry Knox
United States John Sullivan
Kingdom of Great Britain William Howe,
Kingdom of Great Britain Charles Cornwallis,
Kingdom of Great Britain Henry Clinton
Kingdom of Great Britain William Erskine
Kingdom of Great Britain James Grant
Kingdom of Great Britain Charles Mawhood
Strength
10,000[2]32,000[3]
Casualties and losses
300 killed
~700 wounded
1,000 captured[4]
64 killed
293 wounded
31 missing[5][6]
 
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Battle of Long Island
Part of the American Revolutionary War
BattleofLongisland.jpg
The Delaware Regiment at the Battle of Long Island.
DateAugust 27, 1776
LocationKings County, Long Island, New York
40°39′54″N 73°58′52″W / 40.665°N 73.981°W / 40.665; -73.981Coordinates: 40°39′54″N 73°58′52″W / 40.665°N 73.981°W / 40.665; -73.981
ResultBritish victory[1]
Belligerents
 United States Great Britain
Commanders and leaders
United States George Washington
United States Israel Putnam
United States William Alexander
United States Thomas Mifflin
United States Henry Knox
United States John Sullivan
Kingdom of Great Britain William Howe,
Kingdom of Great Britain Charles Cornwallis,
Kingdom of Great Britain Henry Clinton
Kingdom of Great Britain William Erskine
Kingdom of Great Britain James Grant
Kingdom of Great Britain Charles Mawhood
Strength
10,000[2]32,000[3]
Casualties and losses
300 killed
~700 wounded
1,000 captured[4]
64 killed
293 wounded
31 missing[5][6]

The Battle of Long Island, also known as the Battle of Brooklyn or the Battle of Brooklyn Heights, fought on August 27, 1776, was a defeat for the Continental Army under General George Washington and the beginning of a successful campaign that gave the British control of the strategically important city of New York. In the American Revolutionary War it was the first major battle to take place after the United States declared independence on July 4, 1776. In terms of troop size, it was the largest battle of the entire war.

After defeating the British in the Siege of Boston on March 17, 1776, General George Washington, Commander-in-Chief, brought the Continental Army to defend the port city of New York, then limited to the southern end of Manhattan Island. Washington understood that the city's harbor would provide an excellent base for the British Navy during the campaign. There he established defenses and waited for the British to attack. In July, the British, under the command of General William Howe, landed a few miles across the harbor from Manhattan on the sparsely-populated Staten Island, where during the next month and a half they were slowly reinforced by ships in Lower New York Bay, bringing their total force to 32,000 troops. With the British fleet in control of the entrance to the harbor at The Narrows, Washington knew the difficulty in holding the city. Believing Manhattan would be the first target, he moved there the bulk of his forces.

On August 22, the British landed on the shores of Gravesend Bay in southwest Kings County, across The Narrows from Staten Island, more than a dozen miles south from the East River crossings to Manhattan. After five days of waiting, the British attacked American defenses on the Guan Heights. Unknown to the Americans, however, Howe had brought his main army around their rear and attacked their flank soon after. The Americans panicked, although a stand by 400 Maryland troops prevented most of the army from being captured. The remainder of the army retreated to the main defenses on Brooklyn Heights. The British dug in for a siege but, on the night of August 29–30, Washington evacuated the entire army to Manhattan without the loss of supplies or a single life. Washington and the Continental Army were driven out of New York entirely after several more defeats and forced to retreat through New Jersey and into Pennsylvania.

Background[edit]

Boston to New York[edit]

In the first stage of the war, the British Army was trapped in the then-peninsular city of Boston and on March 17, they abandoned it setting sail to Halifax, Nova Scotia to await reinforcements.[7] Washington then began to transfer regiments to New York City where he believed that the British would next attack because of its strategic importance.[8][9] Washington left Boston on April 4; arrive at New York on April 13,[10] and established headquarters at the former home of Archibald Kennedy on Broadway facing Bowling Green. Previously in February, Washington had sent his second in command, Charles Lee, ahead to New York to establish the City's defenses.[11] Lee remained in New York City until March when the Continental Congress sent him to South Carolina; defense construction was left to General William Alexander (Lord Stirling).[10] Troops were in limited supply so Washington found the defenses incomplete,[12] but Lee had concluded that with the British commanding the sea it would be impossible to hold the city. Lee reasoned that the defenses should be located with the ability to inflict upon the British heavy casualties if any move was made to take and hold ground.[11] Barricades and redoubts were established in and around the city, and across the east River, in Brooklyn Heights facing the city, the bastion of Fort Stirling.[13] Lee also saw that Long Island was cleared of Loyalists.[14]

Strategy[edit]

American strategy called for the first line of defense to be based on the Heights of Guan - a series of hills which stretched northeast across King's County. The main defensive works - a series of forts and entrenchments - were located in the northwest of the county in and around the Dutch-founded town of Brookland. The Road to Narrows is the Gowanus Road. No.5 is the Old Stone House. Map by Bernard Ratzer based on his 1766-1767 survey.

Washington began moving troops to Brooklyn in early May[15] so that within a short time, there were a few thousand of them in Brooklyn. On the eastern side of the East River, three more forts were under construction to support Fort Stirling, which stood to the west of the hamlet of Brooklyn Heights: Fort Putnam[16] (named for Rufus Putnam, not to be confused with the later Fort Putnam at West Point), Fort Greene[17] (named for Nathanael Greene) and Fort Box[18] (named for Major Daniel Box).[19] From north to south they lied with Fort Putnam furthest to the north, with Greene slightly to the southwest and Box slightly further southwest. Each of these defensive structures were surrounded by a large ditch, all connected by a line of entrenchments and a total of 36 cannons (mostly 18-pounders).[20]

Fort Defiance was also being constructed at this time, located further southwest, past Fort Box, near present day Red Hook.[19] In addition to these new forts, a mounted battery was established on Governors Island, cannons were placed at Fort George facing Bowling Green and more cannons placed at the Whitehall Dock, which sat on the East River.[21] Hulks were sunk at strategic locations to deter the British from entering the East River and other waterways.[22]

Washington had been authorized by Congress to recruit an army of up to 28,500 troops; he had only 19,000 troops when he reached in New York.[23] Military discipline was inadequate: routine simple orders were not carried out, muskets were fired in camp, flints ruined, bayonets as knives to cut food, and firearm readiness lax.[24] Petty internal conflict was common under the strain of the so many people from different environments and temperaments in relative closeness.[25]

The commander of the artillery, Henry Knox, persuaded Washington to transfer 500 to 600 soldiers who lacked muskets to crew the artillery.[21] In early June, Knox and Greene inspected the land at the north end of Manhattan and decided to establish Fort Washington. Another fort, Fort Constitution, later renamed Fort Lee, was planned for opposite from Fort Washington on the Hudson River.[21] The forts were hoped to thwart the British ships from sailing up the Hudson.[21]

British Arrival[edit]

"The British fleet in the lower bay" (Harpers Magazine, 1876) depicts the British fleet amassing off the shores of Staten Island in the summer of 1776.

On June 28 Washington learned that the British fleet had set sail from Halifax on June 9 and were heading toward New York.[26] On June 29, signals were sent from men stationed on Staten Island that the British fleet had appeared. Within a few hours 45 British ships dropped anchor in Lower New York Bay.[27] Less than a week later, there were 130 ships off Staten Island under the command of Richard Howe, the brother of the General.[28] The population of New York went into panic at the sight of the British ships, alarms went off and troops immediately rushed to their posts.[27] On July 2, British troops began to land on Staten Island. The Continental regulars on the island took a few shots at the British before fleeing and the citizen's militia switched over to the British side.[28]

On July 6, news reached New York that Congress had voted for independence four days earlier.[29] On Tuesday, July 9, at 18:00, Washington had several brigades march onto the Commons of the City to hear the Declaration of Independence read. After the end of the reading, a mob ran down to Bowling Green, where, with ropes and bars, they tore down the gilded lead equestrian statue of George III of Great Britain.[30] In their fury the crowd cut off the statue's head, severed the nose, and mounted what remained of the head on a spike outside a tavern, and the rest of the statue was dragged to Connecticut and melted down into musket balls.[31]

On July 12, two British ships, the Phoenix and the Rose, sailed up the harbor toward the mouth of the Hudson.[31] The American batteries stationed at Fort George, Red Hook and Governors Island opened fire, but the British returned fire into the city. The ships sailed along the New Jersey shore and continued up the Hudson, sailing past Fort Washington and arriving by nightfall at Tarrytown, the widest part of the Hudson.[32] The goal of the British ships was to cut off American supplies and encourage Loyalist support. The only casualties of the day were six Americans who were killed when their own cannon blew up.[32]

British troops in the type of flat-bottomed boat used for the invasion of Long Island. Hessians, in their blue uniforms, are in the two boats that are only partly visible.

The next day, July 13, General Howe attempted to open negotiations with the Americans.[33] Howe sent a letter to Washington delivered by Lieutenant Philip Brown, who arrived under the flag of truce. The letter was addressed George Washington, Esq.[33] Brown was met by Joseph Reed, who on Washington's orders had hurried to the waterfront accompanied by Henry Knox and Samuel Webb. Washington asked his officers whether it should be received or not, as it did not recognize his rank as General, and they unanimously said no.[34] Brown was told by Reed that there was no one in the army with that address. On July 16 Howe tried again, this time with the address George Washington, Esq., etc., etc. but it was again declined.[35] The next day Howe sent Captain Nisbet Balfour to ask if Washington would meet with Howe's adjutant face to face, and a meeting was scheduled for July 20.[35] Howe's adjutant was Colonel James Patterson. Patterson told Washington that Howe had come with powers to grant pardons but Washington said, "Those who have committed no fault want no pardon."[35] Patterson departed soon after.[35] Washington's performance during the meeting was praised throughout the United States.[36]

Meanwhile, British ships continued to arrive.[37] On August 1, 45 ships with Generals Henry Clinton and Charles Cornwallis arrived, along with 3,000 troops. By August 12, 3,000 more British troops and another 8,000 Hessians had arrived.[38] At this point the British fleet numbered over 400 ships, including 73 war ships, and 32,000 troops were camped on Staten Island. Faced with this large force, Washington was unsure as to where the British would attack.[39] Both Greene and Reed thought that the British would attack Long Island, but Washington felt that a British attack on Long Island might be a diversion for the main attack on Manhattan. Washington broke his army in half, stationing half of it on Manhattan, and the other half on Long Island; the army on Long Island was commanded by Greene.[39] On August 20 Greene became ill and was forced to move to a house in Manhattan where he rested to recover. John Sullivan was placed in command until Greene was well enough to resume command.[40]

Denyse's Ferry, the first place at which the Hessians and British landed on Long Island August 22, 1776 by A. Brown. This high-point overlooking The Narrows was an American artillery position and bombarded by the British before the invasion, but the actual landing took place further east at Gravesend Bay (around to the left from the perspective of this illustration) where the conditions were more favorable for the small British boats carrying the troops.

Invasion of Long Island[edit]

At 05:10, on August 22, an advance guard of 4,000 British troops, under the command of Clinton and Cornwallis, left Staten Island to land on Long Island.[41] At 08:00, all 4,000 troops landed on the shore of Gravesend Bay, unopposed. Colonel Edward Hand's Pennsylvanian riflemen had been stationed on the shore, but they did not oppose the landings and fell back, killing cattle and burning farmhouses on the way.[42] By noon, 15,000 troops had landed on shore along with 40 pieces of artillery. As hundreds of Loyalists came to greet the British troops, Cornwallis pushed on with the advance guard, advancing six miles on to the island and establishing camp at the village of Flatbush; Cornwallis was given orders to advance no further.[42][43]

Washington received word of the landings the same day they occurred, but was informed that the number was 8,000 to 9,000 troops.[44] This convinced Washington that it was the feint he had predicted and therefore he only sent 1,500 more troops to Brooklyn, bringing the total troops on Long Island to 6,000. On August 24, Washington replaced Sullivan with Israel Putnam who commanded the troops on Long Island.[45] Putnam arrived on Long Island the next day along with six battalions. Also that day the British troops on Long Island received 5,000 Hessian reinforcements, bringing their total to 20,000.[46] Although there was little fighting on the days immediately after the landing, some small skirmishes did take place with American marksmen armed with rifles picking off British troops from time to time.[47]

British military map from 1776 showing the marching routes and battle sites during the Battle of Long Island.

The American plan was that Putnam would direct the defenses from Brooklyn Heights while Sullivan and Stirling and their troops would be stationed on the Guan Heights.[48][49] The heights were up to 150 feet high and blocked the most direct route to Brooklyn Heights.[48][49] Washington believed by stationing men on the heights that heavy casualties could be inflicted on the British before the troops fell back to the main defenses at Brooklyn Heights.[50] There were three main passes through the heights; the Gowanus Road furthest to the west, the Flatbush Road slightly farther to the east, in the center of the American line where it was expected the British would attack, and the Bedford Road farthest to the east. Stirling was responsible to defend the Gowanus Road with 500 men, and Sullivan was to defend the Flatbush and Bedford Roads where there were 1,000 and 800 men respectively.[48] 6,000 troops would remain behind at Brooklyn Heights. There was one lesser-known pass through the heights farther to the east called the Jamaica Pass. This pass was defended by just five militia officers on horses.[51]

On the British side, General Clinton learned of the almost undefended Jamaica Pass from local Loyalists.[52] Clinton drew up a plan and gave it to William Erskine to propose to Howe. Clinton's plan had the main army making a night march and going through the Jamaica Pass to turn the American flank while other troops would keep the Americans busy in front.[53] On August 26, Clinton received word from Howe that the plan would be used, and that Clinton was to command the advance guard of the main army of 10,000 men on the march through the Jamaica Pass. While they made the night march, General James Grant's British troops along with some Hessians, a total of 4,000 men, would attack the Americans in front to distract them from the main army coming on their flank.[53] Howe told Clinton to be ready to move out that night, August 26.[53]

Battle[edit]

Night March[edit]

At 21:00, the British moved out.[54] No one, except the commanders—not even the officers—knew of the plan. Clinton led a crack brigade of light infantry with fixed bayonets in front, followed by Cornwallis who had eight battalions and 14 artillery pieces. Cornwallis was, in turn, followed by Howe and Hugh Percy with six battalions, more artillery, and baggage.[54] The column consisted of 10,000 men who stretched out over two miles. Three Loyalist farmers led the column toward the Jamaica Pass. The British had left their campfires burning to deceive the Americans into thinking that nothing was happening.[54] The column headed northeast until it reached what later became the village of New Lots when it headed directly north, toward the Heights.

The column had yet to run into any American troops when they reached Howard's Tavern (also known as Howard's Half-Way House), just a few hundred yards from the Jamaica Pass.[55] The tavern keeper William Howard and his son William Jr. were forced to act as guides to show the British the way to the Rockaway Foot Path, an old Indian trail that skirted the Jamaica Pass to the west (located today in the Cemetery of the Evergreens). Five minutes after leaving the tavern, the five American militia officers stationed at the Pass were captured without a shot fired, as they thought the British were Americans.[56] Clinton interrogated the men and they informed him that they were the only troops guarding the pass. By dawn the British were through the pass and stopped so that the troops could rest.[56] At 09:00, they fired two heavy cannons to signal the Hessian troops below Battle Pass to begin their frontal assault against Sullivan's men deployed on the two hills flanking the pass while Clinton's troops simultaneously flanked the American positions from the east.[56]

The Rockaway Foot Path
Howard's Tavern as it appeared in 1776; it was demolished in 1880. The tavern was located near the present-day intersection of Fulton Street and Jamaica Avenue.

William Howard Jr. describes meeting General Howe:
“It was about 2 o’clock in the morning of August 27 that I was awakened by seeing a soldier at the side of my bed. I got up and dressed and went down to the barroom, where I saw my father standing in one corner with three British soldiers before him with muskets and bayonets fixed. The army was then lying in the field in front of the house ...General Howe and another officer were in the barroom. General Howe wore a camlet cloak over his regimentals. After asking for a glass of liquor from the bar, which was given him, he entered into familiar conversation with my father, and among other things said, ‘I must have some one of you to show me over the Rockaway Path around the pass.’

“My father replied, ‘We belong to the other side, General, and can’t serve you against our duty.’ General Howe replied, ‘That is alright; stick to your country, or stick to your principles, but Howard, you are my prisoner and must guide my men over the hill.’ My father made some further objection, but was silenced by the general, who said, ‘You have no alternative. If you refuse I shall shoot you through the head.’”

Grant's diversionary attack[edit]

A view from Battle Hill - the highest point in King's County - looking west toward Upper New York Harbor and New Jersey beyond.. Here on Lord Stirling's left flank about 300 Americans under Colonel Atlee and General Parsons repulsed successive attacks by the British after taking the hill, and inflicted the highest casualties against the British during the Battle of Long Island.[57]

About 23:00 on August 26, 1776, the first shots of the Battle of Long Island were fired near the Red Lion Inn (near present-day 39th St. and 4th Ave.). American pickets - part of Samuel John Atlee's Pennsylvania regiment - fired upon two British soldiers who were foraging in a watermelon patch near the Red Lion.[58]

Around 01:00 on August 27, the British approached the vicinity of the Red Lion with between 200–300 troops. The American troops fired upon the British and after approximately two fusillades fled up the Gowanus Road toward the Vechte-Cortelyou House. Major Edward Burd who had been in command was captured along with a lieutenant and 15 privates.[59] This first engagement was fought in the vicinity of 38–39 streets between 2nd. and 3rd. avenues near a swamp located adjacent to the Gowanus Road.

Newly promoted Brigadier General Samuel Holden Parsons a lawyer from Connecticut who had recently secured a commission in the Continental Army, and Colonel Samuel Atlee in command of the First Regiment of Pennsylvania Musketry - a veteran of the French and Indian War - were stationed further north on the Gowanus Road. Putnam had been awakened by a guard at 03:00 and told that the British were attacking through the Gowanus Pass.[60] Putnam lit signals to Washington who was on Manhattan and then rode south to warn Stirling of the attack.[61]

Stirling led two units of Colonel John Haslet's, 1st Delaware Regiment under the immediate command of Major Thomas Macdonough, and Colonel William Smallwood's 1st Maryland Infantry under the immediate command of Major Mordecai Gist - both Haslet and Smallwood were on courts-martial duty in Manhattan. Following close behind were Parson's Connecticut regiment with 251 men. Stirling led this combined force to reinforce Parsons and Atlee and stop the British advance. Stirling had a total of 1,600 troops at his command.[citation needed]

Stirling placed Atlee's men in an apple-orchard owned by Wynant Bennett on the southside of the Gowanus Road near present-day 3rd Avenue and 18 Street.[citation needed] Upon the approach of the British:

We took possession of a hill about two miles from camp, and detached Colonel Atlee to meet them further on the road; in about sixty rods he drew up and received the enemy's fire and gave them a well-directed fire from his regiment, which did great execution, and then retreated to the hill.[citation needed] - General Parsons

Stirling along with the Delaware and Maryland regiments took up positions just to the north Of Atlee's men on the slopes of a rise of land between 18 and 20 streets. Some of the Maryland troops were positioned on a small hill - called Blokje Berg (Dutch: cube or block hill) by the local Dutch–near 23 Street. At the base of this hill the Gowanus Road crossed a small bridge over a drainage ditch which drained a marshy area. When the British advanced up the Gowanus Road the American troops fired upon them from positions on the north side of the ditch. To the left were Colonel Peter Kachline's Pennsylvania regiment.[citation needed]

Just to the southeast of Blokje Berg were a few hills, amongst them was a hill which is the highest point in King's County at 220 feet which came to be known as Battle Hill–in what is today Greenwood Cemetery by the cemetery's boundary of 23 Street and Seventh Avenue. The British attempted to outflank the American positions by taking this hill. The Americans trying to prevent the British move also sent troops under Parsons and Atlee to take the hill. The British got there first but the Americans were able to dislodge them in fierce fighting.[citation needed]

Battle Hill was the site of especially brutal fighting, with the Americans inflicting the highest number of casualties against the British troops during the entire Battle of Long Island. Among those killed was British Colonel James Grant, which led the Americans to erroneously believe that they had killed General James Grant. He was alleged to have been shot by a Pennsylvanian rifleman who had been sniping at the British from up in a tree. Amongst the American dead was Pennsylvanian Colonel Caleb Parry who was killed while rallying his troops.[citation needed]

In part due to the ferocity of the fighting and the number of British troops engaged, the Americans were still unaware that this was not the main British attack.[62]

Battle Pass[edit]

Battle Pass - also known as Flatbush Pass - is located in modern-day Prospect Park. Here General Sullivan and his troops were outflanked by the British who attacked from the rear while the Hessians attacked up Battle Pass. (Lithograph c.1866

The Hessians, in the center under the command of General von Heister, began to bombard the American lines stationed at Battle Pass under the command of General John Sullivan.[63] The Hessian brigades, waiting for the pre-arranged signal from the British, who at that time were in the process of outflanking the American lines did not attack. The Americans, still under the assumption that Grant's attack up the Gowanus Road was the main thrust had Sullivan send four hundred of his men to reinforce Stirling.

Howe fired his signal guns at 09:00 and the Hessians began to attack up Battle Pass while the main army came at Sullivan from the rear.[63] Sullivan left his advance guard to hold off the Hessians while he turned the rest of his force around to fight the British. Heavy casualties mounted up between the Americans and the British and men on both sides fled out of fear.[63] Sullivan attempted to calm his men and tried to lead a retreat. By this point the Hessians had overrun the advance guard on the heights and the American left had completely collapsed.[64] Hand-to-hand fighting followed with the Americans swinging their muskets and rifles like clubs to save their lives. Many of the Americans who surrendered were bayoneted by the Hessians.[65] Sullivan, despite the chaos, managed to evacuate most of his men to Brooklyn Heights though Sullivan himself was captured.[64]

The Old Stone House/Vechte-Cortelyou House[edit]

The front of the original Vechte-Cortelyou House (built c.1699); where the Maryland troops commanded by Lord Stirling and Mordecai Gist made two attacks against over two thousand British troops in a rear-guard action that allowed a majority of Stirling's 1,600-strong command to escape. The house was reconstructed with original materials in 1937 after a fire.[66]
Gunpowder smoke from cannon and muskets mark where Stirling and the Maryland troops attack the British, while in the foreground the rest of the American troops escape across Brouwer's mill pond. Building pictured is the mill. (Battle of Long Island, 1858 Alonzo Chappel)

At 09:00, Washington arrived from Manhattan.[67] Washington realized that he had been wrong about a feint on Long Island and he ordered more troops to Brooklyn from Manhattan.[67] Washington's location on the battlefield is not known for sure, because accounts differ, but most likely he was at Brooklyn Heights where he could view the battle.[68]

On the American right, to the west, Stirling still held the line against Grant.[68] Stirling held on for four hours, still unaware of the British flanking maneuver, and some of his own troops thought they were winning the day because the British had been unable to take their position. However, by 11:00, Grant, reinforced by 2,000 marines, hit Stirling's center and Stirling was attacked on his left by the Hessians.[65][68] Stirling pulled back but British troops were, at this point, coming at him in his rear south down the Gowanus Road. The only escape route left was across a Brouwer' Millpond on the Gowanus Creek which was 80 yards wide, on the other side of which was Brooklyn Heights.[69]

Maryland 400[edit]

Stirling ordered all of his troops, except a contingent of Maryland troops under the command of Major Mordecai Gist, to cross the creek. This group of Maryland troops became known to history as the Maryland 400, although they numbered about 260–270 men. Stirling and Gist led the troops in a rear-guard action against the overwhelming numbers of British troops which surpassed 2,000 troops supported by two cannon.[69] Stirling and Gist led the Marylanders in two attacks against the British who were in fixed positions in and in front of the Vechte-Cortelyou House (known today as Old Stone House). After the last assault the remaining troops retreated across the Gowanus Creek. Some of the men who tried to cross the marsh were bogged down in the mud under musket fire and others who could not swim were captured. Stirling was surrounded and, unwilling to surrender to the British, broke through the British lines to von Heister's Hessians and surrendered to them. 256 Maryland troops were killed in the assaults in front of the Old Stone House and fewer then a dozen made it back to the American lines.[70] Washington, watching from a redoubt on nearby Cobble Hill (intersection of today's Court Street and Atlantic Avenue), was to have said, "Good God, what brave fellows I must this day lose!".[69][71]

Disengagement[edit]

After those American troops not killed or captured escaped behind the fortified American positions centered on Brooklyn Heights. Howe, in a move considered controversial to this day, ordered all of his troops to halt the attack, despite the protestations of many of the officers in his command who believed that they should push on to Brooklyn Heights. Howe had decided against a direct frontal assault against the entrenched American positions choosing instead to begin a siege and setting up lines of circumvallation around the American positions who he believed to be essentially trapped with his troops blocking escape by land and the Royal Navy in control of the East River which they would have to cross to reach Manhattan Island.[71][72]

Howe's failure to press the attack, and the reasons for it, have been disputed. He may have wished to avoid the casualties his army suffered when attacking the Continentals under similar circumstances at the Battle of Bunker Hill.[72] He may also, in the European gentleman-officer tradition, have been giving Washington an opportunity to conclude his position was hopeless and surrender. Howe told Parliament in 1779 that his essential duty was to avoid excessive British casualties for insufficient purpose, and capturing Brooklyn Heights would likely not have meant capturing the entire American army. "The loss of 1000, or perhaps 1500 British troops, in carrying those lines, would have been but ill repaid by double that number of the enemy, could it have been supposed they would have suffered in that proportion." [73]

Aftermath[edit]

U.S. Army - Artillery Retreat from Long Island 1776 (1899)

Retreat to Manhattan[edit]

Washington and the army were surrounded on Brooklyn Heights with the East River to their backs.[74] As the day went on, the British began to dig trenches, slowly coming closer and closer to the American defenses. By doing this, the British would not have to cross over open ground to assault the American defenses as they did in Boston the year before.[75] Despite this perilous situation, Washington ordered 1,200 more men from Manhattan to Brooklyn on August 28.[74] The men that came over were two Pennsylvania regiments and Colonel John Glover's regiment from Marblehead, Massachusetts. In command of the Pennsylvania troops was Thomas Mifflin who, after arriving, volunteered to inspect the outer defenses and report back to Washington.[76] In these outer defenses, small skirmishes were still taking place. On the afternoon of August 28, it began to rain and Washington had his cannon bombard the British well into the night.[77]

The Foot of Wall Street And Ferry House - 1746. The Manhattan side of the East River crossing, known then as the Brooklyn Ferry, as it looked in the mid-1700s.[78]

As the rain continued Washington sent a letter instructing General William Heath, who was at Kings Bridge between Manhattan and what is now the Bronx, to send every flat bottomed boat or sloop without delay in case battalions of infantry from New Jersey might come to reinforce their position.[79] At 16:00, on August 29, Washington held a meeting with his generals. Mifflin advised Washington to retreat to Manhattan while Mifflin and his Pennsylvania Regiments made up the rear guard, holding the line until the rest of the army had withdrawn.[79] The Generals agreed unanimously with Mifflin that retreat was the best option and Washington had orders go out by the evening.[80]

The troops were told that they were to gather up all their ammunition and baggage and prepare for a night attack.[80] By 21:00, the sick and wounded began to move to the Brooklyn Ferry in preparation for being evacuated. At 23:00, Glover and his Massachusetts troops, who were sailors and fishermen, began to evacuate the troops.[81]

Washington evacuating Army 175th Anniversary Issue of 1951. Accurate depiction of Fulton Ferry House at right. Flat bottom ferry boats in East River are depicted in background.

As more troops were evacuated, more troops were ordered to withdraw from the lines and march to the ferry landing. Wagon wheels were muffled, and men were forbidden to talk.[81] Mifflin's rear guard was tending campfires to deceive the British and convince them that nothing was going on. At 04:00, on August 30, Mifflin was informed that it was his unit's turn to evacuate.[82] Mifflin told the man who had been sent to order him to leave, Major Alexander Scammell, that he must be mistaken, but Scammell insisted that he was not and Mifflin ordered his troops to move out. When Mifflin's troops were within a half mile of the ferry landing Washington rode up and demanded to know why they were not at their defenses. Edward Hand, who was leading the troops, tried to explain what had happened, but Mifflin arrived shortly.[83] Washington exclaimed "Good God! General Mifflin, I am afraid you have ruined us!" Mifflin explained that he had been told that it was his turn to evacuate by Scammell; Washington told him it had been a mistake. Mifflin then led his troops back to the outer defenses.[83]

Artillery, supplies, and troops were all being evacuated across the river at this time but it was not going as fast as Washington had anticipated and daybreak soon came.[83] A fog settled in and concealed the evacuation from the British. British patrols noticed that there did not seem to be any American pickets and thus began to search the area. While they were doing this Washington, the last man left, stepped onto the last boat.[75] At 07:00, the last American troops landed in Manhattan.[84] All 9,000 troops had been evacuated without a single life lost.[84]

Conclusion of the Campaign[edit]

The British fleet in New York Harbor just after the battle.

The British were stunned to find that Washington and the army had escaped.[84] The next day, August 30, the British troops occupied the American fortifications. When news of the battle reached London, it caused many festivities to take place.[85] Bells were rung across the city, candles were lit in windows and King George III gave General Howe the Order of the Bath.[86]

Washington's defeat revealed his deficiencies as a strategist who split his forces, his inexperienced generals who misunderstood the situation, and his raw troops that fled in disorder at the first shots.[87] On the other hand his daring nighttime retreat has been seen by some historians as one of his greatest military feats.[88] Other historians concentrate on the failure of British naval forces to prevent the withdrawal.[89]

General Howe remained inactive for the next half month, not attacking until September 15 when he landed a force at Kip's Bay.[90] The British quickly occupied the city. On September 21, a fire of uncertain origin destroyed a quarter of New York City. In the immediate aftermath of the fire Nathan Hale was executed for spying. Although the Continentals were able to mount a victory at Harlem Heights in mid-September, Howe defeated Washington in battle again at White Plains and then again at Fort Washington.[91] Because of these defeats, Washington and the army retreated across New Jersey and into Pennsylvania.[92]

Casualties[edit]

The Middle Dutch Church is where the enlisted men captured at the Battle of Long Island were imprisoned. The Sugar House also became a prison as the Redcoats captured more of Washington's soldiers during the retreat from New York. The sight today is the location of the Chase Manhattan Bank.[93]

At the time, it was by far the largest battle ever fought in North America.[71] If the Royal Navy is included, over 40,000 men took part in the battle. Howe reported his losses as 59 killed, 268 wounded and 31 missing. The Hessian casualties were 5 killed and 26 wounded.[5] The Americans suffered much heavier losses. About 300 had been killed and over 1,000 captured.[4] As few as half of the prisoners survived. Kept on prison ships, then transferred to locations such as the Middle Dutch Church, they were starved and denied medical attention. In their weakened condition, many succumbed to smallpox.[93]:191

Legacy[edit]

The most significant legacy of the Battle of Long Island was that it showed there would be no easy victory, and that the war would be long and bloody.[93]:2

Dongan Oak memorial in Prospect Park.

Commemorations of the battle include:

Five Army National Guard units (101st Eng Bn,[99] 125th MP Co,[100] 175th Inf,[101] 181st Inf[102] and 198th Sig Bn[103]) and one is a Regular Army Field Artillery battalion (1-5th FA[104] ) are derived from American units that participated in the Battle of Long Island. There are only thirty currently existing units in the U.S. Army with lineages that go back to the colonial era. Also derived from unit that participated in the Battle of Long Island is the New York Guard 1/9th Battalion.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ David Syrett (June 15, 2005). Admiral Lord Howe. Naval Institute Press. p. 61. ISBN 978-1-59114-006-1. Retrieved December 3, 2012. 
  2. ^ Lengel 2005, p. 140-Figure indicates how many troops were on Long Island total. Only 3,000 troops were on the Guana Heights, where the British attacked.
  3. ^ Lengel 2005, p. 139
  4. ^ a b McCullough 2006, p. 180
  5. ^ a b McCullough 2006, p. 179
  6. ^ according to Lord Howe report 21 {1 officer and 20 Grenadiers of the Marines} were captured Diary of the Revolution .p.304
  7. ^ McCullough 2006, p. 101.
  8. ^ McCullough 2006, p. 112.
  9. ^ Lengel 2005, p. 128.
  10. ^ a b McCullough 2006, p. 121.
  11. ^ a b Lengel 2005, p. 129.
  12. ^ McCullough 2006, p. 122.
  13. ^ Lengel 2005, p. 131.
  14. ^ Field 1869, p. 47.
  15. ^ McCullough 2006, p. 127.
  16. ^ Fort Putnam - New York State Military Museum
  17. ^ Fort Greene - New York State Military Museum
  18. ^ Fort Box - New York State Military Museum
  19. ^ a b McCullough 2006, p. 128.
  20. ^ Field 1869, p. 144.
  21. ^ a b c d McCullough 2006, p. 129.
  22. ^ McCullough 2006 .
  23. ^ Lengel 2005, p. 132.
  24. ^ Lengel 2005, p. 133.
  25. ^ Ellis 2005, p. 159.
  26. ^ McCullough 2006, p. 133.
  27. ^ a b McCullough 2006, p. 134.
  28. ^ a b Lengel 2005, p. 135.
  29. ^ McCullough 2006, p. 135.
  30. ^ McCullough 2006, p. 137.
  31. ^ a b McCullough 2006, p. 138.
  32. ^ a b McCullough 2006, p. 139.
  33. ^ a b McCullough 2006, p. 144.
  34. ^ Johnston 1878, p. 97.
  35. ^ a b c d McCullough 2006, p. 145.
  36. ^ Lengel 2005, p. 138.
  37. ^ McCullough 2006, p. 146.
  38. ^ McCullough 2006, p. 148.
  39. ^ a b McCullough 2006, p. 152.
  40. ^ McCullough 2006, p. 153.
  41. ^ McCullough 2006, p. 156.
  42. ^ a b McCullough 2006, p. 157.
  43. ^ Johnston 1878, p. 141.
  44. ^ McCullough 2006, p. 158.
  45. ^ McCullough 2006, p. 160.
  46. ^ McCullough 2006, p. 161.
  47. ^ Johnston 1878, p. 152.
  48. ^ a b c McCullough 2006, p. 162.
  49. ^ a b Lengel 2005, p. 141
  50. ^ Lengel 2005, p. 142.
  51. ^ McCullough 2006, p. 163.
  52. ^ McCullough 2006, p. 165.
  53. ^ a b c McCullough 2006, p. 166.
  54. ^ a b c McCullough 2006, p. 168.
  55. ^ McCullough 2006, p. 169.
  56. ^ a b c McCullough 2006, p. 170.
  57. ^ The Campaign of 1776 Around New York and Brooklyn By Henry Phelps Johnston pp.171-172 [1]
  58. ^ History of the City of Brooklyn By Henry Stiles. p.269 (1867)
  59. ^ John J. Gallagher: Battle Of Brooklyn 1776 p.33
  60. ^ McCullough 2006, p. 171.
  61. ^ Lengel 2005, p. 143.
  62. ^ McCullough 2006, p. 172.
  63. ^ a b c McCullough, p. 173.
  64. ^ a b McCullough 2006, p. 174.
  65. ^ a b Lengel 2005, p. 145.
  66. ^ Henry P. Johnston: Campaign of 1776 Around New York and Brooklyn (1878) Long Island Historical Society - Reprint Di Capo Press (1971) LCCN 74--15782[verification needed]
  67. ^ a b McCullough 2006, p. 175.
  68. ^ a b c McCullough 2006, p. 176.
  69. ^ a b c McCullough 2006, p. 177.
  70. ^ Lengel 2005, p. 146.
  71. ^ a b c The 256 dead troops of the Maryland 400 were buried by the British in a mass grave on a hillock on farmer Adrian Van Brunt's land on the outskirts of the marsh. It was from this battle that Maryland gained its nickname "The Old Line State". This mass grave is believed to be around the southwest corner of what is today 3rd Ave. between 7th and 8th Streets. McCullough 2006, p. 178.
  72. ^ a b Fischer 2006, p. 99.
  73. ^ "The narrative of Lieutenant General William Howe". Retrieved July 27, 2012.  p 5.
  74. ^ a b McCullough 2006, p. 182.
  75. ^ a b Lengel 2005, p. 148.
  76. ^ McCullough 2006, p. 183.
  77. ^ McCullough 2006, p. 184.
  78. ^ NYPL Digital Gallery: http://digitalgallery.nypl.org/nypldigital/dgkeysearchdetail.cfm?trg=1&strucID=717090&imageID=800078&total=44&num=0&parent_id=717063&word=&s=&notword=&d=&c=&f=&k=0&sScope=&sLevel=&sLabel=&lword=&lfield=&imgs=20&pos=8&snum=&e=r
  79. ^ a b McCullough 2006, p. 185.
  80. ^ a b McCullough 2006, p. 186.
  81. ^ a b McCullough 2006, p. 188.
  82. ^ McCullough 2006, p. 189.
  83. ^ a b c McCullough 2006, p. 190.
  84. ^ a b c McCullough 2006, p. 191.
  85. ^ McCullough 2006, p. 195.
  86. ^ McCullough 2006, p. 196.
  87. ^ Charles Francis Adams, "The Battle of Long Island," American Historical Review Vol. 1, No. 4 (Jul. 1896), pp. 650-670 in JSTOR
  88. ^ David McCullough, 1776 (2005). ISBN 978-0-7432-2671-4
  89. ^ William L. Calderhead, "British Naval Failure at Long Island: A Lost Opportunity in the American Revolution," New York History, July 1976, Vol. 57 Issue 3, pp 321-338
  90. ^ McCullough 2006, p. 209.
  91. ^ McCullough 2006, p. 244
  92. ^ McCullough 2006, p. 262.
  93. ^ a b c d Lewis, Charles H. (2009). Cut Off: Colonel Jedediah Huntington's 17th Continental (Conn.) Regiment at the Battle of Long Island August 27, 1776. Westminster, MD: Heritage Books. p. 190. ISBN 978-0-7884-4924-6. 
  94. ^ Elizabeth Hays (May 7, 2008). "Developer says plan respects Minerva statue's point of view". New York: NY Daily News. Archived from the original on February 20, 2009. Retrieved February 2, 2009. 
  95. ^ Fort Greene Park Conservancy. "Prison Ship Martyrs' Monument". Fort Greene Park Conservancy. Archived from the original on August 2, 2008. Retrieved February 2, 2009. 
  96. ^ NYC Department of Parks and Recreation. "Old Stone House". NYC Department of Parks and Recreation. Archived from the original on January 23, 2009. Retrieved February 2, 2009. 
  97. ^ Monument& Maryland Memorial
  98. ^ NYC Department of Parks and Recreation. "Prospect Park". NYC Department of Parks and Recreation. Archived from the original on March 3, 2009. Retrieved February 2, 2009. 
  99. ^ Department of the Army, Lineage and Honors, 101st Engineer Battalion
  100. ^ Department of the Army, Lineage and Honors, 125th Quartermaster Company. [2]
  101. ^ Department of the Army, Lineage and Honors, 175th Infantry. Reproduced in Sawicki 1982, pp. 343–345.
  102. ^ Department of the Army, Lineage and Honors, 181st Infantry. Reproduced in Sawicki 1981, pp. 354–355.
  103. ^ Department of the Army, Lineage and Honors, 198th Signal Battalion.
  104. ^ Department of the Army, Lineage and Honors, 1st Battalion, 5th Field Artillery. [3].
Bibliography

External links[edit]