Bataan Death March

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Route of the death march. Section from San Fernando to Capas was by rail cars.[1][2]

The Bataan Death March (Tagalog: Martsa ng Kamatayan, Japanese: Batān Shi no Kōshin (バターン死の行進?)), which began on April 9, 1942, was the forcible transfer by the Imperial Japanese Army of 60-80,000 Filipino and American prisoners of war after the three-month Battle of Bataan in the Philippines during World War II.[3][4] All told, approximately 2,500–10,000 Filipino and 100-650 American prisoners of war died before they could reach Camp O'Donnell.[5][6] Death tolls vary, especially amongst Filipino POWs, because historians cannot determine how many prisoners blended in with the civilian population and escaped.

The 128 km (80 mi) march was characterized by wide-ranging physical abuse and murder, and resulted in very high fatalities inflicted upon prisoners and civilians alike by the Japanese Army, and was later judged by an Allied military commission to be a Japanese war crime.[4]

Contents

The march of death

Dead soldiers on the Bataan Death March.

The Japanese were unprepared for the number of prisoners that they were responsible for, and there was no organized plan for how to handle them. Prisoners were stripped of their weapons and valuables, and told to march to Balanga, the capital of Bataan. Many were beaten, bayoneted and mistreated. The first major atrocity occurred when between 350 and 400 Filipino officers and NCOs were summarily executed after they had surrendered.[7]

The Japanese failed to supply the prisoners with food or water until they had reached Balanga. Many of the prisoners died along the way of heat or exhaustion.[5] Prisoners were given no food for the first three days, and were only allowed to drink water from filthy water buffalo wallows on the side of the road. At times, prisoners were made to bury their comrades alive at the side of the roads. Any refusal to do so was met with execution and further punishment to others.[8] Furthermore, Japanese troops would frequently beat and bayonet prisoners who began to fall behind, or were unable to walk. Once they arrived in Balanga, the overcrowded conditions and poor hygiene caused dysentery and other diseases to rapidly spread amongst the prisoners. The Japanese failed to provide them with medical care, leaving U.S. medical personnel to tend to the sick and wounded (with few or no supplies).[5] In June 2001, U.S. Congressional Representative Dana Rohrabacher described the horrors and brutality that the prisoners experienced on the march:

They were beaten, and they were starved as they marched. Those who fell were bayoneted. Some of those who fell were beheaded by Japanese officers who were practicing with their samurai swords from horseback. The Japanese culture at that time reflected the view that any warrior who surrendered had no honor; thus was not to be treated like a human being. Thus they were not committing crimes against human beings.[...] The Japanese soldiers at that time [...] felt they were dealing with subhumans and animals.[9]

Trucks were known to drive over some of those who fell or succumbed to fatigue,[10][11][12] and "cleanup crews" put to death those too weak to continue. Marchers were harassed with random bayonet stabs and beatings.[13]

Prisoners on the march from Bataan to the prison camp, May 1942. (National Archives).

From San Fernando, the prisoners were transported by rail to Capas. One hundred or more prisoners were stuffed into each of the trains' boxcars, which were unventilated and sweltering in the tropical heat. The trains had no sanitation facilities, and disease continued to take a heavy toll of the prisoners. After they reached Capas, they were forced to walk the final 9 miles to Camp O'Donnell.[5] Even after arriving at Camp O'Donnell, the survivors of the march continued to die at a rate of 30–50 per day, leading to thousands more dead. Most of the dead were buried in mass graves that the Japanese dug out with bulldozers on the outside of the barbed wire surrounding the compound.[14]

The death toll of the march is difficult to assess as thousands of captives were able to escape from their guards (although many were killed during their escapes), and it is not known how many died in the fighting that was taking place concurrently. All told, approximately 2,500–10,000 Filipino and 100–650 American prisoners of war died before they could reach Camp O'Donnell.[5][6]

Public responses

News of the Bataan Death March sparked outrage in the US, as reflected in this poster.

Japanese

In an attempt to counter the American propaganda value of the march, the Japanese had The Manila Times claim that the prisoners were treated humanely and their death rate had to be attributed to the intransigence of the American commanders who did not surrender until their men were on the verge of death.[15]

On May 9, 2009, the Japanese government apologized through its ambassador in the U.S. to former American prisoners of war who suffered in the Bataan Death March.[16]

A year later, on September 13, 2010, Japanese Foreign Minister Katsuya Okada apologized to a group of six former American soldiers who during World War II were held as prisoners of war by the Japanese, including 90-year-old Lester Tenney, a survivor of the Bataan Death March in 1942. The six and their families and the families of two deceased soldiers were invited to visit Japan at the expense of the Japanese government in a program that will see more American former prisoners of war and former prisoners of war from other countries visit Japan in the future.[17]

United States

The Bataan Death March, and other Japanese actions, were used to arouse fury in the United States.[18] It was not until January 27, 1944 that the U.S. government informed the American public about the march, when it released sworn statements of military officers who had escaped from the march.[19]

General Marshall made the following statement about the march:

These brutal reprisals upon helpless victims evidence the shallow advance from savagery which the Japanese people have made. [...] We serve notice upon the Japanese military and political leaders as well as the Japanese people that the future of the Japanese race itself, depends entirely and irrevocably upon their capacity to progress beyond their aboriginal barbaric instincts.[20]

Retired Army Capt. Tom Harrison, 93, of Utah is the last known survivor left from his unit. He was recently awarded numerous medals for his heroic actions during World War II.[21]

Philip Coon, 92, of Oklahoma is also a survivor. He was a private first class with the 31st Infantry. He is a full-blood member of the Muskogee Nation.[22]

At least five remaining survivors are living in the state of Washington (as of February 2012).[23]

Major Robert Wray of Iowa (October 9, 1916 – April 27, 2012) was Commanding Officer of the 34th Pursuit Squadron, flying P40’s. He was General Wainwright’s Air Officer, Provost Marshall and photography officer for Clark and Nichols Field in the Philippines. Bob was one of the few survivors and remained a prisoner for over three and a half years. After spending a year and a half recovering from his near death experience, Major Wray retired honorably with a medical discharge. He received several awards and medals including the Silver Star and Purple Heart.[24]

Retired Master Sergeant Lewis A. Hazel, 94, of Savannah, Georgia, is also a survivor. He was a Corporal (CPL) and in the 27th Bomb Group, 16th Bomb Squadron. [25]

War crimes trial

U. S. Army personnel toiled to identify the charred remains of Americans captured at Bataan and Corregidor and burned alive on Palawan. Picture shows charred remains being interred in grave. March 20, 1945

In December 1943, (General) Masaharu Homma was selected as the minister of information for the incoming prime minister, Kuniaki Koiso. In September 1945, he was arrested by Allied troops, and indicted for war crimes.[26] Homma was charged with 43 different counts of crimes against humanity.[27] The court found that Homma had permitted his troops to commit "brutal atrocities and other high crimes".[28] The general, who had been absorbed in his efforts to capture Corregidor after the fall of Bataan, claimed in his defense that he remained ignorant of the high death toll of the death march until two months after the event.[29] On February 26, 1946, he was sentenced to death by firing squad. He was executed on April 3, 1946, outside Manila.[26] Also in Japan, Generals Hideki Tōjō (later Prime Minister), Kenji Doihara, Seishirō Itagaki, Heitarō Kimura, Iwane Matsui and Akira Mutō, and Baron Kōki Hirota were found guilty and responsible for the brutal maltreatment of American and Filipino POWs, and were executed by hanging at Sugamo Prison in Ikebukuro on December 23, 1948. Several others were sentenced to imprisonment of between 7 and 22 years.[citation needed]

Memorials and commemorative events

Death March (95th Km.) marker, Bacolor, Pampanga (where the Filipinos passed).

Dozens of memorials (including monuments, plaques and schools) dedicated to the prisoners who died during the Bataan Death March exist across the United States and in the Philippines. A wide variety of commemorative events are held to honor the victims, including holidays, athletic events such as ultramarathons, and memorial ceremonies held at military cemeteries.

The Bataan Death March had a large impact on the state of New Mexico. Eighteen hundred New Mexico soldiers from the 200th/515th Coast Artillery of the National Guard were deployed to the Philippines in World War II. Only half these soldiers survived, and within a few years after the war almost one half more had died. The New Mexico National Guard Bataan Memorial Museum is located in the Armory where the soldiers of the 200th and 515th were processed before their deployment to the Philippines in 1941. Every year, in early spring, a rigorous 26.2-mile march/run is conducted at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, in honor of the service members who defended the Philippine Islands during World War II. As of May 2012 there were 60 survivors, 31 of whom reside in New Mexico. Many of these survivors were teens at the time and had lied about their ages to gain entry into the military. The oldest living survivor died at the age of 105 in 2011.

See also

References

  1. ^ Hubbard, Preston John (1990). Apocalypse Undone: My Survival of Japanese Imprisonment During World War II. Vanderbilt University Press. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-8265-1401-1. http://books.google.com/books?id=nucrbGjY_GoC&pg=PA87.
  2. ^ Bilek, Anton (Tony) (2003). No Uncle Sam: The Forgotten of Bataan. Kent State University Press. p. 51. ISBN 0-87338-768-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=5q3Mk6Bx0lsC&pg=PA51.
  3. ^ "Bataan Death March. Britannica Encyclopedia Online". Britannica.com. 1942-04-09. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9013704/Bataan-Death-March#84289. Retrieved 2012-12-17.
  4. ^ a b Stanley L. Falk, Bataan: The March of Death (NY: Norton, 1962).
  5. ^ a b c d e Lansford, Tom (2001). "Bataan Death March". In Sandler, Stanley. World War II in the Pacific: an encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. pp. 159–160. ISBN 978-0-8153-1883-5. http://books.google.com/books?id=K-027Yrx12UC&pg=PA159.
  6. ^ a b Norman, Michael and Norman, Elizabeth. Tears in the Darkness (revised ed.). Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 978-0374272609.
  7. ^ Lansford, Tom (2001). "Bataan Death March". In Sandler, Stanley. World War II in the Pacific: an encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. pp. 157–158. ISBN 978-0-8153-1883-5. http://books.google.com/books?id=K-027Yrx12UC&pg=PA157.
  8. ^ Adams, John A. & Bush, George H.W. (2008). Texas Aggies go to war: in service of their country. Texas A&M University Press. pp. 89–91. ISBN 978-1-60344-077-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=kq0cfayp6lIC&pg=PT88.
  9. ^ U.S. Congressional Representative Rohrabacher, "Paying Homage to a Special Group of Veterans, Survivors of Bataan and Corregidor", Congressional Record – House, V. 147, Pt. 9, June 26, 2001, p. 11980-11985, at p. 11981
  10. ^ Greenberger, Robert. The Bataan Death March: World War II Prisoners in the Pacific. 2009, p. 40[verification needed]
  11. ^ Doyle, Robert C. (2010). The enemy in our hands: America's treatment of enemy prisoners of war from the Revolution to the War on Terror. University Press of Kentucky. p. xii. ISBN 978-0-8131-2589-3. http://books.google.com/books?id=ZBryc3ANF6IC&pg=PR12.
  12. ^ Hoyt, Eugene P. (2004). Bataan: a survivor's story. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 125. ISBN 978-0-8061-3582-3. http://books.google.com/?id=BBmpW0_6MTYC.
  13. ^ {* Stewart, Sidney. Give Us This Day (revised ed.). W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-31921-0.
  14. ^ Downs, William David (2004). The Fighting Tigers: the untold stories behind the names on the Ouachita Baptist University WWII memorial. University of Arkansas Press. pp. 106–107. ISBN 978-0-9713470-5-2. http://books.google.com/books?id=mMMSFJ0EJMMC&pg=PA106.
  15. ^ John Toland, The Rising Sun: The Decline and Fall of the Japanese Empire 1936–1945 p 300 Random House New York 1970
  16. ^ Nakamae, Hiroshi. "Japan Apologizes To American POWs Who Suffered In Bataan Death March," Nikkei Weekly Online. May 10, 2009.
  17. ^ Associated Press via the Los Angeles Times[dead link]
  18. ^ Jansen, Marius B. (2000). The Making of Modern Japan, p. 655.
  19. ^ Friedland, Roger & Mohr, John (2004). Matters of culture: cultural sociology in practice. Cambridge University Press. p. 197. ISBN 978-0-521-79545-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=8kyPuUoSFKMC&pg=PA197.
  20. ^ Chappell, John David (1997). Before the bomb: how America approached the end of the Pacific War. University of Kentucky Press. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-8131-1987-8. http://books.google.com/books?id=3MbPjwLTt8wC&pg=PA30.
  21. ^ Loftin, John. (2011) "Utah man receives war medals 66 years late," Associated Press. November 13, 2011; "Albert Brown dies at 105; oldest survivor of Bataan Death March," Los Angeles Times. August 17, 2011; Shapiro, T. Rees. "Albert N. Brown, oldest survivor of Bataan Death March, dies at 105," Washington Post. August 16, 2011; excerpt, "Asked how he survived, Dr. Brown said: 'When you saw somebody’s head being chopped off, it stirred up the juices and kept you going;'" retrieved 2011-08-21
  22. ^ "Boyhood walks helped Bataan survivor". Tulsa World. http://www.tulsaworld.com/news/article.aspx?subjectid=11&articleid=20100418_12_A3_Philli686219. Retrieved 2012-12-17.
  23. ^ Bartley, Nancy (February 4, 2012). "New Seattle monument honors bravery of Bataan soldiers". The Seattle Times. http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/localnews/2017426870_veterans05m.html.
  24. ^ "Obituary for Major Robert S. Wray, by Cedar Memorial". Cedarmemorial.com. http://www.cedarmemorial.com/obituary/588977/major-robert-s--wray-marion-iowa/. Retrieved 2012-12-17.
  25. ^ "Japanese WWII POW Camp 17 Roster H". Lindavdahl.com. http://www.lindavdahl.com/Front%20Pages/roster_H.html. Retrieved 2012-12-17.
  26. ^ a b Sandler, Stanley, ed. (2001). "Homma Masaharu (1887–1946)". World War II in the Pacific: an encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. p. 420. ISBN 978-0-8153-1883-5. http://books.google.com/books?id=K-027Yrx12UC&pg=PA420.
  27. ^ Maga, Timothy P. (2001). Judgment at Tokyo: the Japanese war crimes trials. University Press of Kentucky. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-8131-2177-2. http://books.google.com/books?id=EMnN3OyX9h0C&pg=PA21.
  28. ^ Solis, Gary D. (2010). The law of armed conflict: international humanitarian law in war. Cambridge University Press. p. 384. ISBN 978-0-521-87088-7. http://books.google.com/books?id=6FKf0ocxEPAC&pg=PA384.
  29. ^ "The Trial Of General Homma". http://www.americanheritage.com/content/trial-general-homma.

Further reading

External links