Bangladeshi cuisine

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Bangladeshi cuisine (Bengali: বাংলাদেশের রান্না) refers to the food and culinary traditions prevalent in Bangladesh. Traditionally, the cuisine emphasizes fish, vegetables and lentils served with rice, with rich regional variations caused by different factors, including Bangladesh's history and geography.

Historical influences[edit]

Bengali food has inherited a large number of influences, arising from a historical and strong trade links with many parts of the world. Bengal fell under the sway of various Turkic rulers from the early thirteenth century onwards, and was then governed by the British for two centuries (1757–1947). The Jews brought bakeries to Bengal, the Marwaris contributed their sweet-making skills, the exiled families of Wajid Ali Shah and Tipu Sultan brought different flavours of Mughlai cuisine. British patronage and the Babu Renaissance fueled the development of these different culinary strands into a distinct heritage. From the culinary point of view, some major historical trends influenced Bengali food.

Bengali Kita ( Bengali culture of Eating )[edit]

Bangladeshi people follow certain rules and regulations while eating. It includes hospitality and way of serving as well. This is known as Bengali Kita. The culture also defines the way to invite people in weddings and for the dinner as well. The gifts are given on different occasions. The Bengali Kita includes the way of serving the utensils in a proper manner. [1]

Regional cuisines[edit]

Shorshe Ilish, a dish of smoked Ilish with mustard-seed paste, has been an important part of both Bangladeshi and Bengali cuisine.

In Bangladeshi Cuisine, some foods are popular across the entire region, while others are specific to a particular area.

Western Region: Mainly known as Khulna & Jessore areas;& very close to the West- Bengal of India (the second highest region of Bengalis in the world). The cuisine of these areas are known as authentic Bengali recipes. mug dal with hilsha fish head, dalna, chachari, luchi-payesh, hilsha with mustard etc. are very popular in both the part of Bengal.

Northern Region : The Northern part of Bangladesh has a strong influences of Eastern Indian states mainly Assam & Manipur. The main characteristic of this foods are they are mainly sweet and lots of uses of banana throats, raw papaya fruit, raw mango, urad lentils & grilled or smoked veges.

Central Region: Capital Dhaka city & its territory region are the central region, where fresh water fishes are much popular & due to different ruling period the cuisines of this region is versatile. Old Dhaka area is famous for the nawab Awadhi cuisine. In the old Dhaka different types of Kebabs, nans, bakhar-khani, kachchi & pakki Biriyani, haleem,mutton bhuni kichuri & specially mentioned mutton tehari are popular across the coutry,

Eastern Region: Sylheti’s are mainly rice and fish eaters and their choice and method of cooking is distinctly different to non-Sylheti’s. Traditional dishes will include sour dishes such as tengha (or tok) cooked with vegetables such as Amra, Defal, Olives (Belfoi), Dewwaa, Amshi, Mango Choti (Aam Choti), Kul (Boroi), Hatkhora (or Shatkora), Ada Zamir (Ada Lembu), and any other sour lemon-like tasty vegetable. Additionally, it’s worth noting that the 360 disciples mentioned earlier, not only brought with them their distinct cultures but also brought distinct cooking styles of their own. These included many types of meat dishes including chicken.

Southern Region: The Southern region of Bangladesh also includes the tribal areas who have their different style of cooking methods & ideas. Other than that the most southern part of this region are mainly influenced by the Arakan cuisine. Dry Fish (shutki), Bamboo shoots, sea fishes etc. are the specialty of this region. They also use lots of chilly flavors & coconuts in their food preparations.

Main ingredients[edit]

Bangladeshi Biryani

Rajshahi & Northern Part]: Rajshahi mangoes are considered the best in the country. Sweet dishes are also popular. The Northern parts of the country also renowned for growing Pineapple, Guava, Watermelon, white or sweet melon, green bell apple, wood apple(kotbel) tropic grape, jujube (kul/boroi), pear, litchi, carambola (kamranga) etc.

Sylhet: A citrus fruit called hatkora is sometimes used in meat dishes. Freshwater fish are more readily available than saltwater ones.

Chittagong and southern region: Ziafat or Mezban feasts are popular throughout the area where characteristic "heavy" dishes—dishes rich in animal fat and dairy—are featured. Saltwater fish and seafood are quite prevalent in these areas.Shutki (dried fish) are more available here than in other parts of the country. Bangladesh's Southern region also popular world wide for its fisheries industries 100 of types of fishes export every day from this region.

Barisal and Khulna: Piper chaba is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae. It is called "Chui Jhal" in Bangladesh. Chui Jhal is originally the twig of a Piper chaba. It is a very expensive spice in Bangladesh, has great medicinal value, and tastes somewhat like horseradish. People in Khulna, Bagerhat, and Shatkhira cut down the stem, roots, peel the skin and cut it into small pieces and cook them with meat and fishes, especially with mutton. They love the spicy pungent flavor of spice all year round. wide range of sweet water fishes are available in this region which are highly famous all over the country.

Cooking medium and spices[edit]

Typical spices used in a Bangladeshi household. Clockwise from top left, dried red chili and bay leaves, cumin powder, cumin, red chili powder, turmeric powder, panch phoran, coriander powder and mustard.

Mustard oil and vegetable oil are the primary cooking medium in Bangladeshi cuisine, although sunflower oil is also used. However, depending on type of food, clarified butter(ghee) is often used for its aromatic flavors.

Bangladeshi food varies between very 'sweet' and mild to extremely spicy. It resembles food in other parts of Asia like: Persian cuisine, Afgan Cuisine, British Cuisine which came through the ruling period of different Persian & Afghan ruler.There are also slight similarities with South East Asian and North East Indian food customs. The most common condiments, herbs and spices in Bangladeshi cuisine are garlic, onion, ginger, turmeric, ghee, coriander, cumin, and dry bay leaves, turmeric and chili. The pãch poron is a general purpose spice mixture composed of fenugreek seed, nigella seed, cumin seed, black mustard seed and This mixture is more convenient for vegetarian dishes and fish preparations. The use of spices for both meat and vegetable dishes is quite extensive and includes many combinations. The combination of whole spices, fried and added at the start or finish of cooking as a flavouring is special to each dish. Whole black mustard seeds and freshly ground mustard paste are also a typical combination. A pungent mustard sauce called kashundi is sauce in snacks or, sometimes makes a base ingredients for fish dishes and vegetable dishes popular in Bangladesh.

Common Bangladeshi recipe styles[edit]

Jilapi, generally consumed as a sweetmeat, happens to be one of the popular starters in different parties.

The following are a list of characteristic Bangladeshi recipe styles. You can note the influence in the food here. Each entry here is actually a class of recipes, producing different dishes depending on the choice of ingredients. There are different tastes to which the Bangladeshi palate cater to.

Bangladeshi meals[edit]

Each dish is to be eaten separately with a small amount of rice or 'ruti' so that individual flavours can be enjoyed. The typical Bangladesh fare includes certain sequences of food. Two sequences are commonly followed, one for ceremonial dinners such as a wedding and the day-to-day sequence. Both sequences have regional variations, and sometimes there are significant differences in a particular course in Bangladesh.

Ceremonial occasions such as weddings used to have elaborate serving rituals, but professional catering and buffet-style dining can be seen now. The traditions have not disappeared; large family occasions and the more lavish ceremonial feasts will still have the same traditional rituals.

Main course[edit]

বাংলাদেশি খাবার Meat Delicacies of Bangladesh containing curries made of beef, mutton and chicken

Bangladeshi foods contain staples like rice and flat breads. Different traditional flat breads include Luchi, Porota, Bakhorkhani, Nan, Roti, rice flour flatbread, Chitai Pitha, and many more. Dishes from chicken, beef, fish or mutton, dal (a spicy lentil soup) and vegetables commonly accompany rice and flat breads . Traditional dishes can be 'dry,' such as 'gosht bhuna'(chicken/beef/mutton). Items with jhol (sauce) are often curried. Bangladeshi cuisine frequently uses fresh vegetables, which generally vary with season. Vegetables are also used for light curries. On special occasions like weddings or other similar ceremonies, Bangladeshi people serve guests with Biryani which is very popular in the cities and urban areas, and Borhani, a drink which aids digestion.

Chutney[edit]

In Bengali cuisine Chutney is mainly given at the end of the meal. Its a sweet & sour thicken curry mainly made with local seasonal fruits like raw mango, jujube, Bengal quince etc. with pach foron (five mix spices) & sugar.

Desserts[edit]

Bengali's take pride on their deserts. Bengali's are the pioneer of making & inventing variety of sweets in the Indian Subcontinent (pre partition period). Most of which has been created by the Ghosh's (desert maker or dairy product seller cast) of Bangladesh.

Sandesh, created with milk and sugar

The last item before the sweets is Doi or baked yogurt. It is generally of two varieties, either natural flavour and taste or Mishti Doi (sweet yogurt), typically sweetened with charred sugar. This brings about a brown colour and a distinct flavour. Bangladeshi cuisine has a rich tradition of sweets. The most common sweets and desserts include:

Bhapa Pitha, often sweetened with molasses, is a popular Bangladeshi style rice cake.
Gaja or Goja, Traditional Bangladeshi Sweetmeat, 13 April 2014 in Dhaka, Bangladesh.jpg

Goja, a light sweet snack made of flour and sugar, and often a street food, is consumed as both dessert and starter.

Beverages[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tukeda, Jun (2007-08-31). "Spices in Sri Lanka, India and Bangladesh with Special Reference to the Usages and Consumptions". Bull. Fac. Agr., Saga Univ. (93): 1–25. Retrieved 2014-08-14. 

Bibliography[edit]

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