Barbara Hershey

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Barbara Hershey
Barbara Hershey - 1981 promo.jpg
Hershey in 1981
BornBarbara Lynn Herzstein
(1948-02-05) February 5, 1948 (age 66)
Hollywood, California,
United States
OccupationActress
Years active1965–present
Spouse(s)Stephen Douglas
(1992–1993; divorced)
Partner(s)David Carradine
(1972–1975)
Naveen Andrews
(1999–2010)
Children1
 
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Not to be confused with Judge Barbara Hershey, a fictional character in the Judge Dredd series.
Barbara Hershey
Barbara Hershey - 1981 promo.jpg
Hershey in 1981
BornBarbara Lynn Herzstein
(1948-02-05) February 5, 1948 (age 66)
Hollywood, California,
United States
OccupationActress
Years active1965–present
Spouse(s)Stephen Douglas
(1992–1993; divorced)
Partner(s)David Carradine
(1972–1975)
Naveen Andrews
(1999–2010)
Children1

Barbara Hershey (born Barbara Lynn Herzstein; February 5, 1948),[1] once known as Barbara Seagull,[2] is an American actress. In a career spanning nearly 50 years, she has played a variety of roles on television and in cinema, in several genres including westerns and comedies. She began acting at age 17 in 1965, but did not achieve much critical acclaim until the latter half of the 1980s. By that time, the Chicago Tribune referred to her as "one of America's finest actresses."[3]

Hershey won an Emmy and a Golden Globe for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Miniseries/TV Film for her role in A Killing in a Small Town (1990). She has also received Golden Globe nominations for Best Supporting Actress for her role as Mary Magdalene in Martin Scorsese's The Last Temptation of Christ (1988) and for her role in Jane Campion's Portrait of a Lady (1996). For the latter film, she was also nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress and won the Los Angeles Film Critics Award for Best Supporting Actress. In addition, she has won two Best Actress awards at the Cannes Film Festival for her roles in Shy People (1987) and A World Apart (1988). She also featured in Woody Allen's critically acclaimed Hannah and Her Sisters (1986), for which she was nominated for the British Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress, Garry Marshall's melodrama Beaches (1988) and she earned a second British Academy Award nomination for Darren Aronofsky's Black Swan (2010).

Establishing a reputation early in her career as a "hippie," Hershey experienced conflict between her personal life and her acting goals. Her career suffered a decline during a six-year relationship with actor David Carradine, with whom she had a child. She experimented with a change in stage name that she later regretted. During this time her personal life was highly publicized and ridiculed.[4] It was not until she separated from Carradine and changed her stage name back to Hershey that her acting career became well established.[5][6] Later in her career, she began to keep her personal life private.[4][7]

Early life[edit]

Barbara Herzstein was born in Hollywood, California. She is the daughter of Melrose (née Moore) and Arnold Nathan Herzstein.[8] Her father, a horse racing columnist, was Jewish (his parents emigrated from Hungary and Russia)[9] and her mother, a native of Arkansas, was a Presbyterian of Irish descent.[10][11] The youngest of three children, Barbara always wanted to be an actress. Her family nicknamed her "Sarah Bernhardt". She was shy in school and so quiet that people thought she was deaf. By the age of 10 she proved herself to be an "A" student. Her high school drama coach helped her find an agent and in 1965, at age 17, she landed a role on Sally Field's television series, Gidget. She said that she found Field to be very supportive of her in her first acting role.[12] According to The New York Times All Movie Guide, she graduated from Hollywood High School in 1966,[13] but David Carradine, in his autobiography, said she dropped out of high school after she began acting.[8]

Barbara's acting debut, three episodes of Gidget, was followed by the short-lived television series, The Monroes (1966), which also featured Michael Anderson, Jr.. At this point, she had adopted the stage name of Hershey.[14] Although she said that the series helped her career, she expressed some frustration with her role saying, "One week I was strong, the next, weak".[15] While on the series, Hershey garnered several other roles, including one in Doris Day's final feature film, With Six You Get Eggroll.[15]

Career[edit]

1960s[edit]

In 1969 Hershey co-starred in the Glenn Ford western Heaven with a Gun. On the set, she met and began a romantic relationship with actor David Carradine,[8] who later starred in the television series Kung Fu (see Personal Life). In the same year, she acted in the controversial drama Last Summer, which was based on the novel by Evan Hunter. Hershey played Sandy in this film, the "heavy," influencing two young men, played by Bruce Davison and Richard Thomas, to rape another girl, Rhoda, played by Catherine Burns. Even though the film, directed by Frank Perry, received an X rating for the graphic rape scene, it earned a Best Supporting Actress Oscar nomination for Burns.[16]

During the filming of Last Summer, a seagull was killed. "In one scene," Hershey explained, "I had to throw the bird in the air to make her fly. We had to reshoot the scene over and over again. I could tell the bird was tired. Finally when the scene was finished the director, Frank Perry, told me the bird had broken her neck on the last throw."[2] Hershey felt responsible for the bird's death and changed her stage name to "Seagull," as a tribute to the creature. "I felt her spirit enter me," she later explained. "It was the only moral thing to do."[12] The name change was not positively received. When she was offered a part opposite Timothy Bottoms in The Crazy World of Julius Vrooder (1974) (AKA Vrooder's Hooch) Hershey had to forfeit half her salary, $25,000, to be billed under the name "Seagull," because the producers were not in favor of the billing.[2][17]

1970s[edit]

In 1970 Hershey played Tish Grey in The Baby Maker, a film that explored surrogate motherhood. Criticizing the directing and writing of James Bridges, critic Shirley Rigby said of the "bizarre" film, "Only the performances in the film save it from being a total travesty." Rigby went on to say, "Barbara Hershey is a great little actress, much, much more than just another pretty face."[18]

Hershey once said that starring in Boxcar Bertha (1972), "was the most fun I ever had on a movie."[19] The film co-starred Hershey's domestic partner, David Carradine. Produced by Roger Corman, the film was Martin Scorsese's first Hollywood picture. Shot in 6 weeks on a budget of $600,000, Boxcar Bertha was intended to be a period crime drama similar to Corman's Bloody Mama (1970), or Bonnie and Clyde (1967). Although Corman publicized it as an exploitation piece with plenty of sex and violence, Scorsese's influence made it "something much more."[19] Roger Ebert, of the Chicago Sun Times, said of the film's direction, "Martin Scorsese has gone for mood and atmosphere more than for action, and his violence is always blunt and unpleasant—never liberating and exhilarating, as the New Violence is supposed to be."[19] A spread recreating sexually explicit scenes from the movie appeared in Playboy magazine in 1972.[19][20]

Hershey's experience with Scorsese would extend to another major role for her 16 years later, in The Last Temptation of Christ (1988) as Mary Magdalene. During the filming of Boxcar Bertha, Hershey had introduced Scorsese to the Nikos Kazantzakis novel on which the latter film was based.[18][19] That collaboration resulted in an Academy Award nomination for the director[21] and a Golden Globe nod for Hershey.

By the mid-1970s Hershey stated, "I've been so tied up with David [Carradine] that people have forgotten that I am me. I spend 50 percent of my time working with David."[5] She had, in 1974, guest-starred in a two-part episode of Carradine's television series, Kung Fu. She played, under the direction of Carradine, a love interest to his character, Kwai Chang Caine, during his time at the Shaolin temple. She also appeared in two of Carradine's independent directorial projects, You and Me (1975) and Americana (1983), both of which had been filmed in 1973.[6] Her father, Arnold Herzstein, also appeared in Americana. She publicly acknowledged the desire to be recognized in her own right and later in 1974 she did just that, winning a Gold Medal at the Atlanta Film Festival for her role in the Dutch-produced film, Love Comes Quietly.[5]

Later in the decade, Hershey starred with Charlton Heston in The Last Hard Men (1976). She hoped the film would revive her career after the damage she felt it had suffered while she was with Carradine. She believed that the hippie label she had been given was a career impediment. By this time she had shed Carradine and her "Seagull" pseudonym.[22] Throughout the rest of the 1970s, however, she was appearing in made-for-TV movies that were described as "forgettable",[23] like Flood! (1976), Sunshine Christmas (1977) and The Glitter Palace (1977), in which she played a lesbian.[24]

1980s[edit]

When Hershey landed a role in Richard Rush's The Stunt Man (1980), it marked a return to the big screen after four years,[12] and earned her critical praise.[25] Hershey felt that she would be forever in debt to Rush for fighting with financiers to allow her a part in that film.[23] She also felt that The Stunt Man was an important transition for her, from playing girls to playing women.[23]

Some of the "women roles" that followed The Stunt Man included the horror movie The Entity (1982); Philip Kaufman's The Right Stuff (1983), in which she played Glennis Yeager, wife of test pilot Chuck Yeager; and The Natural (1984), in which she shot Robert Redford's character. For the role of Harriet Bird, Hershey had chosen a particular hat as her "anchor".[23] Director Barry Levinson disagreed with her choice, but she insisted on wearing it. Levinson later cast Hershey as the wife of Danny DeVito's character in the comedy Tin Men (1987).[23]

In 1986 Hershey left her native California and moved with her son to Manhattan. Three days later, she met briefly with Woody Allen, who offered her the role of Lee in Hannah and Her Sisters (1986). In addition to a Manhattan apartment, Hershey also bought an antique home in rural Connecticut.[26] The Woody Allen picture won three Academy Awards and a Golden Globe. The film also earned Hershey a BAFTA nomination for Best Actress in a Supporting Role. She described her part in this as "a wonderful gift".[23]

Hershey followed Hannah and Her Sisters with back-to-back wins for Best Actress at the Cannes Film Festival for Shy People[4][27] and for her appearance as anti-apartheid activist Diana Roth in A World Apart (1988).[4] Her character in the latter film was based on Ruth First.[28] Also in the 1980s, she portrayed Errol Flynn's first wife, actress Lili Damita, in the TV movie My Wicked, Wicked Ways (1985), which was based on Flynn's autobiography. She also played the love interest to Gene Hackman's character in the basketball film Hoosiers (1986).

Barbara Cloud, of the Pittsburgh Press, gave attribution to Barbara Hershey for starting a trend when she had collagen injected into her lips for her role in Beaches (1988).[29] Humorist Erma Bombeck said of the movie, which also starred Bette Midler, "I have no idea what Beaches was all about. All I could focus on was Barbara Hershey's lips. She looked like she stopped off at a gas station and someone said, 'Your lips are down 30 pounds. Better let me hit 'em with some air'."[30]

1990s[edit]

In 1990, Hershey won an Emmy and a Golden Globe, for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Miniseries or Special for her role as Candy Morrison in A Killing in a Small Town, which was based on the acquittal of Candy Montgomery for the death of Betty Gore. Montgomery had killed Gore, on Friday June 13, 1980, in her Wylie, Texas, home, by hitting her 41 times with an ax. The jury determined that she did so in self-defense.[31] In preparation for the part, Hershey had a phone conversation with Montgomery.[32] Many of the names of the real-life principals in the case were changed for the movie. The film's alternative title was Evidence of Love, the name of a 1984 book about the case. Also in 1990, Hershey drew upon what Woody Allen once described as her "erotic overtones,"[33] portraying a woman who falls in love with her much younger nephew, by marriage, played by Keanu Reeves, in the comedic Tune in Tomorrow.[33]

In 1991 Hershey played Hanna Trout, the wife of the title character in Paris Trout (1991), a made-for-cable television movie. In this Showtime production, Hershey collaborated again with A Killing in a Small Town director Stephen Gyllenhaal to play a woman who has an affair with her husband's lawyer. Her husband, an abusive bigot, played by Dennis Hopper, is on trial for murdering a young African American girl.[34] The film, which was based on the 1988 National Book Award winning novel by Pete Dexter, featured Hopper and Hershey enacting a graphic rape scene that the actress found difficult to view. The picture was described as a "dramatic reach deep into the dark hollows of racism, abuse and murder."[35] Paris Trout was nominated for five Prime Time Emmy Awards, including nods for both Hershey and Hopper. Later in the year, she played an attorney defending her college roommate for the murder of her husband in the suspenseful whodunit Defenseless (1991).[36]

Because of her frequent television appearances, by the end of 1991, Hershey was accused of "selling out to the small screen".[36] In 1992 Hershey appeared with Jane Alexander in the ABC miniseries Stay the Night (1992), causing Associated Press writer Jerry Buck to write, "Barbara Hershey is a person who jumps back and forth between features and television very easily".[37] She starred in another TV miniseries in 1993, succeeding Anjelica Huston, as Clara Allen in the sequel series Return to Lonesome Dove.[38] She was nominated for a Golden Satellite Award for another TV appearance, The Staircase (1998). Between 1999 and 2000, she played Dr. Francesca Alberghetti in 22 episodes of the sixth season of the medical TV drama Chicago Hope.[39]

Among her feature film appearances during the 1990s was Jane Campion's adaptation of the Henry James novel The Portrait of a Lady (1996). Hershey earned an Oscar nomination,[40] and won the Best Supporting Actress award from the National Society of Film Critics for her role as Madame Serena Merle in that picture.[41] In 1999 Hershey starred in an independent film called Drowning on Dry Land; during production she met co-star Naveen Andrews, with whom she began a romantic relationship that lasted until 2010 (see Personal life).[42]

2000s[edit]

In 2001 Hershey appeared in the psychological thriller Lantana (2001). She was the only American in a mostly Australian cast, which included Kerry Armstrong, Anthony LaPaglia, and Geoffrey Rush.[43] Film writer Sheila Johnson said that the film was "one of the best to emerge from Australia in years."[44] Another thriller followed in 2003. 11:14 (2003) also featured Rachael Leigh Cook, Patrick Swayze, Hilary Swank and Colin Hanks.[45]

Hershey continued to appear on television during the 2000s, including a season on the series The Mountain. She also starred as Anne Shirley as an adult in Anne of Green Gables: A New Beginning (2008).

2010s[edit]

Hershey appeared as an American actress, Mrs. Hubbard, in an adaptation of Agatha Christie's Murder on the Orient Express for the British television series Poirot starring David Suchet, which aired in the United States on Public Broadcast Service (PBS) in July, 2010.[46] Also in 2010, Hershey co-starred in Darren Aronofsky's acclaimed psychological thriller Black Swan (2010), opposite Natalie Portman and Mila Kunis. The following year she co-starred in the James Wan horror film Insidious (2011).[47] From 2012-2013, she had a recurring role in the first two seasons of ABC's hit drama, Once Upon a Time, as Cora, the mother of the Evil Queen.[48] In 2014, she reprised the role in one episode of the shows spin-off Once Upon a Time in Wonderland.

Personal life[edit]

Hershey at the Toronto International Film Festival, September 13, 2010

In 1969 Barbara Hershey met David Carradine while they were working on Heaven With a Gun.[8] The pair began a domestic relationship that would last until 1975.[49] Carradine said that during the rape scene in that movie he cracked one of Barbara's ribs.[50] They appeared in other films together including Martin Scorsese's Boxcar Bertha. In 1972, the couple posed together in a nude Playboy spread, recreating some sex scenes from Boxcar Bertha.[20] Later in 1972, Hershey gave birth to their son, Free, who changed his name to Tom when he was nine years old.[51] The relationship fell apart, around the time of Carradine's 1974 burglary arrest,[52] after he had begun an affair with Season Hubley who had guest starred in Kung Fu.[53]

During this period, Hershey changed her stage name to "Seagull." A blunt newspaper article from the Knight News Service, in 1979, referenced this period of her life saying of her acting career, "it looked as if she blew it."[54] The article referred to Hershey as a "kook" and stated that she was frequently "high on something."[54] In addition to that criticism, she had been ostracized for breast-feeding her son during an appearance on The Dick Cavett Show,[2][12][55] and for breast-feeding him beyond the age of two years old.[22] She said that this period of her life hurt her career; "Producers wouldn't see me because I had a reputation for using drugs and being undependable. I never used drugs at all and I have always been serious about my acting career."[6] After splitting up with Carradine, she changed her stage name back to "Hershey," explaining that she had told the story of why she adopted the name "Seagull" so many times that it had lost its meaning.[6]

By the time Hershey was 42, she was described by columnist Luaina Lee as a "private person who was mired in some heavy publicity when she first became a professional actress."[7] Yardena Arar, writing for the Los Angeles Daily News, confirmed that Hershey had become a private person by 1990.[4] On August 8, 1992, she married artist Stephen Douglas. The ceremony took place at her home in Oxford, Connecticut, where the only guests were their two mothers and Hershey's son, Tom (né Free) Carradine, who was 19 years old at the time.[56] They were separated and divorced one year after wedding.[57] Hershey began dating actor Naveen Andrews in 1999.[42] During a brief separation in 2005, Andrews fathered a child with another woman.[58] In May 2010, after Andrews won sole custody of his son, the couple announced that they had ended their 12-year relationship six months earlier.[59]

Filmography[edit]

Film[edit]

YearTitleRoleNotes
1968With Six You Get EggrollStacey Iverson
1969Heaven with a GunLeloopa
1969Last SummerSandy
1970Liberation of L.B. Jones, TheThe Liberation of L.B. JonesNella Mundine
1970Baby Maker, TheThe Baby MakerTish Gray
1971Pursuit of Happiness, TheThe Pursuit of HappinessJane Kauffman
1972Dealing: or the Berkeley-to-Boston
Forty-Brick Lost-Bag Blues
Susan
1972Boxcar BerthaBoxcar Bertha
1973Love Comes QuietlyAngela
1974Crazy World of Julius Vrooder, TheThe Crazy World of Julius VrooderZanni
1975DiamondsSally
1976Last Hard Men, TheThe Last Hard MenSusan Burgade
1976Dirty Knight's Work, AA Dirty Knight's WorkMarion Evans
1976Flood!Mary CutlerTelevision movie
1977In the Glitter PalaceEllen LangeTelevision movie
1977Just a Little InconvenienceNikki KlausingTelevision movie
1977Sunshine ChristmasCody BlanksTelevision movie
1979Man Called Intrepid, AA Man Called IntrepidMadelaineTelevision movie
1980Angel on My ShoulderJulieTelevision movie
1980Stunt Man, TheThe Stunt ManNina Franklin
1981Take This Job and Shove ItJ.M. Halstead
1982Entity, TheThe EntityCarla Moran
1982Twilight TheatreVariousTelevision movie
1983Right Stuff, TheThe Right StuffGlennis Yeager
1984Natural, TheThe NaturalHarriet Bird
1985My Wicked, Wicked Ways: The Legend of Errol FlynnLili DamitaTelevision movie
1986Hannah and Her SistersLeeNominated—BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Supporting Role
Nominated—National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Supporting Actress
1986Passion FlowerJulia GaitlandTelevision movie
1986HoosiersMyra Fleener
1987Tin MenNora Tilley
1987Shy PeopleRuthChicago Film Critics Association Award for Best Actress
1988World Apart, AA World ApartDiana RothNominated—National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Actress
1988Last Temptation of Christ, TheThe Last Temptation of ChristMary MagdaleneNominated—Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actress – Motion Picture
1988BeachesHillary Whitney Essex
1990Tune in Tomorrow...Aunt Julia
1990Killing in a Small Town, AA Killing in a Small TownCandy MorrisonTelevision movie
Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Miniseries or Television Film
Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Miniseries or a Movie
1991Paris TroutHanna Trout
1991DefenselessThelma 'T.K. Knudsen Katwuller
1992Stay the NightJimmie Sue FingerTelevision movie
1992Public Eye, TheThe Public EyeKay Levitz
1993Falling DownElizabeth "Beth" Travino
1993Swing KidsFrau Müller
1993AbrahamSarahTelevision movie
1993Splitting HeirsDuchess Lucinda
1993Dangerous Woman, AA Dangerous WomanFrances
1995Last of the DogmenProf. Lillian Diane Sloan
1996Pallbearer, TheThe PallbearerRuth Abernathy
1996Portrait of a Lady, TheThe Portrait of a LadyMadame Serena MerleLos Angeles Film Critics Association Award for Best Supporting Actress
National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Supporting Actress
Nominated—Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress
Nominated—Chicago Film Critics Association Award for Best Supporting Actress
Nominated—Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actress – Motion Picture
Nominated—New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Supporting Actress
1998Frogs for SnakesEva Santana
1998Staircase, TheThe StaircaseMother MadalynTelevision movie
Nominated—Satellite Award for Best Actress – Miniseries or Television Film
1998Soldier's Daughter Never Cries, AA Soldier's Daughter Never CriesMarcella Willis
1999Breakfast of ChampionsCelia Hoover
1999PassionRose Grainger
1999Drowning on Dry LandKate
2001LantanaDr. Valerie Somers
200311:14Norma
2003Hunger PointMarsha HunterTelevision movie
2003The Stranger Beside MeAnn RuleTelevision movie
2004ParadiseElizabeth ParadiseTelevision movie
2004Riding the BulletJean Parker
2007Bird Can't Fly, TheThe Bird Can't FlyMelody
2007Love Comes LatelyRosalie
2008Uncross the StarsHilda
2008ChildlessNatalie
2008Anne of Green Gables: A New BeginningOlder Anne ShirleyTelevision movie
2009Albert SchweitzerHelene Schweitzer
2010Black SwanErica Sayers / The QueenNominated—BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Supporting Role
Nominated—Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture
2010InsidiousLorraine Lambert
2011Answers to NothingMarilyn
2012Left to DieSandra ChaseTelevision movie
2013Insidious: Chapter 2Lorraine Lambert
2014SisterSusan PresserPost-production

Television[edit]

YearTitleRoleNotes
1965–1966GidgetEllen2 episodes
1966GidgetKarenEpisode: "Love and the Single Gidget"
1966Farmer's Daughter, TheThe Farmer's DaughterLucy2 episodes
1966Bob Hope Presents the Chrysler TheatreCasey HollowayEpisode: "Holloway's Daughters"
1966–1967Monroes, TheThe MonroesKathy Monroe26 episodes
1967Daniel BooneDinah HubbardEpisode: "The King's Shilling"
1968Run for Your LifeSaro-JaneEpisode: "Saro-Jane, You Never Whispered Again"
1968Invaders, TheThe InvadersBeth FergusonEpisode: "The Miracle"
1968High Chaparral, TheThe High ChaparralMoonfireEpisode: "The Peacemaker"
1970InsightJudyEpisode: "The Whole Damn Human Race and One More"
1973Love StoryFarrell EdwardsEpisode: "The Roller Coaster Stops Here"
1974Kung FuNan Chi2 episodes
1980From Here to EternityKaren HolmesEpisode: "Pearl Harbor"
1982American PlayhouseLenoreEpisode: "Weekend"
1983Faerie Tale TheatreThe MaidEpisode: "The Nightingale"
1985Alfred Hitchcock PresentsJessie DeanEpisode: "Wake Me When I'm Dead"
1993Return to Lonesome DoveClara Allen3 episodes
1999–2000Chicago HopeDr. Francesca Alberghetti22 episodes
2002Daniel DerondaContessa Maria AlcharisiEpisode: "1.3"
2004–2005Mountain, TheThe MountainGennie Carver13 episodes
2010Agatha Christie's PoirotCaroline HubbardEpisode: "Murder on the Orient Express"
2012–2013Once Upon a TimeCora12 episodes
2014Once Upon a Time in WonderlandCoraEpisode: "Heart of the Matter"

Awards and nominations[edit]

YearWorkAwardCategoryResult
1986Hannah and Her SistersBritish Academy AwardBest Supporting ActressNominated
1987Shy PeopleCannes Film FestivalBest ActressWon
1988A World ApartCannes Film FestivalBest ActressWon
1988The Last Temptation of ChristGolden Globe AwardBest Supporting ActressNominated
1990A Killing in a Small TownEmmy AwardOutstanding Lead Actress in a Miniseries/MovieWon
1990A Killing in a Small TownGolden GlobeBest Actress in a Miniseries or TV FilmWon
1991Paris TroutEmmy AwardOutstanding Lead Actress in a Miniseries/MovieNominated
1996The Portrait of a LadyGolden Globe AwardBest Supporting ActressNominated
1996The Portrait of a LadyAcademy AwardBest Supporting ActressNominated
2010Black SwanBritish Academy AwardBest Supporting ActressNominated

References[edit]

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  2. ^ a b c d Walker, Connecticut. "Barbara Seagull: The New Hollywood." Parade magazine. Dec 16,1973
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  4. ^ a b c d e Arar, Yardena.Actress Barbara "Hershey Continues Hectic Screen Pace". Lawrence Journal-World. October 31, 1990.
  5. ^ a b c Wright, Fred. David Carradine is Human-Honest!" The Evening Independent.August 29, 1974, Pg. 3-B
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  7. ^ a b Lee, Luaina. "For Hershey, Acting Was Childhood Outlet". Reading Eagle. May 16, 1990. Pg. 40
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  17. ^ O'Brian, Jack. Entertainment. Sarasota Journal. March 4, 1974 Pg. 5-B
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  35. ^ Cerone, Daniel. "'Paris Trout' Tested Hershey Versatility".Daily Gazette. April 13, 1991
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