BAE Systems Hawk

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

Hawk
Bae hawk t1 xx245 inflight arp.jpg
RAF BAE Hawk T1 trainer
RoleAdvanced trainer aircraft
ManufacturerHawker Siddeley (1974–1977)
British Aerospace (1977–1999)
BAE Systems MAS division
First flight21 August 1974
Introduction1976
StatusIn service
Primary usersRoyal Air Force
Indian Air Force
Finnish Air Force
Royal Australian Air Force
Produced1974–present
Number built1,000+
Unit cost
GB£18 million (2003)
Developed intoMcDonnell Douglas T-45 Goshawk
 
  (Redirected from BAE Hawk)
Jump to: navigation, search
Hawk
Bae hawk t1 xx245 inflight arp.jpg
RAF BAE Hawk T1 trainer
RoleAdvanced trainer aircraft
ManufacturerHawker Siddeley (1974–1977)
British Aerospace (1977–1999)
BAE Systems MAS division
First flight21 August 1974
Introduction1976
StatusIn service
Primary usersRoyal Air Force
Indian Air Force
Finnish Air Force
Royal Australian Air Force
Produced1974–present
Number built1,000+
Unit cost
GB£18 million (2003)
Developed intoMcDonnell Douglas T-45 Goshawk

The BAE Systems Hawk is a British single-engine, jet-powered advanced trainer aircraft. It was first flown at Dunsfold, Surrey, in 1974 as the Hawker Siddeley Hawk, and subsequently produced by its successor companies, British Aerospace and BAE Systems, respectively. It has been used in a training capacity and as a low-cost combat aircraft.

Operators of the Hawk include the Royal Air Force (notably the Red Arrows display team) and a considerable number of foreign military operators. The Hawk is still in production in the UK and under licence in India by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) with over 900 Hawks sold to 18 operators around the world.

Development[edit]

Origins[edit]

In 1964 the Royal Air Force specified a requirement (Air Staff Target (AST) 362) for a new fast jet trainer to replace the Folland Gnat. The SEPECAT Jaguar was originally intended for this role, but it was soon realised that it would be too complex an aircraft for fast jet training and only a small number of two-seat versions were purchased. Accordingly, in 1968, Hawker Siddeley Aviation (HSA) began studies for a simpler aircraft, initially as special project (SP) 117. The design team was led by Ralph Hooper.[1]

A Royal Air Force Hawk T1A at Kemble Airport, Gloucestershire, with its pilot.

This project was funded by the company as a private venture, in anticipation of possible RAF interest. The design was conceived of as having tandem seating and a combat capability in addition to training, as it was felt the latter would improve export sales potential. By the end of the year HSA had submitted a proposal to the Ministry of Defence based on the design concept, and in early 1970 the RAF issued Air Staff Target (AST) 397 which formalised the requirement for new trainers of this type. The RAF selected the HS.1182 for their requirement on 1 October 1971 and the principal contract, for 175 aircraft, was signed in March 1972.[2][3]

The RAF Red Arrows depart the 2014 Royal International Air Tattoo, England, in a colour scheme that commemorates their 50th year.

The prototype aircraft first flew on 21 August 1974. All development aircraft were built on production jigs; the program remained on time and to budget throughout.[4] The Hawk T1 entered RAF service in late 1976.[5] The first export Hawk 50 flew on 17 May 1976. This variant had been specifically designed for the dual-role of lightweight fighter and advanced trainer; it had a greater weapons capacity than the T.1.[5]

More variants of the Hawk followed and common improvements to the base design typically include increased range, more powerful engines, redesigned wing and undercarriage, the addition of radar and forward-looking infrared (FLIR), GPS navigation, and night vision compatibility.[6] Later models were manufactured with a great variety in terms of avionics fittings and system compatibility to suit the individual customer nation, cockpit functionality was often rearranged and programmed to be common to an operator's main fighter fleet to increase the Hawk's training value.[7]

In 1981 a derivative of the Hawk was selected by the United States Navy as their new trainer aircraft. Designated the McDonnell Douglas T-45 Goshawk, the design was navalised and strengthened to withstand operating directly from the decks of carriers in addition to typical land-based duties;[8] This T-45 entered service in 1994; initial aircraft had analogue cockpits, while later deliveries featured a digital glass cockpit. All airframes are planned to undergo avionics upgrades to a common standard.[9]

Further development[edit]

A major competitor to the Hawk for export sales has been the Dassault/Dornier Alpha Jet; aviation expert John W. R. Taylor commented: "What Europe must avoid is the kind of wasteful competition that has the Hawker Siddeley Hawk and Dassault-Breguet/Dornier Alpha Jet battling against each other in the world market."[10] By early 1998, a total of 734 Hawks had been sold, more than 550 of which had been to export customers.[11] Military customers often procured the Hawk as a replacement for older aircraft such as the BAC Strikemaster, Hawker Hunter, and Douglas A-4 Skyhawk.[12]

A Hawk T2 of the Royal Air Force in 2009

During the 1980s and 1990s, British Aerospace, the successor company to Hawker Siddeley, was trying to gain export sales of the variable-wing Panavia Tornado strike aircraft; however countries such as Thailand and Indonesia, whom had shown initial interest in the Tornado, concluded that the Hawk to be a more suitable and preferable aircraft for their requirements.[13] Malaysia and Oman cancelled their arranged Tornado orders in the early 1990s, both choosing to procure the Hawk instead.[14] Aviation authors Norman Polmar and Dana Bell stated of the Hawk: "Of the many similar designs competing for a share of the world market, the Hawk has been without equal in performance as well as sales".[8]

On 22 December 2004, the Ministry of Defence awarded a contract to BAE Systems to develop an advanced model of the Hawk for the RAF and Royal Navy.[15] The Hawk Mk. 128, otherwise designated as Hawk T2, replaces conventional instrumentation with a glass cockpit, to better resemble modern fighter aircraft such as the new mainstay of the RAF, the Eurofighter Typhoon. In October 2006, a GB£450 million contract was signed for the production of 28 Hawk 128s.[16] The aircraft's maiden flight occurred on 27 July 2005 from BAE Systems' Warton Aerodrome.[17]

According to BAE Systems, as of July 2012 they have sold nearly 1000 Hawks so far, with sales continuing to date.[18] In July 2012, Australian Defence Minister Stephen Smith confirmed that Australia's fleet of Hawk Mk 127s would be upgraded to a similar configuration to the RAF's Hawk T2 as part of a major mid-life upgrade.[19] As of 2012, the Hawk T2 is one of the competitors for the United States Air Force's T-X program to acquire a new trainer fleet.[20]

Design[edit]

T1 Hawk at RAF Mildenhall, Suffolk, 1984

The Hawk is an advanced trainer with a two-man tandem cockpit, a low-mounted cantilever wing and is powered by a single turbofan engine. Unlike many of the previous trainers in RAF service, the Hawk was specifically designed for training.[4] Hawker had developed the aircraft to have a high level of servicability, as well as lower purchasing and operating costs than previous trainers like the Jet Provost.[21] The Hawk has been praised by pilots for its agility, in particular its roll and turn handling.[22]

The design of the fuselage included a height differential between the two seats of the cockpit; this provided generous levels of visibility for the instructor in the rear seat.[23] Each cockpit is fitted with a Martin-Baker Mk 10B zero-zero rocket-assisted ejection seat.[23] Air is fed to the aircraft's rear-mounted Rolls-Royce Turbomeca Adour engine via intakes on each of the forward wing roots. During the aircraft's development, Hawker had worked closely with Rolls-Royce to reduce the engine's fuel consumption and to ensure a high level of reliability.[21]

Even within the development stages, a Hawk variant was intended to also serve as a single-seat ground-attack fighter; both the trainer and fighter models were developed with the export market in mind.[4] On single seat models, the forward cockpit area which normally houses a pilot is replaced by an electronics bay for avionics and onboard systems, including a fire control computer, multi-mode radar, laser rangefinder and forward-looking infrared (FLIR).[24] Some export customers, such as Malaysia, have extensive modifications to their aircraft, including the addition of wingtip hardpoint stations and a fittable inflight refuelling probe.[25]

SAAF Hawk landing

The Hawk was designed to be manoeuvrable and can reach Mach 0.88 in level flight and Mach 1.15 in a dive, thus allowing trainees to experience transonic flight before advancing to a supersonic trainer.[26][27] The airframe is very durable and strong, stressed for +9 g, the normal limit in RAF service is +7.5/-4 g.[28] A dual hydraulic system supplies power to operate systems such as the aircraft's flaps, airbrakes and landing gear, together with the flight controls. A ram air turbine is fitted in front of the single tail fin to provide backup hydraulic power for the flight controls in the event of an engine failure,[29] additionally a gas turbine auxiliary power unit is housed directly above the engine.

The Hawk is designed to carry a centreline gun pod, such as the 30 mm ADEN cannon, two under-wing pylons, and up to four hardpoints for fitting armaments and equipment.[4] In RAF service, Hawks have been equipped to operate of Sidewinder air-to-air missiles. In the early 1990s, British Aerospace investigated the possibility of arming the Hawk with the Sea Eagle anti-ship missile for export customers.[30]

Operational history[edit]

United Kingdom[edit]

Hawk T.1A of 234 Squadron, armed with a pair of AIM-9L Sidewinder missiles and a 30mm gun pod. During the mid 1980s, Sidewinder armed Hawks formed an integral part of the UK's air defences, operating alongside Tornados and Phantoms; with their advanced search radar systems, the big interceptors would vector Hawks to attack slower moving targets.

The Hawk entered RAF service in April 1976, replacing the Folland Gnat and Hawker Hunter for advanced training and weapons training. The Hawk T1 was the original version used by the RAF, deliveries commencing in November 1976. The most famous users of the Hawk are the Red Arrows aerobatic team, who adopted the plane in 1979.[31]

RAF Hawk T1A, marking the 85th anniversary of No. 4 Flying Training School

From 1983 to 1986, some Hawks were equipped as short-range interceptor aircraft. 88 T1s were modified to carry two AIM-9L Sidewinder air-to-air missiles (AAMs) in addition to a 30 mm ADEN cannon gun pod; these aircraft were redesignated as Hawk T1A.[5] In a wartime scenario, they would have worked in collaboration with the RAF's Tornado F3 interceptors, which would use their Foxhunter search radars and more sophisticated navigation systems to vector the Hawks against enemy targets.[32]

The Hawk subsequently replaced the English Electric Canberra for target towing duties. The Royal Navy acquired a dozen Hawk T1/1As from the RAF; these are typically operated in a support role, often to conduct simulated combat training onboard ships.[33]

During the 1990s and 2000s, 80 Hawk T1/1A aircraft were upgraded under the Fuselage Replacement Programme (FRP) to extend their operational lifespan; sections of the centre and rear fuselage sections were entirely replaced.[34] In 2009, the RAF began receiving the first Hawk T2, in the long term, T2 aircraft will replace the ageing T1s.[35] Training operations on the Hawk T2 began in April 2012.[36]

In August 2011, a Red Arrows pilot was killed when his Hawk T1 crashed following a display at the Bournemouth Air Festival, the inquest found "G-force impairment" may have caused the pilot to lose control;[37] the Hawk T1 fleet was grounded as a precautionary measure and returned to flight status a few days later.[38] Three months later in November 2011, the Red Arrows suffered another pilot fatality when the Martin-Baker Mk.10 ejection seat fitted to the Hawk T1 activated while the aircraft was stationary; the veteran combat pilot died on ground impact when the ejector seat parachute also failed to deploy.[39] This resulted in the UK Ministry of Defence implementing a ban on non-essential flying in aircraft fitted with ejector seats similar to those fitted in the Hawk T1 after the death.[39] The ban was lifted for Tornado attack jets but remained on Hawk T1, Hawk T2 and Tucano flights while the RAF reviewed evidence on those aircraft.[39]

Finland[edit]

In January 1978, Britain and Finland announced a deal to in which the Finnish Air Force was to receive 50 Hawk Mk. 51s in 1980;[40] these aircraft were built in Finland under licence by Valtion lentokonetehdas. The Finnish Air Force was limited to 60 first-line fighter aircraft by the Paris Peace Treaty of 1947; by acquiring Hawks, which counted as trainers rather than fighters, capacity could be increased while continuing treaty compliance. These conditions were nullified at the break-up of the Soviet Union.[41]

Seven additional Mk. 51As were delivered in 1993–94 to make up for losses. In June 2007, Finland arranged to purchase 18 used Hawk Mk. 66s from the Swiss Air Force for 41 million euros; they were delivered in 2009–2010.[42] Finnish Hawks have reportedly been armed with Russian Molniya R-60/AA-8 air-to-air missiles.[43][44] The Finnish Air Force aerobatics team, the Midnight Hawks, also uses the aircraft.[45]

Due to rising levels of metal fatigue, 41 out of 67 in Finland's total Hawk fleet will be taken out of service between 2012–2016; the remaining aircraft are younger and thus are expected to be flying into the 2030s.[46][47] In 2011, Finnish Mk. 51s and Mk. 66s underwent upgrades, including a new Patria Cockpit 2000 glass cockpit and new software.[48][49]

India[edit]

Indian Air Force Hawk on display, 2009

On 23 February 2008, the Hawk Mk. 132 formally entered service with the Indian Air Force (IAF),[50] after one of the most protracted procurements in India's history, two decades having elapsed between the initial interest and the contract signing on 26 March 2004. The IAF received 24 aircraft directly from BAE Systems with deliveries beginning in November 2007, and further 42 Hawks assembled by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited between 2008 and 2011.[51] In February 2008, India planned to order 57 more Hawks, with 40 going to the Indian Air Force and the remaining 17 to the Indian Navy.[52][53]

In July 2010, it was announced that the IAF and the Navy would receive the additional 57 aircraft.[54] The additional aircraft will be all built in India by Hindustan Aeronautics (HAL), continuing to work under licence from BAE.[55] On 10 February 2011, Hindustan Aeronautics Limited and GE Aviation signed a contract under which GE Aviation will conduct the next 30 years of maintenance on the Hawk fleet.[56] In 2011, the IAF was reportedly unhappy with the provision of spare components;[57] In December 2011, BAE received a contract to provide India with spares and ground support.[58]

Indonesia[edit]

In April 1978, Indonesia, seeking to increase its aerial capabilities, placed the first of multiple orders for the Hawk.[59] The Indonesian Air Force received more than 40 Hawks in the 1980s and 1990s;[60] In June 1991, BAe and Indonesian Aerospace (IPTN) signed an major agreement for collaborative production of the Hawk, and more orders of the Hawk were anticipated.[61] Further Hawk exports were eventually blocked due to concerns over Indonesian human rights, particularly in East Timor.[60]

The Hawks have been the backbone of Indonesian Air Force, supplementing more advanced and expensive aircraft such as the F-16 Fighting Falcon. In September 2013 the Indonesian Air Force began receiving the KAI T-50 Golden Eagle which will replace the Hawk in service.[62]

Malaysia[edit]

The Royal Malaysian Air Force (Malay: Tentera Udara Diraja Malaysia) has 19 Hawk aircraft, consisting of four Hawk 108 export versions as training aircraft and 14 Hawk 208 as combat aircraft. On 5 March 2013, during the 2013 Lahad Datu standoff, five Hawk 208 together with three American-made Boeing F/A-18D Hornets were employed in an airstrike on a hideout of the terrorist group Royal Security Forces of the Sultanate of Sulu and North Borneo in Lahad Datu, Sabah just before the joint forces of Malaysian Army and Royal Malaysia Police operatives assault.[63]

Zimbabwe[edit]

In the 1980s, 12 BAE Hawk T.Mk. 60/60As were purchased for the Air Force of Zimbabwe; the purchase was supported by a GB£35 million loan from the UK to Zimbabwe.[64] The Hawk deal also included the transfer of a number of second-hand Hawker Hunters.[65] In July 1982, at least one Hawk was destroyed on the ground and three more heavily damaged during a dissident attack on Thornhill air base, Gweru.[66]

Zimbabwe's Hawks were used during the Second Congo War. Numerous airstrikes were conducted in support of the Congolese Army against Rwandan, Ugandan and rebel forces in 1998–2000.[67] In 2000, the controversy over Zimbabwe's military intervention in the Congo and poor human rights record led to Britain imposing a total arms embargo on the nation, including spare parts for the Hawk.[68][69] Due to the embargo, Zimbabwe has purchased six Chinese Hongdu K-8s as a substitute.[70][71]

Others[edit]

During the 1980s, a prospective sale of 63 Hawk trainers to Iraq was considered by the British government.[72] While the proposal had its proponents, it was controversial as in a ground-attack capacity Iraq might have employed the Hawk against neighbouring Iran and to oppress Iraq's own Kurdish population;[73] there was also concern that the Hawk could be potentially armed with chemical weapons. After considerable deliberation the sale was blocked.[74] In 2010, Iraq entered talks with BAE for an order of up to 21 Hawks.[75]

Saudi Arabia arranged to acquire the Hawk under the Al-Yamamah arms deal with Britain; a total of 50 Hawk Mk. 65/65A were ordered under two orders placed in 1985 and 1994 respectively.[76] In August 2012, a roughly $800 million deal for 22 Hawk 'Advanced Jet Trainers' was announced; these are to replace the older models of Hawks in the Royal Saudi Air Force (RSAF).[76] The RSAF also has a demonstration team that flies the Hawk.[76]

In 1993, talks between BAe and South Africa's Denel Aviation began regarding a replacement for the South African Air Force (SAAF)'s ageing Atlas Impala fleet.[77] By 2004, Denel had begun construction of Hawks under licence from BAe; components for other customers have also been produced by Denel.[78] On 13 January 2005, the first locally-assembled Hawk conducted its first flight; it belonged to a batch of 24 trainers ordered by the SAAF.[79]

Variants[edit]

Hawk T1[edit]

Two Hawk T1s of RAF 208 Squadron in the 2010 display season livery

The Hawk T1 (Trainer Mark 1) was the original version of the Hawk used by the RAF, deliveries commencing in November 1976. The RAF received a total of 175 T1s.[5]

Hawk T1A[edit]

The Hawk T1A is a modified Hawk T1, intended to replace the Hawker Hunter in the RAF's Tactical Weapons Units. A total of 89 aircraft were converted to carry two underwing AIM-9L Sidewinder air-to-air missiles and a centreline Aden gun pod.[5] This is also the variant used by the RAF's Red Arrows display team; the underbody gun pod is replaced by a fairing used to carry diesel fuel and dye for the display smoke system.[80]

Hawk 50[edit]

The Hawk 50 was the original export trainer version, and offered a limited attack capability. Finland, Indonesia and Kenya ordered 90 of this variant.[5]

Hawk 60[edit]

Another export version, replacing the Hawk 50, intended for conversion and weapons training. Weapons carriage is increased. It is a two-seater, has uprated Rolls-Royce Adour 861 engines, and is capable of a level speed at altitude of 555 knots (1028 km/h) or Mach 0.84.[5] The T-45 Goshawk was derived from this version.[85][86]

Hawk 100[edit]

BAE Systems Hawk 120D at RIAT 2005

A two-seat advanced weapons trainer with additional avionics, an optional forward looking infrared, a redesigned wing and HOTAS.[93]

Hawk 120/LIFT[edit]

Hawk 120 LIFT of the South African Air Force.

The Hawk Lead-in Fighter Trainer (LIFT) is the version selected by the South African Air Force in December 1999. This variant is powered by the Adour 951. The LIFT benefits from development carried out for the Australian Mk. 127.

Hawk 127 of No. 76 Squadron RAAF at Avalon Airport, 2007

The next generation Hawks (120, 127 and 128) feature a new wing, forward and centre fuselage, fin and tailplane.[25] The aircraft have only 10% commonality with the existing first generation aircraft. The new variants also have four times the fatigue life of the original aircraft. 24 aircraft will be delivered.

Hawk 127[edit]

The Royal Australian Air Force ordered 33 Hawk 127 Lead-in Fighters (LIFs) in June 1997, 12 of which were produced in the UK and 21 in Australia. This variant is also powered by the Adour 871. The Hawk 127 is operated by the RAAF's No. 76 Squadron and No. 79 Squadron which are based at RAAF Base Williamtown and RAAF Base Pearce respectively. Work to upgrade the RAAF's Hawks to a standard similar to the Hawk 128 standard began in 2014, and it is planned that the two squadrons will begin operations with these aircraft in 2017.[96]

Hawk 128 (Hawk T2)[edit]

The Hawk 128 is the new Advanced Jet Trainer (AJT) for the RAF and Royal Navy. The Mk. 128 includes modern LCD displays instead of conventional instrumentation and is powered by the Rolls-Royce Adour 951 engine. The Ministry of Defence awarded a Design and Development Contract to BAE Systems on 22 December 2004.[15] The T2 builds on the design of the Australian Mk. 127 and the South African Mk. 120s.[17]

In 2012 orders were placed for the AJT version by the Royal Saudi Air Force and the Royal Omani Air Force for 22 and 8 aircraft respectively.[97]

Hawk 132[edit]

The Hawk Mk. 132 is the latest export variant of the Hawk and was previously known as the Mk. 115Y. BAE Systems delivered the final of 24 UK-built Hawks to the IAF in November 2009.[98] HAL handed over the first locally-built Hawk 132 on 14 August 2008.[99] These aircraft are powered by the Rolls-Royce Adour Mk 871 engine.[100]

Hawk 165[edit]

The Mk. 165 is an export variant of the AJT currently on order by the Royal Saudi Air Force. The 22 aircraft are to be built in the UK by BAE.[101]

Hawk 200[edit]

Hawk 208 of the Royal Malaysian Air Force

The Hawk 200 is a single-seat, lightweight multirole combat fighter with emphasis on air defence, air superiority, anti-shipping, air-denial, long-range interdiction, short-range close air support and ground attack.[25] Indonesia, Malaysia and Oman have ordered 62 aircraft. Brunei had been interested in acquiring the Hawk 200 model, but any prospective order has been continually delayed since the mid-1980s.[102] The aircraft are equipped with Northrop Grumman AN/APG-66H medium range X-band radars. The Hawk 200 has eleven external store points with four underwing pylons, an under-fuselage pylon, and wingtip air-to-air missile stations. The range of external stores includes air-to-air missiles, anti-ship missiles, gunpods, rocket launchers, reconnaissance pod, retarded and free-fall bombs up to 540 kg, runway cratering, anti-personnel and light armor bombs, cluster bombs, practice bomb, rocket carriers and external fuel tanks.[103]

T-45 Goshawk[edit]

Main article: T-45 Goshawk

The T-45 Goshawk is a fully carrier-capable aircraft developed from the Hawk 60 for the United States Navy for use in aircraft carrier training.[85]

Operators[edit]

Current operators of the Hawk are shown in dark blue, former operators in red and operators of the T-45 Goshawk in light blue.
A CT-155 Hawk in Canadian service undergoes maintenance at CFB Moose Jaw, 3 November 2005
 Australia
 Bahrain
 Canada
 Finland
 India
 Indonesia
 Kuwait
 Malaysia
 Oman
 Saudi Arabia
Royal Saudi Air Force Hawk in 2011
 South Africa
Royal Air Force Aerobatic Team "Red Arrows" Hawk T1
Hawk T1 of the Royal Navy
 United Kingdom
 United Arab Emirates

Former operators[edit]

 Kenya
 Republic of Korea
 Switzerland
 United Kingdom

Past Units.

 Zimbabwe

Specifications (Hawk 128)[edit]

BAE Hawk 128.
RAF Hawk at Blackpool Airport, 2008

Data from Royal Air Force,[111] BAE Systems,[112] Ministry of Defence[113]

General characteristics

Performance

Armament

Note: all armament is optional.

See also[edit]

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

References[edit]

Citations
  1. ^ Flight International 22 November 1986, p. 61.
  2. ^ Reed, A., "Modern Combat Aircraft 20: BAe Hawk", Chapter 1 (Ian Allan, 1985) ISBN 978-0-7110-1465-7
  3. ^ Donald, D. and Lake, J., eds, "Encyclopedia of World Military Aircraft", Volume 1 (Aerospace Publishing, 1994) ISBN 978-1-874023-51-7"
  4. ^ a b c d Field 1976. p. 834.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Polmar and Bell 2004, p. 388.
  6. ^ Polmar and Bell 2004, p. 387-390.
  7. ^ "British Aerospace Hawk." Flight International, 22 February 1994.
  8. ^ a b Polmar and Bell 2004, p. 387.
  9. ^ Polmar and Bell 2004, pp. 387, 389–340.
  10. ^ Taylor 1976, p. 63.
  11. ^ Phythian 2001, p. 166.
  12. ^ Phythian 2001, pp. 156, 239, 246.
  13. ^ Phythian 2001, p. 180.
  14. ^ Phythian 2001, pp. 180–181, 246.
  15. ^ a b "Hawk Advanced Jet Trainer". Hansard Column 333W. 26 January 2005. 
  16. ^ "BAE lands £450m Hawks contract". Blackpool Today. 20 October 2006. 
  17. ^ a b "Hawk Mk 128 Makes Maiden Flight" Air Forces Monthly, September 2005, p. 6.
  18. ^ Hoyle, Craig. "FARNBOROUGH: BAE close to selling 1,000th Hawk trainer." Flight International, 16 July 2012.
  19. ^ Hoyle, Craig. "Australia to upgrade Hawk trainers to RAF's T2 standard " Flight International, 18 July 2012.
  20. ^ Hoyle, Craig. "USAF training bosses underscore need for T-X acquisition." Flight International, 20 March 2012.
  21. ^ a b Field 1976. pp. 834–835.
  22. ^ Field 1976. p. 842.
  23. ^ a b Field 1976. p. 835.
  24. ^ "Hawk 200 faces a tougher market." New Scientist, 10 July 1986. p. 28.
  25. ^ a b c Polmar and Bell 2004, p. 389.
  26. ^ Donald, David ed. "British Aerospace (HS) Hawk", The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft. Barnes & Nobel Books, 1997. ISBN 0-7607-0592-5.
  27. ^ Field 1976. p. 836.
  28. ^ Caliaro, Luigi. In flight with the Red Arrows, A&D Magazine, May 1996, p. 51.
  29. ^ Jackson 2003, pp. 479–480.
  30. ^ Phythian 2001, p. 181.
  31. ^ "RAF Red Arrows – Team History." Royal Air Force, Retrieved: 25 August 2012.
  32. ^ Jane's Defence Weekly, 1986. pp. 395–400.
  33. ^ "Inside a Navy Hawk fighter jet." BBC News, 6 May 2009.
  34. ^ Gething, Michael J. "RAF Hawk FRP Moves Onwards." Jane's Defence Upgrades, 1 April 2003.
  35. ^ "RAF accepts first Hawk T2s but others head for storage". Flight International. 26 February 2009. 
  36. ^ Hoyle, Craig. "UK ready to launch Hawk T2 training, says RAF." Flight International, 15 March 2012.
  37. ^ "Tributes paid to Red Arrows crash pilot Jon Egging". BBC Online. 21 August 2011. Retrieved 2011-08-22. 
  38. ^ "RAF Hawk jets cleared to fly again." Defence Management, 26 August 2011.
  39. ^ a b c BBC News Lincolnshire, Inquest hears Red Arrows pilot died from fall injuries
  40. ^ "Britain-Finland barter deal." The Christian Science Monitor, 6 January 1978.
  41. ^ O'Dwyer, Gerald (16 October 1990). "Finland looks at German MiG-29s". Flight International. Retrieved 17 August 2011. 
  42. ^ "Finland Purchases 18 Jet Trainers (Mk. 66) from Switzerland". Defense-aerospace.com. Retrieved 17 August 2011. 
  43. ^ "Missile armed Hawk BAe Hawk with R-60". Sci.fi. Retrieved 17 August 2011. 
  44. ^ "Suomi hankkii lisää Hawk-hävittäjiä". Finnish Broadcasting Agency (YLE), 28 June 2007. Retrieved on 28 June 2007. (Finnish)
  45. ^ "Midnight Hawks home page" (in Finnish). Midnighthawks.fi. 13 August 2011. Retrieved 17 August 2011. 
  46. ^ "PARIS AIR SHOW: Finnish air force chief accepts first upgraded Hawk jet trainer." Flight Global, 16 June 2009.
  47. ^ "Finnish Air Force decommissioning 41 Hawk trainer jets." Helsingin Sanomat, 5 November 2010.
  48. ^ "Defence Professionals: ''Patria delivers first upgraded Hawk jet trainer to the Finnish Air Force ''". Defpro.com. Retrieved 17 August 2011. 
  49. ^ Pugliese, David. "Esterline CMC Electronics Completes Upgraded Glass Cockpit Deliveries for Finnish Air Force Fleet of Hawk Jet Trainers." Ottawa Citizen, 13 July 2012.
  50. ^ Kulkarni, Sagar (February 2008). "AJT Hawk inducted into IAF". Retrieved 23 February 2008. 
  51. ^ Sharma, Ravi (January 2008). "The IAF is set to get 40 more Hawk AJTs". The Hindu (Chennai, India). Retrieved 12 January 2008. 
  52. ^ Govindasamy, Siva. "India seeks extra Hawks", Flight International, 11 February 2008.
  53. ^ Luthra, Gulshan and Goel, Ashok. "IAF to buy 40 more Hawk Advanced Jet Trainers, Navy to follow with 17", India Strategic, February 2008.
  54. ^ "IAF, Navy to get 57 more Hawk jet trainers". Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. 24 July 2010. Retrieved 17 August 2011. 
  55. ^ Amy Wilson. "BAE wins £500m Hawk order", Telegraph UK, 29 July 2010.
  56. ^ "GE Aviation gets license". Pilotsandplanesmilitary.com. 10 February 2011. Retrieved 17 August 2011. 
  57. ^ "TOI Article – IAF plans for additional Hawks jet trainers shelved". Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. 17 March 2009. Retrieved 17 August 2011. 
  58. ^ "BAE Systems secures £59 million Hawk AJ T spares contract from Indian government." Economic Times, 12 December 2011.
  59. ^ Phythian 2001, p. 163-164.
  60. ^ a b Ryan Dilley (29 May 2002). "The 'trainer' jet the UK loves to hawk". BBC News. Retrieved 24 July 2010. 
  61. ^ Phythian 2001, pp. 156–157.
  62. ^ "Indonesia receives first pair of T-50i advanced jet trainers". Flight International. 13 September 2013. Retrieved 30 November 2013. 
  63. ^ "Security forces stay on full alert". New Straits Times. 6 March 2013. Retrieved 6 March 2013. 
  64. ^ "UK backed millions in loans for Zimbabwe jets." Jubilee Debt Campaign, 8 May 2012.
  65. ^ Mitchell, Emily. "UK Arms Exports to Zimbabwe." Campaign Against Arms Trade, September 2000.
  66. ^ Towers, Roy. ". Year Of Deepening Unease For Security Forces In Zimbabwe." Glasgow Herald, 27 July 1982. p. 5.
  67. ^ "Zimbabwe military warns Goma bombings to go on". South African Press Association. 13 May 1999. 
  68. ^ MacAskill, Ewen. "Britain's ethical foreign policy: keeping the Hawk jets in action." The Guardian, 20 January 2000.
  69. ^ "UK halts arms to Zimbabwe." BBC News, 13 May 2000.
  70. ^ "Zimbabwe buys six fighter jets." The Guardian, 14 April 2005.
  71. ^ "Zimbabwe: 'Purchase of Jets From China Wise'." allafrica.com, 1 July 2005.
  72. ^ Scott 1996, p. 560.
  73. ^ Scott 1996, p. 564-566.
  74. ^ Scott 1996, pp. 567, 570–571.
  75. ^ Pfiefer, Sylvia. "Iraq in talks to buy BAE Hawk jets." Financial Times, 29 April 2010.
  76. ^ a b c "Saudi catches the UK train." Arabian Aerospace, 10 August 2012.
  77. ^ Barrie, Douglas. "BAe in Hawk building talks with South Africa." Flight International, 16 November 1993. p. 4.
  78. ^ Kampbell, Keith. "Hawk production under way in South Africa." Engineering News, 14 January 2005.
  79. ^ "First SA-assembled Hawk completes maiden flight." 14 January 2005.
  80. ^ Fricker World Air Power Journal Volume 22, p. 100.
  81. ^ a b Fricker World Air Power Journal Volume 22, p. 104.
  82. ^ a b Fricker World Air Power Journal Volume 22, p. 105.
  83. ^ a b Fricker World Air Power Journal Volume 22, p. 106.
  84. ^ a b c d e f Jackson 2003, p. 480.
  85. ^ a b Donald 2004, p. 175.
  86. ^ Frawley 2002, p. 48.
  87. ^ a b Fricker World Air Power Journal Volume 22, p. 111.
  88. ^ a b c d Fricker World Air Power Journal Volume 22, p. 103.
  89. ^ Jackson 2003, pp. 478–480.
  90. ^ Fricker World Air Power Journal Volume 22, pp. 106–107.
  91. ^ a b Fricker World Air Power Journal Volume 22, pp. 108–109.
  92. ^ Fricker World Air Power Journal Volume 22, p. 109.
  93. ^ Polmar and Bell 2004, pp. 388–389.
  94. ^ Fricker World Air Power Journal Volume 22, p. 108.
  95. ^ Fricker World Air Power Journal Volume 22, p. 107.
  96. ^ Pittaway, Nigel (October–December 2014). "Upgrading the Hawk". Aero Australia (44): pp. 66–67. 
  97. ^ http://www.defensenews.com/article/20121221/DEFREG04/312210001/Oman-BAE-Reach-Agreement-Typhoon-Hawk-Deal?odyssey=tab%7Ctopnews%7Ctext%7CFRONTPAGE
  98. ^ "BAE Systems completes Indian hawk aircraft deliveries". The Indian Express. 6 November 2009. Retrieved 17 August 2011. 
  99. ^ "First HAL-built Hawk-MK132 aircraft handed over to IAF". The Hindu (India). 14 August 2008. Retrieved 17 August 2011. 
  100. ^ "HAL to Hand Over first Hawk Jet Trainer to Indian Air Force Thursday". India-defence.com. Retrieved 17 August 2011. 
  101. ^ http://www.janes.com/events/exhibitions/farnborough-2012/news/july-10/Saudis-look-to-surge-pilot-training-in-UK.aspx
  102. ^ "Royal Brunei Air Force", Scramble, Retrieved on 20 June 2009.
  103. ^ "British Aerospace Hawk 200". MilitaryAviation. 2008. Retrieved 14 November 2014. 
  104. ^ Hoyle Flight International 13–19 December 2011, p. 33.
  105. ^ Hoyle Flight International 13–19 December 2011, p. 34.
  106. ^ Department of National Defence (March 2007). "CT-155 Hawk". Retrieved 10 June 2011. 
  107. ^ Hoyle Flight International 13–19 December 2011, p. 36.
  108. ^ [1]
  109. ^ a b "IAF, Navy to get 57 Hawks by '16". dnasyndication.com, 7/8/2014.
  110. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Directory: World Air Forces", Flight International, 11–17 November 2008.
  111. ^ Royal Air Force (29 April 2005). "Hawk 128". Aircraft of the RAF. Retrieved 12 April 2006. 
  112. ^ BAE Systems. "Hawk". BAE Systems – Air Systems. Retrieved 12 April 2006. [dead link]
  113. ^ "Hawk." Ministry of Defence, Retrieved: 25 August 2012.
Bibliography
  • Donald, David. Warplanes of the Fleet. AIRtime Publishing Inc, 2004. ISBN 1-880588-81-1.
  • Eden, Paul (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Modern Military Aircraft. London: Amber Books, 2004. ISBN 1-904687-84-9. 
  • Frawley, Gerard. The International Directory of Military Aircraft, Aerospace Publications Pty Ltd, 2002. ISBN 1-875671-55-2.
  • Field, Hugh. "Hawker-Hawk: In The Air." Flight International, 3 April 1976. pp. 834–843.
  • Fricker, John (1995). "British Aerospace Hawk". World Air Power Journal (London: Aerospace Publishing) (Volume 22, Autumn/Fall 1995): pp. 45–111. ISBN 1-874023-62-X. ISSN 0959-7050. 
  • Hoyle, Craig. "World Air Forces Directory". Flight International, Vol. 180 No. 5231, 13–19 December 2011. pp. 26–52. ISSN 0015-3710.
  • Jackson, Paul. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 2003–2004. Coulsdon, UK:Jane's Information Group, 2003. ISBN 0-7106-2537-5.
  • Phythian, Mark. The Politics of the British Arms Sales Since 1964. Manchester University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-719059-07-0.
  • Polmar, Norman and Dana Bell. One Hundred Years of World Military Aircraft. Naval Institute Press, 2004. ISBN 1-591146-86-0.
  • Scott, Richard. Report of the Inquiry into the Export of Defence Equipment and Dual-Use Goods to Iraq and Relationed Prosecutions. The Stationery Office, 1996. ISBN 0-102627-96-7.
  • Taylor, John W. R. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1975–1976. Macdonald, 1976. ISBN 0-354-00521-9.

External links[edit]