Bari

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Bari
Comune
Comune di Bari
A collage of Bari, Top left:Swabian Castle, Top right:Night in Pane e Pomodoro Beach, Bottom left:Ferrarese Square, Bottom upper light:Bari University in Rossi street, Bottom lower right:View of Punta Perotti seaside area
A collage of Bari, Top left:Swabian Castle, Top right:Night in Pane e Pomodoro Beach, Bottom left:Ferrarese Square, Bottom upper light:Bari University in Rossi street, Bottom lower right:View of Punta Perotti seaside area
Flag of Bari
Flag
Coat of arms of Bari
Coat of arms
Bari is located in Italy
Bari
Bari
Location of Bari in Italy
Coordinates: 41°07′31″N 16°52′0″E / 41.12528°N 16.86667°E / 41.12528; 16.86667Coordinates: 41°07′31″N 16°52′0″E / 41.12528°N 16.86667°E / 41.12528; 16.86667
CountryItaly
RegionApulia
ProvinceBari (BA)
Government
 • MayorAntonio Decaro (8/06/2014) (PD)
Area
 • Total116 km2 (45 sq mi)
Elevation5 m (16 ft)
Population (31 December 2010)[1]
 • Total320,475
 • Density2,800/km2 (7,200/sq mi)
DemonymBaresi or Barisans
Time zoneCET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST)CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code70121-70132
Dialing code080
Patron saintSaint Nicholas
Saint dayDecember 6th
WebsiteOfficial website
 
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For other uses, see Bari (disambiguation).
Bari
Comune
Comune di Bari
A collage of Bari, Top left:Swabian Castle, Top right:Night in Pane e Pomodoro Beach, Bottom left:Ferrarese Square, Bottom upper light:Bari University in Rossi street, Bottom lower right:View of Punta Perotti seaside area
A collage of Bari, Top left:Swabian Castle, Top right:Night in Pane e Pomodoro Beach, Bottom left:Ferrarese Square, Bottom upper light:Bari University in Rossi street, Bottom lower right:View of Punta Perotti seaside area
Flag of Bari
Flag
Coat of arms of Bari
Coat of arms
Bari is located in Italy
Bari
Bari
Location of Bari in Italy
Coordinates: 41°07′31″N 16°52′0″E / 41.12528°N 16.86667°E / 41.12528; 16.86667Coordinates: 41°07′31″N 16°52′0″E / 41.12528°N 16.86667°E / 41.12528; 16.86667
CountryItaly
RegionApulia
ProvinceBari (BA)
Government
 • MayorAntonio Decaro (8/06/2014) (PD)
Area
 • Total116 km2 (45 sq mi)
Elevation5 m (16 ft)
Population (31 December 2010)[1]
 • Total320,475
 • Density2,800/km2 (7,200/sq mi)
DemonymBaresi or Barisans
Time zoneCET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST)CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code70121-70132
Dialing code080
Patron saintSaint Nicholas
Saint dayDecember 6th
WebsiteOfficial website

Bari About this sound listen  (Bari dialect: Bare; Latin: Barium; Ancient Greek: Βάριον) is the capital city of the province of Bari and of the Apulia (or, in Italian, Puglia) region, on the Adriatic Sea, in Italy. It is the second most important economic centre of mainland Southern Italy after Naples, and is well known as a port and university city, as well as the city of Saint Nicholas. The city itself has a population of about 320,475, as of 2011, over 116 square kilometres (45 sq mi), while the fast-growing urban area counts 653,028 inhabitants over 203 square kilometres (78 sq mi). The metropolitan area counts 1 million inhabitants.

Bari is made up of four different urban sections. To the north is the closely built old town on the peninsula between two modern harbours, with the Basilica of Saint Nicholas, the Cathedral of San Sabino (1035–1171) and the Hohenstaufen Castle built for Frederick II, which is now also a major nightlife district. To the south is the Murat quarter (erected by Joachim Murat), the modern heart of the city, which is laid out on a rectangular grid-plan with a promenade on the sea and the major shopping district (the via Sparano and via Argiro).

Modern residential zones surround the centre of Bari, the result of chaotic development during the 1960s and 1970s replacing the old suburbs that had developed along roads splaying outwards from gates in the city walls. In addition, the outer suburbs have developed rapidly during the 1990s. The city has a redeveloped airport named after Pope John Paul II, Karol Wojtyła Airport, with connections to several European cities.

History[edit]

Ancient[edit]

The city was probably founded by the Peucetii.[2] Once it passed under Roman rule in the 3rd century BC, it developed strategic significance as the point of junction between the coast road and the Via Traiana and as a port for eastward trade; a branch road to Tarentum led from Barium. Its harbour, mentioned as early as 181 BC, was probably the principal one of the district in ancient times, as it is at present, and was the centre of a fishery.[3] The first historical Bishop of Bari was Gervasius who was noted at the Council of Sardica in 347. The bishops were dependent on the Patriarch of Constantinople until the 10th century.

Middle Ages[edit]

After the devastations of the Gothic Wars, under Lombard rule a set of written regulations was established, the Consuetudines Barenses, which influenced similar written constitutions in other southern cities.

Until the arrival of the Normans, Bari continued to be governed by the Byzantines, with only occasional interruption. Throughout this period, and indeed throughout the Middle Ages, Bari served as one of the major slave depots of the Mediterranean, providing a central location for the trade in Slavic slaves. The slaves were mostly captured by Venice from Dalmatia, the Holy Roman Empire from what is now Prussia and Poland, and the Byzantines from elsewhere in the Balkans, and were generally destined for other parts of the Byzantine Empire and (most frequently) the Muslim states surrounding the Mediterranean: the Abbasid Caliphate, the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba, the Emirate of Sicily, and the Fatimid Caliphate (which relied on Slavs purchased at the Bari market for its legions of Sakalaba Mamluks).[4]

For 20 years, Bari was the center of the Emirate of Bari; the city was captured by its first emirs Kalfun in 847, who had been part of the mercenary garrison installed there by Radelchis I of Benevento.[5] The city was conquered and the Emirate extinguished in 871, due to the efforts of Emperor Louis II and a Byzantine fleet.[6] Chris Wickham states Louis spent five years campaigning to reduce then occupy Bari, "and then only to a Byzantine/Slav naval blockade"; "Louis took the credit" for the success, adding "at least in Frankish eyes", then concludes by noting that by remaining in southern Italy long after this success, he "achieved the near-impossible: an alliance against him of the Beneventans, Salernitans, Neapolitans and Spoletans; later sources include Sawadān as well."[7] In 885, Bari became the residence of the local Byzantine catapan, or governor. The failed revolt (1009–1011) of the Lombard nobles Melus of Bari and his brother-in-law Dattus, against the Byzantine governorate, though it was firmly repressed at the Battle of Cannae (1018), offered their Norman adventurer allies a first foothold in the region. In 1025, under the Archbishop Byzantius, Bari became attached to the see of Rome and was granted "provincial" status.

In 1071, Bari was captured by Robert Guiscard, following a three-year siege. Maio of Bari (died 1160), a Lombard merchant's son, was the third of the great admirals of Norman Sicily. The Basilica di San Nicola was founded in 1087 to receive the relics of this saint, which were surreptitiously brought from Myra in Lycia, in Byzantine territory. The saint began his development from Saint Nicholas of Myra into Saint Nicholas of Bari and began to attract pilgrims, whose encouragement and care became central to the economy of Bari. In 1095 Peter the Hermit preached the first crusade there.[3] In October 1098, Urban II, who had consecrated the Basilica in 1089, convened the Council of Bari, one of a series of synods convoked with the intention of reconciling the Greeks and Latins on the question of the filioque clause in the Creed, which Anselm ably defended, seated at the pope's side. The Greeks were not brought over to the Latin way of thinking, and the Great Schism was inevitable.

A civil war broke out in Bari in 1117 with the murder of the archbishop, Riso. Control of Bari was seized by Grimoald Alferanites, a native Lombard, and he was elected lord in opposition to the Normans. By 1123, he had increased ties with Byzantium and Venice and taken the title gratia Dei et beati Nikolai barensis princeps. Grimoald increased the cult of St Nicholas in his city. He later did homage to Roger II of Sicily, but rebelled and was defeated in 1132.

Bari was occupied by Manuel I Komnenos between 1155 and 1158. In 1246, Bari was sacked and razed to the ground; Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Sicily, repaired the fortress of Baris but it was subsequently destroyed several times. Bari recovered each time.

Early modern period[edit]

Isabella di Aragona, princess of Naples and widow of the Duke of Milan Gian Galeazzo Sforza, enlarged the castle, which she made her residence, 1499–1524. After the death of Bona Sforza, Queen of Poland, Bari came to be included in the Kingdom of Naples and its history contracted to a local one, as malaria became endemic in the region. Bari was awakened from its provincial somnolence by Napoleon's brother-in-law Joachim Murat. As Napoleonic King of Naples, Murat ordered the building in 1808 of a new section of the city, laid out on a rational grid plan, which bears his name today as the Murattiano. Under this stimulus, Bari developed into the most important port city of the region. The legacy of Mussolini can be seen in the imposing architecture along the seafront.

The 1943 chemical warfare disaster[edit]

Further information: Air Raid on Bari

Through a tragic coincidence intended by neither of the opposing sides in World War II, Bari gained the unwelcome distinction of being the only European city to experience chemical warfare in the course of that war.

On the night of December 2, 1943, German Junkers Ju 88 bombers attacked the port of Bari, which was a key supply centre for Allied forces fighting their way up the Italian Peninsula. Several Allied ships were sunk in the overcrowded harbour, including the U.S. Liberty ship John Harvey, which was carrying mustard gas; mustard gas was also reported to have been stacked on the quayside awaiting transport. The chemical agent was intended for use if German forces initiated chemical warfare. The presence of the gas was highly classified, and authorities ashore had no knowledge of it. This increased the number of fatalities, since physicians—who had no idea that they were dealing with the effects of mustard gas—prescribed treatment proper for those suffering from exposure and immersion, which proved fatal in many cases. Because rescuers were unaware they were dealing with gas casualties, many additional casualties were caused among the rescuers through contact with the contaminated skin and clothing of those more directly exposed to the gas.

A member of U.S. General Dwight D. Eisenhower's medical staff, Stewart F. Alexander, was dispatched to Bari following the raid. Alexander had trained at the Army's Edgewood Arsenal in New Jersey, and was familiar with some of the effects of mustard. Although he was not informed of the cargo carried by the SS John Harvey, and most victims suffered atypical symptoms caused by exposure to mustard diluted in water and oil (as opposed to airborne), Alexander rapidly concluded that mustard was present. Although he could not get any acknowledgment from the chain of command, Alexander convinced medical staffs to treat patients for mustard exposure and saved many lives as a result. He also preserved many tissue samples from autopsied victims at Bari. After World War II these samples would result in the development of an early form of chemotherapy based on mustard, Mustine.[8]

On the orders of allied leaders Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill and Eisenhower, records were destroyed and the whole affair was kept secret for many years after the war. The U.S. records of the attack were declassified in 1959, but the episode remained obscure until 1967, when writer Glenn B. Infield exposed the story in his book Disaster at Bari. Additionally, there is considerable dispute as to the number of fatalities. In one account: "[S]ixty-nine deaths were attributed in whole or in part to the mustard gas, most of them American merchant seamen;"[9] Others put the count as high as, "more than one thousand Allied servicemen and more than one thousand Italian civilians."[10] Part of the confusion and controversy derives from the fact that the German attack, which became nicknamed "The Little Pearl Harbor" after the Japanese air attack on the American naval base in Hawaii, was highly destructive and lethal in itself, apart from the effects of the gas. Attribution of the causes of death to the gas, as distinct from the direct effects of the German attack, has proved far from easy.

The affair is the subject of two books: Disaster at Bari, by Glenn B. Infield, and Nightmare in Bari: The World War II Liberty Ship Poison Gas Disaster and Coverup, by Gerald Reminick.

In 1988 through the efforts of Nick T. Spark, U.S. Senator Dennis DeConcini and U.S. Senator Bill Bradley, Dr. Stewart Alexander received recognition from the Surgeon General of the United States Army for his actions during the Bari disaster.[11]

The Balkan Air Force supporting the partisans in Yugoslavia was based at Bari.

Language[edit]

Main article: Bari dialect

Bari, while today an industrialised port and university city, still maintains strong traditions based on its patron Saint Nicholas. Bari is known throughout Italy for its unique, often crude, spoken dialect, particularly in the Old Town, parts of which originated from a pidgin between Italian and Greek fishermen in the past, and which fishermen in Greece can still understand today.

Main sights[edit]

Bari (Lungomare Perotti, old town view).

Basilica of Saint Nicholas[edit]

St. Nicholas Basilica

The Basilica di San Nicola (Saint Nicholas) was founded in 1087 to receive the relics of this saint, which were brought from Myra in Lycia, and now lie beneath the altar in the crypt, where are buried the Topins, which are a legacy of old thieves converted to good faith. The church is one of the four Palatine churches of Apulia (the others being the cathedrals of Acquaviva delle Fonti and Altamura, and the church of Monte Sant'Angelo sul Gargano).[3]

Bari Cathedral[edit]

Bari Cathedral, dedicated to Saint Sabinus of Canosa (San Sabino), was begun in Byzantine style in 1034, but was destroyed in the sack of the city of 1156. A new building was thus built between 1170 and 1178, partially inspired by that of San Nicola. Of the original edifice, only traces of the pavement are today visible in the transept.

An important example of Apulian Romanesque architecture, the church has a simple Romanesque façade with three portals; in the upper part is a rose window decorated with monstruous and fantasy figures. The interior has a nave and two aisles, divided by sixteen columns with arcades. The crypt houses the relics of Saint Sabinus and the icon of the Madonna Odigitria.

The interior and the façade were redecorated in Baroque style during the 18th century, but these additions were removed in a 1950s restoration.

Petruzzelli Theatre[edit]

The Petruzzelli Theatre is one of the grandest opera houses in Italy after La Scala in Milan and the San Carlo Theatre in Naples. Host to many famous opera and ballet greats throughout the 20th century, before the big arson of 27 October 1991, which destroyed it nearly all. The last 4 October 2009, after 18 years, the theatre was reopened.

Swabian Castle[edit]

See also: Castello Svevo
Swabian Castle
Swabian Castle

The Norman-Hohenstaufen Castle, widely known as the Castello Svevo (Swabian Castle), was built by Roger II of Sicily around 1131. Destroyed in 1156, it was rebuilt by Frederick II of Hohenstaufen. The castle now serves as a gallery for a variety of temporary exhibitions in the city.

Pinacoteca Provinciale di Bari[edit]

The Pinacoteca Provinciale di Bari (Provincial Pinacotheca in Bari) is the most important paintings museum in Puglia. It was established in 1928 and there are kept many important paintings from the 15th century to the contemporary art.

The Russian Church[edit]

The Russian Church, in the Carrassi district of Bari, was built in the early 20th century to welcome Russian pilgrims who came to the city to visit the church of Saint Nicholas in the old city where the relics of the saint remain.

Built on a large area of council-owned land, the city council and Italian national government were recently involved in a trade-off with the Putin government in Moscow, exchanging the piece of land on which the church stands, for, albeit indirectly, a military barracks near Bari's central railway station. The hand over was seen as building bridges between the Catholic and Russian Orthodox churches.

Barivecchia[edit]

Barivecchia, or Old Bari, is a sprawl of streets and passageways making up the section of the city to the north of the modern Murat area. Barivecchia was until fairly recently considered a no-go area by many of Bari's residents due to the high levels of petty crime. A large-scale redevelopment plan beginning with a new sewerage system and followed by the development of the two main squares, Piazza Mercantile and Piazza Ferrarese has seen the opening of many pubs and other venues. This has been welcomed by many who claim that the social life of the city, and in particular the experience for tourists in Bari, has been improved and that jobs and revenue have been created. Others point out the effects of late-night noise in the enclosed squares and criticise development based mainly on pubs and other such premises.

A popular and ironic way of saying is: "Se Parigi avesse il mare, sarebbe una piccola Bari" (If Paris had the sea, it would be a little Bari).

Other[edit]

The Teatro Piccinni in Bari
A view of the old port of Bari

Geography[edit]

Quarters[edit]

Quarters of Bari
MunicipalityQuarters
IPalese Macchie & Santo Spirito-Catino-San Pio
IISan Paolo & Stanic
IIIPicone & Poggiofranco
IVCarbonara-Santa Rita, Ceglie del Campo & Loseto
VJapigia, Torre a Mare & San Giorgio
VICarrassi, San Pasquale & Mungivacca
VIIMadonnella
VIIILibertà & Marconi-San Girolamo-Fesca
IXMurat & San Nicola

Shown above are the twenty quarters of Bari: these twenty neighbourhoods or "quartiere" as they are known, are further divided into nine governmental community boards.[12]

Climate[edit]

Bari enjoys a Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa) with mild winters and hot, dry summers.

Climate data for Bari Karol Wojtyła Airport
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)24.0
(75.2)
24.0
(75.2)
27.2
(81)
32.6
(90.7)
39.1
(102.4)
41.4
(106.5)
43.3
(109.9)
44.8
(112.6)
39.0
(102.2)
35.2
(95.4)
26.8
(80.2)
23.0
(73.4)
44.8
(112.6)
Average high °C (°F)12.6
(54.7)
12.9
(55.2)
15.0
(59)
18.0
(64.4)
22.8
(73)
26.8
(80.2)
29.2
(84.6)
29.2
(84.6)
25.9
(78.6)
21.5
(70.7)
16.8
(62.2)
13.9
(57)
20.38
(68.68)
Daily mean °C (°F)8.8
(47.8)
8.9
(48)
10.7
(51.3)
13.3
(55.9)
17.8
(64)
21.8
(71.2)
24.3
(75.7)
24.3
(75.7)
21.1
(70)
17.1
(62.8)
12.7
(54.9)
10.1
(50.2)
15.91
(60.62)
Average low °C (°F)4.9
(40.8)
4.8
(40.6)
6.3
(43.3)
8.6
(47.5)
12.9
(55.2)
16.7
(62.1)
19.3
(66.7)
19.4
(66.9)
16.3
(61.3)
12.6
(54.7)
8.6
(47.5)
6.2
(43.2)
11.38
(52.48)
Record low °C (°F)−5.9
(21.4)
−3
(27)
−2.4
(27.7)
1.1
(34)
5.3
(41.5)
7.8
(46)
12.8
(55)
12.8
(55)
8.4
(47.1)
1.0
(33.8)
0.0
(32)
−1.6
(29.1)
−5.9
(21.4)
Precipitation mm (inches)53.7
(2.114)
64.2
(2.528)
42.0
(1.654)
40.5
(1.594)
34.9
(1.374)
23.3
(0.917)
25.4
(1)
30.4
(1.197)
59.7
(2.35)
61.5
(2.421)
72.7
(2.862)
54.3
(2.138)
562.6
(22.149)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1 mm)6.77.76.86.25.23.72.63.55.06.37.77.168.5
 % humidity77747268686564656872767870.6
Source #1: Servizio Meteorologico (1971–2000 data)[13]
Source #2: Servizio Meteorologico (1961–1990 data on humidity)[14]

Fiera del Levante[edit]

The Fiera del Levante is said to be the largest trade fair in the Adriatic and involves exhibitions from many sectors and industries. Held in September in the Fiera site on the west side of Bari city center, the Fiera attracts many exhibitors from Italy, around the Mediterranean, its trade corridors to the east and beyond. Mainly focused on agriculture and industry, there are also stalls, exhibitions and presentations by a wide variety of companies and organizations in many fields. There is also a "Fair of Nations" which displays handcrafted and locally produced goods from all over the world.

This year's Fiera also saw an "Expo Fishing" which brought together fishing methods, tackle and know-how from across the Mediterranean.

Cuisine and gastronomy[edit]

A dish of orecchiette.

Bari's cuisine, one of Italy's most traditional and noteworthy, is based on three typical agricultural products found within the surrounding Puglia region, namely wheat, olive oil and wine. Bari cuisine is also enriched by the wide variety of fruit and vegetables produced locally. Local flour is used in homemade bread and pasta production including, most notably, the famous orecchiette ear-shaped pasta, recchietelle or strascinate, chiancarelle (orecchiette of different sizes) and cavatelli.

Homemade dough is also used for baked calzoni stuffed with onions, anchovies, capers and olives; fried panzerotti with mozzarella, simple focaccia alla barese with tomatoes, little savoury taralli, friselle and sgagliozze, fried slices of polenta all make up the Bari culinary reportoire.

Olive oil and garlic are widely in use. Vegetable minestrone, chick peas, broad beans, chickory, celery and fennel are also often served as first courses or side dishes.

Meat dishes and the local Barese ragù often include lamb and pork.

Pasta al forno, a baked pasta dish, is very popular in Bari and was historically a Sunday dish, or a dish used at the start of Lent when all the rich ingredients such as eggs and pork had to be used for religious reasons. The recipe commonly consists of penne or similar tubular pasta shapes, a tomato sauce, small beef and pork meatballs and halved hard boiled eggs; but different families have variations. The pasta is then topped with mozzarella or similar cheese and then baked in the oven to make the dish have its trademark crispy texture.

Bari, being the capital of an important fishing area, offers a range of fresh fish and seafood, often eaten raw. Octopus, sea urchins and mussels feature heavily. Indeed, perhaps Bari's most famous dish is the oven-baked Riso, patate e cozze (rice, with potatoes and mussels).

Bari and its province, not to mention the Puglia region, have a range of notable wines including Primitivo, Castel del Monte and Moscato di Trani.

Administrative divisions[edit]

Bari is separated into nine administrative divisions:

Sport[edit]

Local football club A.S. Bari, currently competing in Serie B, plays in the impressive Stadio San Nicola, an architecturally innovative 58,000-seater stadium purpose-built for the 1990 FIFA World Cup. The stadium also hosted the 1991 European Cup Final.

Demographics[edit]

In 2007, there were 325,052 people residing in Bari (about 1.6 million live in the greater Bari area), located in the province of Bari, Puglia, of whom 48.1% were male and 51.9% were female. Minors (children ages 18 and younger) totaled 17.90 percent of the population compared to pensioners who number 19.08 percent. This compares with the Italian average of 18.06 percent (minors) and 19.94 percent (pensioners). The average age of Bari residents is 42 compared to the Italian average of 42. In the five years between 2002 and 2007, the population of Bari grew by 2.69 percent, while Italy as a whole grew by 3.56 percent.[15][16] The current birth rate of Bari is 8.67 births per 1,000 inhabitants compared to the Italian average of 9.45 births.

As of 2006, 98.34% of the population was of Italian descent. The largest immigrant group came from other European nations (particularly those from Albania and Greece): 0.68% and East Africa: 0.42%. Immigrants from North Africa and East Asia make up an even smaller portion of the population.

Transport[edit]

Bari has its own airport, Bari Karol Wojtyła Airport, which is located 8 km (5.0 mi) northwest of the centre of Bari. It is connected to the centre by train services from Bari Aeroporto railway station.

Bari Central Station is connected to cities such as Rome, Milan, Bologna, Turin and Venice. Regional services also operate to Foggia, Barletta, Brindisi, Lecce, Taranto and other towns and villages in the Apulia region.

Notable people[edit]

International relations[edit]

Twin towns—Sister cities[edit]

Bari is twinned with:

In popular culture[edit]

Bari is mentioned in the 1995 film The Bridges of Madison County starring Clint Eastwood and Meryl Streep. In the film Francesca tells Robert that she comes from a town nobody ever heard of called Bari. But he tells her that he has been to Bari and that he got off the train at Bari because it looked pretty.

The Guido Guerrieri novels by Gianrico Carofiglio are set in Bari where Guerrieri is a criminal lawyer, and have frequent descriptions of the town.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 'City' population (i.e. that of the comune or municipality) from demographic balance: January–April 2009, ISTAT.
  2. ^ Pagano, Alessandro (2012). "History of Bari - Ancient and Mediaeval times". esebari.it. Retrieved 8 February 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Bari". Encyclopædia Britannica 3 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 
  4. ^ The Cartoon History of the Universe III – From the Rise of Arabia to the Renaissance (Volumes 14–19). Doubleday. 2002. ISBN 0-393-32403-6. 
  5. ^ Chris Wickham, Early Medieval Italy: Central Power and Local Society 400 - 1000 (Totowa: Barnes and Noble, 1981), pp. 62, 154
  6. ^ The Italian Cities and the Arabs before 1095, Hilmar C. Krueger, A History of the Crusades: The First Hundred Years, Vol.I, ed. Kenneth Meyer Setton, Marshall W. Baldwin, (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1955), 48.
  7. ^ Wickham, Early Medieval Italy, p. 62
  8. ^ Disaster at Bari by Glenn Infield, 1967. ISBN 978-0-450-02659-1
  9. ^ US Naval Historical Center report
  10. ^ Amazon book summary of Nightmare in Bari: The World War II Liberty Ship Poison Gas Disaster and Coverup by Gerald Reminick
  11. ^ Mohave Daily Miner, May 20, 1988, article entitled "Tucson Senior Helps Retired Doctor Receive Military Honor" http://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=943&dat=19880520&id=-61PAAAAIBAJ&sjid=eVMDAAAAIBAJ&pg=3824,2173744
  12. ^ "Quartieri". Palapa.it. 8 January 2008. 
  13. ^ "Bari/Palese (BA) 44 m. s.l.m. (a.s.l.)". Servizio Meteorologico. Retrieved 7 September 2013. 
  14. ^ "Stazione 270 Bari, medie mensili periodo 61 - 90". Servizio Meteorologico. Retrieved 7 September 2013. 
  15. ^ "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT". Demo.istat.it. Archived from the original on 27 April 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  16. ^ "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT". Demo.istat.it. Archived from the original on 26 April 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  17. ^ "Градови партнери" [City of Banja Luka - Partner cities]. Administrative Office of the City of Banja Luka (in Serbian). Archived from the original on 2011-09-17. Retrieved 2013-08-09. 
  18. ^ "Batumi - Twin Towns & Sister Cities". Batumi City Hall. Archived from the original on 2012-05-04. Retrieved 2013-08-10. 
  19. ^ "Guangzhou Sister Cities[via WaybackMachine.com]". Guangzhou Foreign Affairs Office. Archived from the original on 24 October 2012. Retrieved 2013-07-21. 
  20. ^ "Twin-cities of Azerbaijan". Azerbaijans.com. Retrieved 2013-08-09. 
  21. ^ "Kontakty partnerskie Miasta Szczecin". Urząd Miasta Szczecin (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2012-08-18. Retrieved 2013-07-29. 

Further reading[edit]

Published in the 19th century
Published in the 20th century
Published in the 21st century

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