Bad Kreuznach

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Bad Kreuznach
Kreuznach01.jpg
Coat of arms of Bad Kreuznach
Bad Kreuznach is located in Germany
Bad Kreuznach
Coordinates49°51′N 7°52′E / 49.85°N 7.86667°E / 49.85; 7.86667Coordinates: 49°51′N 7°52′E / 49.85°N 7.86667°E / 49.85; 7.86667
Administration
CountryGermany
StateRhineland-Palatinate
DistrictBad Kreuznach
MayorAndreas Ludwig (CDU)
Basic statistics
Area46.1 km2 (17.8 sq mi)
Elevation104-321 m
Population43,958 (31 December 2011)[1]
 - Density954 /km2 (2,470 /sq mi)
Other information
Time zoneCET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Licence plateKH
Postal codes55517-55545
Area codes0671, 06727
Websitewww.stadt-bad-kreuznach.de
 
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Bad Kreuznach
Kreuznach01.jpg
Coat of arms of Bad Kreuznach
Bad Kreuznach is located in Germany
Bad Kreuznach
Coordinates49°51′N 7°52′E / 49.85°N 7.86667°E / 49.85; 7.86667Coordinates: 49°51′N 7°52′E / 49.85°N 7.86667°E / 49.85; 7.86667
Administration
CountryGermany
StateRhineland-Palatinate
DistrictBad Kreuznach
MayorAndreas Ludwig (CDU)
Basic statistics
Area46.1 km2 (17.8 sq mi)
Elevation104-321 m
Population43,958 (31 December 2011)[1]
 - Density954 /km2 (2,470 /sq mi)
Other information
Time zoneCET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Licence plateKH
Postal codes55517-55545
Area codes0671, 06727
Websitewww.stadt-bad-kreuznach.de
County of Sponheim-Kreuznach
Grafschaft Sponheim-Kreuznach
State of the Holy Roman Empire
County of Sponheim
1227–1414County of Veldenz
 
Margraviate of Baden
 
County Palatine of Simmern
CapitalKreuznach
GovernmentPrincipality
Historical eraMiddle Ages
 - Gottfried III builds
    Kauzenburg
 
1206–30
 - Partitioned from
    Sponheim
  1227
 - Comital line extinct;
    partitioned in three
  1414

Bad Kreuznach is the capital of the district of Bad Kreuznach, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It is located on the Nahe river, a tributary of the Rhine. The town and the surrounding areas are renowned both nationally and internationally for their wines, especially from the Riesling, Silvaner and Müller-Thurgau grape varieties.

Contents

History

Prehistory and Roman times

As early as the 5th century BC, there is evidence of a Celtic settlement in the area of the modern municipality. Around 58 BC, the region became part of the Roman Empire, with a Roman vicus named Cruciniacum — according to legend after the Celtic Cruciniac — forming a supply station between Mainz (Mogontiacum) and Trier (Augusta Treverorum).

Around 250 AD a gigantic palace (81 m × 71 m, 266 ft × 233 ft) was built here, north of the Alps, with a peristyle, and 50 rooms on the ground floor alone. As part of the fortification of the Limes against the invading Alemanni, Valentinian I had a castra built here around 370.

Middle Ages

Around the year 500, after the collapse of the Roman Empire, Kreuznach was a royal village of the newly emerging Frankish Empire. This was followed by the construction of churches within the walls of the Roman fort, the first dedicated to Saint Martin, and a later church consecrated to Saint Kilian.[2]

Kreuznach was first mentioned in the Royal Frankish Annals in the year 819. Between 1206 and 1230, Count Gottfried III, despite a ban from Philip of Swabia, built the Kauzenburg. This was accompanied by the construction of the Burgbau, on the northern bank of the Nahe, in the location of the modern Bad Kreuznach Neustadt.

In 1235 or 1270, the city received town, market, tax and customs rights under the rule of the counts of Sponheim, confirmed in 1290 by Rudolf of Habsburg.

In 1279, at the Battle of Sprendlingen, arose the legend of Michel Mort. The butchers of Kreuznach fought for the count of Sponheim against the troops of the Archbishopric of Mainz. One of them, Michel Mort, sacrificed himself to save the life of Count John I.

With the extinction of the comital line of the House of Sponheim in 1414, the lordship of Kreuznach was divided between the counts of Veldenz, the Margrave of Baden and the County Palatine of Simmern.

Counts of Sponheim-Kreuznach

17th century

During the Thirty Years' War (1618–48), the city was alternately occupied by the Swedes, French and the Spanish/Imperial armies. The city was badly affected by the war, with the population declining by over half: from about 8,000 to about 3,500. In 1689, Kreuznach and Kauzenburg were largely destroyed in the course of the Nine Years' War (1688–97).

Modern times

From 1708, Kreuznach belonged entirely to the Electorate of the Palatinate. During the French Revolutionary War (1792–1814) Kreuznach was annexed by France, with the southern part of the region becoming part of the département of Mont-Tonnerre and northern areas joining Rhin-et-Moselle. When liberated from the French, the region's joint Bavarian and Austrian administration was based in Kreuznach. The Congress of Vienna assigned the area to the Prussian Rhine Province, making Kreuznach a border town, with the Grand Duchy of Hesse to the east and the Bavarian Rhenish Palatinate to the south.

In 1817, Johann Erhard Prieger opened the first bathhouse with brine water, forming the basis for a rapidly expanding spa treatment. In 1843, Karl Marx married Jenny von Westphalen in the Church of St. Paul in Kreuznach. The construction of the Nahetalbahn (Nahe Valley Railway) between Bingerbrück and Saarbrücken in 1860 formed the basis for the industrialization of the city. This led, together with the continuing growth in popularity of spa therapy, to a revival of the town after years of stagnation and military disasters.

In 1891, three members of the Franciscan Brothers of the Holy Cross settled in Kreuznach. Two years later, they took over the Kiskys-Wörth Hospital, renaming it St. Marienwörth (for Mary, Mother of Jesus) in 1905. Karl Ludwig Aschoff carried out radon therapy there during the following year. Since 1948, the Brothers have run this hospital, together with the Sisters of the Congregation of the Immaculate Conception, as a standard care hospital.

During World War I, both the Kreuznacher spa and other hotels and villas were requisitioned from 2 January 1917 as the seat of the Imperial headquarters. Kaiser Wilhelm II took up residence in the sanatorium and the Oranienhof was used by the general staff. On 19 December 1917, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk met with Wilhelm II, Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff at the Kurhaus. Extreme wintry floods in mid-January 1918 led to the relocation of the Supreme Command to the Belgian town of Spa. After the war, Kreuznach was part of the occupied Rhineland, with French troops stationed in the city until 1930; many hotels were demolished at the time. In 1924, Kreuznach was renamed Bad Kreuznach.

At the beginning of the Nazi regime, Hugo Salzmann organized trades unionists and others in resistance against the new rulers. Despite incarceration, Salzmann survived the Nazi era and, in 1945, sat on the city council for the Communist Party. The Jews of Landkreis Kreuznach were taken in 1942 to the Kolping House, which had been commandeered to serve as the seat of the district administration, and thence, on 27 July, deported to the Theresienstadt concentration camp in the annexed Sudetenland.

The remaining hotels and spas of Bad Kreuznach again became the seat of an Army Command from 1939 to 1940, important to the course of the War, because of the Wehrmacht barracks in the Bosenheimer Strasse, the Alzeyer Strasse and the Franziska-Puricelli-Strasse, and the strategically important BerlinParis railway line passing through the city--always a target for Allied bombing raids. The last city commander, Lieutenant Colonel John Kaup, preserved Bad Kreuznach from even greater destruction, as he offered no further resistance to the advancing American units, and the city was captured fairly peacefully by the Allies on 16 March 1945. However, shortly before the Allies took over the city, retreating German troops blew up a part of the old bridge over the Nahe (Nahebrücke) and destroyed the bridgeheads near local houses.

Since 1945

Although Bad Kreuznach was captured by the Americans, the town belonged to the French occupation zone. The Rheinwiesenlager near Bad Kreuznach gained notoriety for German prisoners of war and internees. In the late 1940s, units of the U.S. army were again stationed in the city; until mid-2001, the American forces had four barracks, the 56th General Hospital, a Redstone missile unit,[3] a shooting range, a small airfield and a small military training unit. The last unit was stationed in Bad Kreuznach was "Old Ironsides", the 1st Armored Division.

In 1958, in Bad Kreuznach, the French President Charles de Gaulle and the West German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer agreed on the restoration of Franco-German relations, codified on 22 January 1963 at the Élysée Palace.

Administrative reform in the Rhineland-Palatinate, on 7 June 1969, amalgamated the previously independent municipalities of Bosenheim, Planig, Ippesheim and Winzenheim into the town of Bad Kreuznach. It was planned that Rüdesheim an der Nahe should also be incorporated, but the municipality challenged the plans in court and retained its independence.

In 2010 Bad Kreuznach launched a competition to replace the 1950s addition to the Alte Nahebrücke. The bridge, designed by competition winner Dissing+Weitling architecture of Copenhagen, is scheduled for completion by 2012.

Tourist attractions

Epitaph of Annaius Daverzus in museum Römerhalle, discovered during the construction of Bingen (Rhein) Hauptbahnhof in 1860.

The town of Bad Kreuznach is the home of the following tourist attractions:

The villas of rich citizens built during the German Empire (1871–1918) are very typical of the town.

Notable people associated with the city

Born in Bad Kreuznach

Residents

Miscellaneous

See also

Notes

References

This article incorporates information from the equivalent article on the German Wikipedia.

External links