German autobahns

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

 
  (Redirected from Autobahn)
Jump to: navigation, search
Two German Autobahns crossing near Frankfurt
A German autobahn sign
A map of the German autobahn network

The German autobahns (German: Autobahn, plural Autobahnen) form the federal controlled-access highway system in Germany. The official German term is Bundesautobahn (plural Bundesautobahnen, abbreviated BAB), which translates as "federal motorway". German autobahns have no federally mandated blanket speed limit,[1]—although limits are posted and enforced in areas that are urbanized, substandard, accident-prone, or under construction or bad weather conditions. On speed-unrestricted stretches, an advisory speed limit (Richtgeschwindigkeit) of 130 kilometres per hour (81 mph) applies. In 2008, the State of Bremen, geographically smallest of the sixteen States, imposed a 120 km/h (75 mph) general speed limit, although this applied to only 11 kilometers (6.8 miles) of Autobahn 27 connecting the cities of Bremen and Bremerhaven.[2]

Germany's autobahn network has a total length of about 12,845 kilometres (7,982 mi) in 2012,[3] which ranks it among the most dense and longest systems in the world. Longer systems can be found e. g. in China (97,355 km) or the United States (75,932 km).

Names[edit]

Only federally built controlled-access highways with certain construction standards including at least two lanes per direction are called "Bundesautobahn". They have their own signs and numbering system. In the 1930s when construction began on the system, the official name was Reichsautobahn. Various other controlled-access highways exist on the federal (Bundesstraße), state (Landesstraße), district and municipal level but are not part of the autobahn network and are officially referred to as "Autoschnellstrasse" (some rare exceptions, e.g. A 995 Munich-Giesing–Brunntal). These highways are considered "autobahnähnlich" (autobahn similar) and sometimes called or "Gelbe Autobahn" (yellow autobahn) because most of them are Bundesstraßen (federal highways) with yellow signs. Some controlled-access highways are classified as "Bundesautobahn" in spite of not meeting the autobahn construction standard (e.g. A 62 near Pirmasens).

Construction[edit]

A typical route-number sign
Pattern of autobahns 10 to 999

Similar to high-speed motorways in other countries, autobahns have multiple lanes of traffic in each direction, separated by a central barrier with grade-separated junctions and access restricted to motor vehicles with a top speed of more than 60 km/h (37 mph). The earliest motorways were flanked by shoulders about 60 centimetres (24 in) in width, constructed of varying materials; right-hand shoulders on many autobahns were later retrofitted to 120 centimetres (47 in) in width when it was realized cars needed the additional space to pull off the autobahn safely. In the postwar years, a thicker asphaltic concrete cross-section with full paved hard shoulders came into general use. The top design speed was approximately 160 km/h (99 mph) in flat country but lower design speeds were used in hilly or mountainous terrain. A flat-country autobahn, which was constructed to meet standards during the Nazi period, could support the speed of up to 150 km/h (93 mph) on curves.

The current autobahn numbering system in use in Germany was introduced in 1974. All autobahns are named by using the capital letter A, which simply stands for "Autobahn" followed by a blank and a number (for example A 8). The main autobahns going all across Germany have a single digit number. Shorter autobahns that are of regional importance (e.g. connecting two major cities or regions within Germany) have a double digit number (e.g. A 24, connecting Berlin and Hamburg). The system is as follows:

There are also some very short autobahns built just for local traffic (e.g. ring roads or the A 555 from Cologne to Bonn) that usually have three digits for numbering. The first digit used is similar to the system above, depending on the region. East-west routes are always even-numbered, north-south routes are always odd-numbered.

The north-south autobahns are generally numbered using odd numbers from west to east; that is to say, the more easterly roads are given higher numbers. Similarly, the east-west routes are numbered using even numbers from north (lower numbers) to south (higher numbers).

History[edit]

A section of the A9 in Thuringia facing north; in 2003. The original, two-lane autobahn at this location, originally built in the mid-1930s, had no hard shoulder.
Typical section of modern autobahn near an interchange, with overhead direction signs.

The idea for the construction of the autobahn was first conceived in the late 1920s during the days of the Weimar Republic, but the construction was slow, and most projected sections did not progress much beyond the planning stage due to economic problems and a lack of political support. One project was the private initiative HaFraBa which planned a "car only road" crossing Germany from Hamburg in the North via central Frankfurt am Main to Basel in Switzerland. Parts of the HaFraBa were completed in the late 1930s and early 1940s, but construction eventually was halted by World War II. The first road of this kind was completed in 1932 between Cologne and Bonn and opened by Konrad Adenauer (Lord Mayor of Cologne and future Chancellor of West Germany) on 6 August 1932.[4] The road is currently the Bundesautobahn 555.[5][6][7][8] This road was not yet called Autobahn, but instead was known as a Kraftfahrstraße ("motor vehicle road").

Just days after the 1933 Nazi takeover, Adolf Hitler enthusiastically embraced an ambitious autobahn construction project and appointed Fritz Todt, the Inspector General of German Road Construction, to lead the project. By 1936, 130,000 workers were directly employed in construction, as well as an additional 270,000 in the supply chain for construction equipment, steel, concrete, signage, maintenance equipment, etc. In rural areas, new camps to house the workers were built near construction sites.[9] The job creation program aspect was not especially important because full employment was almost reached by 1936. The autobahns were not primarily intended as major infrastructure improvement of special value to the military as often stated, because they were of no military value as all major military transports in Germany were done by train to save fuel. The propaganda ministry turned the construction of the autobahns into a major media event that attracted international attention.[10]

The autobahns formed the first limited-access, high-speed road network in the world, with the first section from Frankfurt am Main to Darmstadt opening in 1935. This straight section was used for high speed record attempts by the Grand Prix racing teams of Mercedes-Benz and Auto Union until a fatal accident involving popular German race driver Bernd Rosemeyer in early 1938. The world record of 432 km/h (268 mph) set by Rudolf Caracciola on this stretch just prior to the accident remains one of the highest speeds ever achieved on a public motorway.

Development of the overall length (at the end of):

Year1935193619371938193919401950195519601965197019751980198519901995200020052010
Length in km1081,0862,0103,0463,3003,7362,1282,1872,5513,2044,1105,7427,2928,1988,82211,14311,51512,17412,813
Reichsautobahn construction camp.
1941-built bridge on the never completed stretch of Kassel-Eisenach autobahn. Aerial photo from 2007.
East German autobahn in 1972, used to move agricultural machines at harvest time.

During World War II, the central reservation of some autobahns were paved to allow their conversion into auxiliary airports. Aircraft were either stashed in numerous tunnels or camouflaged in nearby woods. However, for the most part during the war, the autobahns were not militarily significant. Motor vehicles, such as trucks, could not carry goods or troops as quickly or in as much bulk and in many numbers as trains could, and the autobahns could not be used by tanks as their weight and caterpillar tracks damaged the road surface. The general shortage of petrol in Germany during much of the war, as well as the low number of trucks and motor vehicles needed for direct support of military operations, further decreased the autobahn's significance. As a result, most military and economic freight was carried by rail. After the war, numerous sections of the autobahns were in bad shape, severely damaged by heavy Allied bombing and military demolition. Furthermore, thousands of kilometres of autobahns remained unfinished, their construction brought to a halt by 1943 due to the increasing demands of the war effort.[11][12]

In West Germany (GFR), most existing autobahns were repaired soon after the war. During the 1950s, the West German government restarted the construction program. It invested in new sections and in improvements to older ones. The finishing of the incomplete sections took longer, with some stretches opened to traffic in the 1980s. Some sections cut by the Iron Curtain in 1945 were completed after German reunification in 1990. Some sections were never completed, as more advantageous routes were found. Some of these incomplete sections to this very day stretch across the landscape forming a unique type of modern ruin, often easily visible on satellite photographs.

After 1945, the autobahns in East Germany (GDR) were neglected in comparison to those in West Germany. East German autobahns were used primarily for GDR military traffic and/or for state-owned farming or manufacturing vehicles. The speed limit on the GDR autobahns was 100 km/h; however, lower speed limits were frequently encountered due to poor or quickly changing road conditions. The speed limits on the GDR autobahns were rigorously enforced by the Volkspolizei, whose patrol cars were frequently found hiding under camouflage tarpaulins waiting for speeders.

The last four kilometers of remaining original Reichsautobahn, a section of A11 northeast of Berlin near Gartz built in 1936, is planned for replacement around 2015[13]—unless "Unesco declares it a world heritage site”, jokes the local head of highway maintenance.[14] Roadway condition is described as "deplorable"; the 25-metre-long concrete slabs, too long for proper expansion, are cracking under the weight of the traffic as well as the weather.[15]

German-built Reichsautobahnen in other countries[edit]

The first autobahn in Austria was the West Autobahn from Wals near Salzburg to Vienna. Building started by command of Adolf Hitler shortly after the Anschluss in 1938. It lengthened the Reichsautobahn 26 from Munich (the present-day Bundesautobahn 8), however only 16.8 km (10.4 mi) including the branch-off of the planned Tauern Autobahn was opened to the public on 13 September 1941.[16] Construction works discontinued the next year and were not resumed until 1955.

There are sections of the former German Reichsautobahn system in the former eastern territories of Germany, i.e. East Prussia, Farther Pomerania and Silesia; these territories became parts of Poland and the Soviet Union with the implementation of the Oder–Neisse line after World War II. Parts of the planned autobahn from Berlin to Königsberg (the Berlinka) were completed as far as Stettin (Szczecin) on 27 September 1936. Later, after the war, they were incorporated as the A6 autostrada of the Polish motorway network. A single-vehicle section of the Berlinka east of the former "Polish Corridor" and the Free City of Danzig opened in 1938; today it forms the Polish S22 expressway from Elbląg (Elbing) to the border with the Russian Kaliningrad Oblast, where it is continued by the R516 regional road. Also on 27 September 1936, a section from Breslau (Wrocław) to Liegnitz (Legnica) in Silesia was inaugurated, which is today part of the Polish A4 autostrada, followed by the (single vehicle) Reichsautobahn 9 from Bunzlau (Bolesławiec) to Sagan (Żagań) the next year, today part of the Polish A18 autostrada.

After the German occupation of Czechoslovakia, plans for a motorway connecting Breslau with Vienna via Brno (Brünn) in the "Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia" were carried out from 1939 until construction works discontinued in 1942. A section of the former Strecke 88 near Brno is today part of the R52 expressway of the Czech Republic.

Current density[edit]

As of 2013 Germany's autobahn network has a total length of about 12,845 km. From 2009 Germany has embarked on a massive widening and rehabilitation project, expanding the lane count of many of its major arterial routes, such as the A5 in the southwest and A8 going east-west.

Most sections of Germany's autobahns are modern, containing two or three, sometimes four lanes in addition to an emergency lane (hard shoulder). A few other sections remain in an old state, with two lanes, no emergency lane, and short slip-roads and ramps. Such a combination of the two types of autobahn can be seen on the A 9 autobahn (Munich–Berlin). Heading out from Munich, the autobahn starts off as modern, with four lanes in each direction plus emergency lane. In contrast, parts of the autobahn have only two lanes and no emergency lanes (only rare emergency bays with an emergency telephone post) such as in Thuringia, which was formerly part of East Germany, or most parts of the A 40 in West Germany.

Speed limits[edit]

This autobahn has two separated lanes in each direction and an emergency lane.
On the autobahns there is an advisory speed limit (Richtgeschwindigkeit) of 130 km/h (unless otherwise regulated by signs).
The "limits no longer apply" (Ende aller Streckenverbote) sign, indicating a return to the default speed, while lifting all other limits as well (all limits are indicated by round signs with red border).[17]
GPS tracks colored according to speed show considerable speed differences at an autobahn crossing

Germany's autobahns are famous for being among the few public roads in the world without blanket speed limits for cars and motorbikes. As such, they are important German cultural identifiers, "... often mentioned in hushed, reverential tones by motoring enthusiasts and looked at with a mix of awe and terror by outsiders."[1]

Certain limits are imposed on some classes of vehicles:

60 km/h (37 mph)
  • Buses carrying standing passengers
  • Motorcycles pulling trailers
80 km/h (50 mph)
  • Vehicles with maximum allowed weight exceeding 3.5 t (except passenger cars)
  • Passenger cars and trucks with trailers
  • Buses
100 km/h (62 mph)
  • Passenger cars pulling trailers certified for 100 km/h
  • Buses certified for 100 km/h not towing trailers[18]

Additionally, general speed limits apply at junctions[19] and other danger points like sections under construction or in need of repair.

Where no general limit is required, the advisory speed limit is 130 km/h, referred to in German as the Richtgeschwindigkeit. The advisory speed is not enforceable, however, being involved in an accident driving at higher speeds can lead to the driver being deemed at least partially responsible due to "increased operating danger" (Erhöhte Betriebsgefahr).

The Federal Highway Research Institute (Bundesanstalt für Straßenwesen) solicited information about speed regulations on autobahns from the sixteen States and reported the following, comparing the years 2006 and 2008:

Parameter[20]20062008Change
Autobahn Network24,735 km25,240 km+505 km
Advisory Limit Only69.2%65.5%-580 km
Variable Limit (with Advisory Maximum)4.2%4.1%-5 km
Permanent or Conditional Speed Limit26.7%30.4%+1,090 km

Except at construction sites, the general speed limits, where they apply, are usually between 100 km/h and 130 km/h; construction sites usually have a speed limit of 80 km/h but the limit may be as low as 60 km/h or, in very rare cases, 40 km/h. Certain stretches have lower speed limits during wet weather. Some areas have a speed limit of 120 km/h in order to reduce noise pollution during overnight hours (usually 10pm – 6am) or because of increased traffic during daytime (6am – 8pm).

Dynamic traffic signs on an Autobahn.

Some limits were imposed to reduce pollution and noise. Limits can also be temporarily put into place through dynamic traffic guidance systems that display the according message. More than half of the total length of the German autobahn network has no speed limit, about one third has a permanent limit, and the remaining parts have a temporary or conditional limit.

Some cars with very powerful engines can reach speeds of well over 300 km/h (190 mph). Most large car manufacturers, especially the German ones, follow a gentlemen's agreement by electronically limiting the top speeds of their cars – with the exception of some top of the range models or engines – to 250 km/h (155 mph).[21] These limiters can be deactivated, so speeds up to 300 km/h (190 mph) might arise on the German autobahn, but due to other traffic, such speeds are generally not attainable. Most unlimited sections of the autobahn are located outside densely populated areas.

Vehicles with a top speed less than 60 km/h (such as quads, low-end microcars, and agricultural/construction equipment) and motorcycles or scooters with low engine capacity regardless of top speed (mainly applicable to mopeds which are typically limited to 25 or 45 km/h anyway), are not allowed to use the autobahn. To comply with this limit, several heavy-duty trucks in Germany (e.g. mobile cranes, tank transporters etc.) have a maximum design speed of 62 km/h (39 mph) (usually denoted by a round black-on-white sign with "62" on it), along with flashing orange beacons to warn approaching cars that it is traveling slowly. There is no general minimum speed but drivers are not allowed to drive at an unnecessarily low speed as this would lead to significant traffic disturbance and an increased collision risk.

The following map with its associated legend shows the speed limits applied to different sections of the autobahn network.

Safety[edit]

In 2012, autobahns carried 31% of motorized road traffic while accounting for 11% of Germany's traffic deaths. The autobahn fatality rate of 1.7 deaths per billion-travel-kilometers compared favorably with the 5.1 rate on urban streets and 7.6 rate on rural roads.[22]

Between 1970 and 2010, overall German road fatalities decreased by almost 80%: from 19,193 to 3,648; over the same time-period, autobahn deaths decreased from 945 to 430 deaths.[22]

The leading cause of autobahn accidents is "excessive speed": 6,587 so-called "speed related" crashes claimed the lives of 179 people, which represents almost half (46.3%) of 387 autobahn fatalities in 2012.[23] However, "excessive speed" does not necessarily mean that the speed limit has been exceeded (if one even exists), rather that police determined at least one party traveled too fast for existing road[24] or weather conditions.[23] On autobahns 22 people died per 1000 injury crashes; a lower rate than the 29 deaths per 1,000 injury accidents on conventional rural roads, which in turn is five times higher than the risk on urban roads – speeds are higher on rural roads and autobahns than urban roads, increasing the severity potential of a crash.[23]

Road ClassInjury CrashesFatalitiesInjury Rate*Fatality Rate*Fatalities per 1000 Injury Crashes
Autobahn17,8473870.081.721.7
Urban206,6961,0621.395.15.1
Rural75,0942,1510.227.628.6
Total299,6373,6000.425.012.0

Safety: international comparison[edit]

A few countries publish the safety record of their motorways; the Federal Highway Research Institute[25] provided IRTAD statistics for the year 2010:

InternationalKilled per 1 billion veh·km
CountryAll roadsMotorways
Austria7.322.15
Belgium8.512.87
Czech Republic16.223.38
Denmark5.651.92
Finland5.050.61
France7.121.79
Germany5.181.98
Slovenia7.743.77
Switzerland5.251.04
United States[26]6.873.62

There are many differences between countries in their geography, economy, traffic growth, highway system size, degree of urbanization and motorization, etc.; all of which need to be taken into consideration when comparisons are made.[27]

The United States also provides fatality rates by State.[26] Selected U.S. states, primarily eastern ones, have fatality rates similar to European countries as tabularized next.

International/InterstateKilled per 1 billion veh·km
Country / US StateAll roadsMotorways
Finland5.050.61
Switzerland5.251.04
US: Delaware7.001.56
US: Minnesota4.501.65
France7.121.79
US: Maryland5.451.82
US: Washington4.971.88
US: Oregon5.821.91
Denmark5.651.92
Germany5.181.98
US: Maine6.862.01
US: Ohio5.992.07
US: Massachusetts3.582.15
Austria7.322.15
US: Wisconsin5.972.19
US: New York5.672.23
US: Indiana6.172.33
US: Illinois5.432.51
US: Virginia5.582.56
US: New Jersey4.722.79
US: California5.212.83
Belgium8.512.87
US: Michigan5.992.92
US: New Hampshire6.073.00
US: Hawaii7.013.01
US: Pennsylvania8.183.37
Czech Republic16.223.38
US: Vermont6.073.39
US: North Dakota7.883.50
US: Rhode Island4.943.50
US: Missouri7.173.52
US: Georgia6.903.58
US: Overall6.873.62
Slovenia7.743.77
US: North Carolina7.993.83
US: South Carolina10.223.88

Travel speeds[edit]

The Federal government does not regularly measure or estimate travel speeds.[28] One study reported in a transportation engineering journal offered historical perspective on the increase in travel speeds over a decade, as shown below.

ParametersYear
(for light vehicles)198219871992
Average speed112.3 km/h (70 mph)117.2 km/h (73 mph)120.4 km/h (75 mph)
85th percentile speed139.2 km/h (86 mph)145.1 km/h (90 mph)148.2 km/h (92 mph)
Percentage exceeding 130 km/h25.0%31.3%35.9%

Source: Kellermann, G: Geschwindigkeitsverhalten im Autobahnnetz 1992. Straße+Autobahn,[29] Issue 5/1995.[30]

The Federal Environmental Office reported that, on an free-flowing section in 1992, the recorded average speed was 132 km/h (82 mph) with 51% of drivers exceeding the recommended speed.[30]

In 2006, speeds were recorded using automated detection loops in the State of Brandenburg at two points: on a 6-lane section of A9 near Niemegk with a 130 km/h (81 mph) advisory speed limit; and on a 4-lane section of A10 bypassing Berlin near Groß Kreutz with a 120 km/h (75 mph) mandatory limit.[31] The results are shown below:

Average speedAutobahn cross-section
Speed regulation130 km/h advisory120 km/h mandatory
Vehicle classA9 (6 lanes)A10 (4 lanes)
Automobiles141.8 km/h (88 mph)116.5 km/h (72 mph)
Trucks88.2 km/h (55 mph)88.0 km/h (55 mph)
Buses97.7 km/h (61 mph)94.4 km/h (59 mph)
All vehicles131.9 km/h (82 mph)110.1 km/h (68 mph)

At peak times on the "free-flowing" section of A9, over 60% of road users exceeded the recommended 130 km/h (81 mph) maximum speed, more than 30% of motorists exceeded 150 km/h (93 mph), and more than 15% exceeded 170 km/h (106 mph)—in other words the so-called "85th percentile speed" was in excess of 170 km/h.[32]

Public debate[edit]

Responding to the 1973 oil crisis Germany, like other nations, imposed new or temporary speed restrictions; for example, 100 km/h (62 mph) on autobahns effective November 13, 1973.[33] Automakers projected a 20% plunge in sales, which they attributed in part to the lowered speed limits.[34] The 100 km/h limit championed by Transportation Minister Lauritz Lauritzen lasted 111 days,[35] replaced by a 130 km/h (81 mph) recommended limit. By way of comparison, adjacent nations with unlimited speed autobahns, such as Austria[36][37] and Switzerland,[38] imposed permanent 130 km/h (81 mph) limits after the crisis.

Since the mid-1980s, after environmental issues had gained importance and recognition among lawmakers, interest groups and the general public, there has been an ongoing debate on whether or not a general speed limit should be imposed for all autobahns. A car's fuel consumption increases with high speed, and fuel conservation is a key factor in reducing air pollution. Safety issues have been cited as well with regards to speed-related fatalities. Those opposed to a general speed limit maintain that such regulation is unnecessary because only two percent of the traffic in Germany runs on unlimited sections (the heavily used autobahn sections in metro areas do have a speed limit). Additionally, better fuel economy, even at high speeds, has been achieved in most modern cars. Moreover, international accident statistics demonstrate that limited access grade separated roads such as autobahns and motorways have much greater road traffic safety regardless of speed limit, suggesting that high speed alone isn't a deciding factor. The high-speed image projected by German car makers is an important marketing tool. Therefore, Germany's powerful car lobby, including a representative from the Volkswagen company, is vehemently opposed to the authorization of an autobahn speed limit.[39]

In the discussion about such plans during his political term of office, the former Bundeskanzler Gerhard Schröder was against the introduction of a hard speed limit in the autobahn, which he justified by calling Germany an "Autofahrernation" (a nation of drivers) to point out the fact that a speed limit would not be regarded positively by the public. True enough, after various polls, it was made clear that the German public is to a large degree against a hard speed limit on the entire autobahn network.

Over twenty years after the beginning of this debate, there are no concrete plans by the German government concerning such a speed limit. In October 2007, at a party congress held by the Social Democratic Party of Germany, delegates narrowly approved a proposal to introduce a blanket speed limit of 130 km/h (81 mph) on all German autobahns.[40] While this initiative is primarily a part of the SPD's general strategic outline for the future and, according to practices, not necessarily meant to affect immediate government policy, the proposal had stirred up a debate once again; Germany's chancellor Angela Merkel and leading cabinet members have expressed outspoken disapproval of such a measure.[41]

Toll roads[edit]

On 1 January 2005, a new system came into effect for mandatory tolls (Mautpflicht) on heavy trucks (those weighing more than 12 t) while using the German autobahn system (LKW-Maut). The German government contracted with a private company, Toll Collect GmbH, to operate the toll collection system, which has involved the use of vehicle-mounted transponders and roadway-mounted sensors installed throughout Germany. The toll is calculated depending on the toll route, as well as based on the pollution class of the vehicle, its weight and the number of axles on the vehicles. Certain vehicles, such as emergency vehicles and buses, are exempt from the toll. An average user is charged €0.15 per kilometre, or about $0.31 per mile (Toll Collect, 2007).

Traffic laws and enforcement[edit]

Driving in Germany is regulated by the Highway Code (Straßenverkehrs-Ordnung,[42] abbreviated StVO). Enforcement is handled by each State's Highway Patrol (Autobahnpolizei), sometimes using unmarked police cars and motorcycles and sometimes equipped with video cameras,[43][44] thus allowing easier enforcement of laws such as tailgating. Notable laws include the following.

German Police Car (North Rhine-Westphalia, green (old style))
German Police Car (Lower-Saxony, blue)

Popular culture[edit]

Film[edit]

Music[edit]

Video games[edit]

Need for Speed: ProStreet, Burnout 3: Takedown and Burnout Dominator use autobahn as one of their tracks. Burnout 3: Takedown named them as Alpine while Burnout Dominator divided them into two (Autobahn and Autobahn Loop). Need for Speed: Porsche Unleashed also had a track that had the player drive across different sections of the autobahn. The entire game world of Crash Time: Autobahn Pursuit is set on the autobahn. On Gran Turismo 5, a trophy is awarded to those who have driven the same distance as the autobahn total length. In December 2010 video game developer Synetic GmbH and Conspiracy Entertainment released the title Alarm für Cobra 11 – Die Autobahnpolizei featuring real world racing and mission based gameplay it is taken from the popular German television series about a two-man team of Autobahnpolizei first set in Berlin then later in North Rhine-Westphalia.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Jeremic, Sam (16 September 2013). "Fun, fun, fun on the autobahn". The West Australian. Retrieved 17 September 2013. 
  2. ^ http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/slow-down-german-state-introduces-autobahn-speed-limit-a-546291.html
  3. ^ "Federal Statistic Office". Statistik-portal.de. 1 January 2012. Retrieved 3 September 2012. 
  4. ^ W. Dick; A. Lichtenberg (4 August 2012). "The myth of Hitler's role in building the German autobahn". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 4 August 2012. 
  5. ^ "Europas erste Autobahn wird 75". Spiegel Online (in German). 4 August 2007. 
  6. ^ German Myth 8 Hitler and the Autobahn German.about.com
  7. ^ Wie die Autobahn ins Rheinland kam, documentary (German)
  8. ^ rf/cj. "Die Reichsautobahnen". DEUTSCHES HISTORISCHES MUSEUM (in German). DEUTSCHES HISTORISCHES MUSEUM. Retrieved 1 July 2012. 
  9. ^ Gartman, David (2009). From Autos to Architecture: Fordism and Architectural Aesthetics in the Twentieth Century. Chronicle Books. p. 148. 
  10. ^ Adam Tooze (2008). The Wages of Destruction: The Making and Breaking of the Nazi Economy. Penguin. pp. 45–46, 59–60. 
  11. ^ Richard Vahrenkamp. Roads without Cars. The HAFRABA Association and the Autobahn Project 1933–1943 in Germany.
  12. ^ "Working Papers in the History of Mobility No. 1/2001". Ibwl.uni-kassel.de. Retrieved 2012-01-14. 
  13. ^ http://www.upi.com/Top_News/World-News/2013/09/30/Last-section-of-Germanys-Autobahn-to-disappear/UPI-89031380565722/
  14. ^ "The myth of Hitler's role in building the German autobahn". The Local. Sep 30, 2013. Retrieved 2013-10-05. "The four-kilometre stretch of road on the A11, north east of Berlin in the state of Brandenburg, dates from 1936... Frank Gotzmann, director of the nearby town of Gartz, told the newspaper: “The condition of the motorway is unbearable. Everyone drives carefully on it.” In 2016 the road will be 80 years old, so “maybe Unesco will make it a world heritage site,” he joked. The road was laid using 25-metre-long concrete slabs. These are too long, said Reinhard Arndt, member of a motorway history club. The slabs are cracking under the weight of the traffic as well as the weather." 
  15. ^ http://www.welt.de/print/wams/motor/article120484851/Vier-Kilometer-Geschichte.html
  16. ^ "Beginn des Autobahnbaus in Österreich" (in German). Wabweb.net. Retrieved 14 January 2012. 
  17. ^ Brian Purcell (2010). "National Transport Rules of the Road". Brian's Guide To Getting Around Germany. Brian Purcell. Retrieved 1 July 2012. 
  18. ^ §18 of german road traffic regulations law
  19. ^ "A 95: Unfall-Porsche beschlagnahmt: Starnberg - Nach dem tödlichen Unfall auf der Autobahn A 95 am Starnberger Dreieck stellt sich die Frage einer Geschwindigkeitsbegrenzung. Bereits im Oktober 2012 gab es hier einen schweren Unfall. [Translation: A 95: Crashed Porsche Seized: Starnberg - After the fatal accident on autobahn A95 at Starnberg three-way junction, the question of a speed limit arises. In October 2012 there was a prior serious accident here.]". Merkur Online [The Mercury online version]. Aug 6, 2013. Retrieved 2013-09-29. "Die Spekulationen über das Tempo des Porsche schießen ins Kraut – und es kommt die Frage auf, ob ein Tempolimit auf der zweispurigen Strecke den Unfall hätte verhindern können. Der Porsche – nach neueren Angaben ein mit einem 911er fast identischer 996 GT3 mit mehr als 350 PS – soll deutlich mehr als 200 Stundenkilometer schnell gewesen sein... Bis November 2007 galt am Starnberger Dreieck ein Tempolimit von 120 km/h. Das allerdings war nur ein vierjähriger Test – nachdem es schwere Unfälle gegeben hatte. Eine Verbesserung war damals nicht festgestellt worden. Über eine Wiedereinführung oder andere Maßnahmen müsste die Unfallkommission von Autobahndirektion und Polizei entscheiden. Ob der Unfall dort bei der nächsten jährlichen Sitzung Thema sein wird oder Anlass für eine so genannte Sonderverkehrsschau ist, war gestern noch unklar. Die Kommission befasst sich nur mit Unfallschwerpunkten. [Translation: Speculation about the speed of the Porsche is running wild - and with it comes to the question of whether a speed limit could have prevented the accident. The Porsche... was said to be traveling significantly faster than 200 kilometers per hour. Until November 2007 a speed limit of 120 km / h was in force at the Starnberg 3-way interchange. However, that was only a four-year test - initiated after some serious accidents. An improvement was not observed at that time. A reintroduction or other measures may be decided by the crash commission of the Highway Administration and the police. Whether the accident a subject at the next annual meeting of the commission or whether a so-called special meeting will be called was still unclear. The commission deals only with collision black spots.]" 
  20. ^ http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=de&u=http://www.bast.de/nn_42642/DE/Publikationen/Download-Berichte/downloads/V1-BAB-Tempolimit-2008,templateId%3Draw,property%3DpublicationFile.pdf/V1-BAB-Tempolimit-2008.pdf&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dsite:bast.de%2B%2522Tempolimits%2Bauf%2BAutobahnen%2522%26es_sm%3D93
  21. ^ "Grenzenlos – das 250 km/h-Limit bröckelt", Auto, Motor und Sport (German)
  22. ^ a b http://www.bast.de (December 2012). "Traffic and Accident Data: Summary Statistics - Germany" (PDF). Bundesanstalt für Straßenwesen (Federal Highway Research Institute). Bundesanstalt für Straßenwesen. Retrieved 2013-09-10. 
  23. ^ a b c www.destatis.de (10. Juli 2013). "Unfallentwicklung auf deutschen Straßen 2012 (Crashes on German Roads 2012)" (PDF). Statistisches Bundesamt (Federal Statistics Office). Statistisches Bundesamt. Retrieved 2013-09-23. "(Seite 19) Mit 29 Getöteten je 1 000 Unfälle mit Personenschaden ist das Todesrisiko auf Landstraßen fünfmal höher als auf Innerortsstraßen und auch höher als auf Autobahnen, auf denen 22 Personen je 1000 Unfälle starben. Ein Grund für das wesentlich höhere Risiko auf Landstraßen und Autobahnen ist, dass hier wesentlich schneller gefahren wird als auf Innerortsstraßen und dadurch die Unfallschwere steigt.. (Seite 20) Hauptunfallursache auf Autobahnen ist die „nicht angepasste Geschwindigkeit“. Im Jahr 2012 waren mehr als ein Drittel aller Unfälle mit Personenschaden auf Autobahnen Unfälle, bei denen mindestens einem Beteiligten dieses Fehlverhalten zur Last gelegt wurde. Bei insgesamt 6 587 sogenannten Geschwindigkeitsunfällen kamen 179 Menschen zu Tode, das heißt nahezu die Hälfte (46,3 %) aller Getöteten auf Autobahnen... (Seite 20) Hierbei ist allerdings zu berücksichtigen, dass die Unfallursache „nicht angepasste Geschwindigkeit“ häufig nicht bedeutet, dass die zulässige Höchstgeschwindigkeit überschritten worden ist. „Nicht angepasste Geschwindigkeit“ wird von der Polizei bei einem Unfall auch dann als Ursache erfasst, wenn ein Beteiligter für die vorliegenden Straßen- oder Witterungsverhältnisse zu schnell gefahren ist." 
  24. ^ "A 95: Polizei geschockt über "immenses Tempo" [Translation: A 95: Police Shocked At High Speed]". Merkur Online [The Mercury online version]. Aug 5, 2013. Retrieved 2013-09-29. "den stellvertretenden Kommandanten der Feuerwehr aus Hohenschäftlarn (Kreis München), Daniel Buck... war mit seinen Kollegen einer der ersten an der Unfallstelle, an der ein Porschefahrer (51) so schnell in den Toyota einer 67-jährigen Weilheimerin bretterte, dass sich ihr Auto mehrmals überschlug. Die Frau musste noch vor Ort reanimiert werden, starb jedoch später im Krankenhaus. Die beiden Männer im Porsche kamen mit leichten Verletzungen davon... Auf Höhe des Dreiecks Starnberg verlor er auf der linken Spur die Kontrolle über sein Auto. Er kam ins Schleudern, schoss rechts über einen Grünstreifen und kam auf dem Zubringer aus Starnberg wieder auf die Fahrbahn. Dort rammte er die 67-jährige Weilheimerin in ihrem Toyota... Zeugen vor Ort schätzen, dass der Sportwagen mit rund 300 Kilometer pro Stunde unterwegs war... Ein Zeuge hatte seinen Tempomat auf 140 Stundenkilometer eingestellt und war von dem Sportwagen überholt worden. „Er schätzt, der Porsche war doppelt so schnell“, sagt Buck. Und: „...Schneller wie 160 Kilometer pro Stunde ist hier absolut unangemessen.“. [Translation: deputy commander of the fire brigade from Hohenschaeftlarn county (Munich), Daniel Buck...was one of the first with his colleagues at the accident site where a Porsche driver (age 51) bashed into the Toyota driven by a 67-year-old Weilheim in Oberbayern resident, rolling her car over several times. The woman had to be resuscitated on site, but died later in hospital. The two men in the Porsche escaped with minor injuries... At the peak of the Starnberg interchange in the left lane he lost control of his car. He went into a skid, shot right through a grass strip to ram the 67-year-old Weilheimer resident in her Toyota... Witnesses on site estimated that the sports car was traveling about 300 kilometers per hour... One witness had his cruise control set at 140 kilometers per hour and was overtaken by the sports car. "He estimates the Porsche was twice as fast," says Buck. And: "This is simply irresponsible; even as fast as 160 kilometers per hour is absolutely inappropriate. "]" 
  25. ^ http://www.bast.de (December 2012). "International Traffic and Accident Data: Selected Risk Values for the Year 2010" (PDF). Bundesanstalt für Straßenwesen (Federal Highway Research Institute). Bundesanstalt für Straßenwesen. Retrieved 2013-09-10. 
  26. ^ a b http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/ (December 2012). "Highway Statistics: Table VM-2: Vehicle-miles of travel, by functional system; Table FI-10: Persons fatally injured in motor vehicle crashes, by Federal-aid highways". Federal Highway Administration. Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved 2013-09-10. 
  27. ^ http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policyinformation/statistics/2011/2_intro.cfm
  28. ^ "SPEED Fact Sheet. German Autobahn: The Speed Limit Debate" (PDF). European Transport Safety Council. Feb 2008. Retrieved 3 December 2010. "In Germany, measurement to estimate mean or average speeds on the motorways network was stopped in 1993..." 
  29. ^ http://www.strasse-und-autobahn.de
  30. ^ a b Dr Gunnar Gohlisch and Marion Malow (June 1999). "Umweltauswirkungen von Geschwindigkeitsbeschränkungen [Environmental Impacts of Speed Limits]" (PDF). Umweltbundesamt[Federal Environmental Office]. Retrieved 2013-09-28. "Auf Autobahnabschnittten, die eine weitgehend freie Geschwindigkeitswahl zulassen, lag die mittlere Pkw-Geschwindigkeit 1992 bei 132 km/h. Mehr als die Hälfte der Pkw-Fahrer (51 %) überschreitet auf derartigen Abschnitten die Richtgeschwindigkeit." 
  31. ^ "Auswirkungen eines allgemeinen Tempolimits auf Autobahnen im Land Brandenburg". Brandenburg. October 2007. Retrieved 4 December 2010.
    1) (German:) "Auf einer 6-streifigen Autobahn ergibt sich für den Pkw-Verkehr im Mittel eine Geschwindigkeit von 142 km/h... Der Bereich zwischen v15 (von 15% unterschritten) und v85 (von 85% unterschritten) wird für den geschwindigkeitsunbegrenzten Abschnitt mit 115 ... 167 km/h"
  32. ^ " Lärmaktionsplan 2008 der Stadt Gera". Gera. April 30, 2009. Retrieved 2013-10-11.
    1) (German:) „Die real gefahrene Geschwindigkeit auf „freigegebenen“ Autobahnabschnitten liegt jedoch deutlich höher, wie das in Abb. 54 dargestellte Beispiel von der A9 im Bereich Niemegk zeigt. Die V85 liegt teilweise bei über 170 km/h. Im Schnitt fahren deutlich über 60 % der Verkehrsteilnehmer schneller als 130 km/h. Mehr als 30 % der Verkehrsteilnehmer fahren im Schnitt schneller als 150 km/h“
  33. ^ http://www.chroniknet.de/tml1_de.0.html?article=268872
  34. ^ "Dann sind wir tot ("Then We're Dead")". Der Spiegel ("The Mirror"). 04.03.1974. Retrieved 2013-09-10. "Selbst notorisch optimistische Automanager geben zu, daß die Branche "mit einem steifen Gegenwind" fertig werden muß. Sie rechnen für dieses Jahr mit einem Produktionsminus von etwa zwanzig Prozent. [Even notoriously optimistic auto executives admit that the industry faces "a stiff headwind." They expect this year a production fall of about twenty percent]" 
  35. ^ "111 Tage mit Tempo 100 ("111 Days With Speed 100")". Frankfurter Rundschau. 2013-May-10. Retrieved 2013-09-10. "Die bisherigen Kräfteverhältnisse zwischen Befürwortern und Gegnern eines Tempolimits auf bundesdeutschen Autobahnen sind eindeutig: Eine generelle Beschränkung der Geschwindigkeit gab es in der 80-jährigen Geschichte dieser Straßen nur ein einziges Mal und sie galt lediglich 111 Tage lang. [The current balance of power between supporters and opponents of a speed limit on German motorways is clear: The only general speed limitation in the 80-year history of autobahns happened only once, and lasted only 111 days.]" 
  36. ^ http://oesv1.orf.at/stories/358361
  37. ^ http://www.oeamtc.at/?id=2500%2C1136024%2C%2C
  38. ^ http://www.amtsdruckschriften.bar.admin.ch/viewOrigDoc.do?id=10043356&page=2
  39. ^ Kate Connolly (30 October 2007). "Car lobby angry at plan to limit autobahn speeds". The Guardian. Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved 1 July 2012. 
  40. ^ "No More Fun on the Autobahn?" by Andrew Purvis, 29 October 2007, Time World
  41. ^ "Merkel Rebuffs German Social Democrats' Call for Speed Limit" by Andreas Cremer, 29 October 2007, Bloomberg News
  42. ^ http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/stvo_2013/
  43. ^ http://www.tagesspiegel.de/berlin/mit-dem-videowagen-unterwegs-beim-blitzmarathon-der-ganz-normale-wahnsinn-auf-berlins-strassen/8916704.html
  44. ^ http://www.ksta.de/region/autobahn-polizei-mit-der-kamera-gegen-raser,15189102,12017330.html
  45. ^ http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/stvo_2013/__5.html
  46. ^ Geoff Ziezulewicz (May 4, 2006). "Fines go up as Germans get tough on tailgaters". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 2013-09-24. "Drivers who ride the bumper of the car in front of them can now expect a fine of up to 375 euros (nearly $470), a rise of nearly 100 euros from the previous maximum, said Sven Stadtrecher, a German police liaison officer to the U.S. military in Heidelberg. Drivers can also lose their license for up to three months. Before the new regulations went into effect, a monthlong suspension was the maximum penalty, he said. Fines will start at 35 euros for a speed of 80 kilometers an hour, Stadtrecher said, adding that drivers must keep a distance in meters that is equal to half their speed. For example, a driver going 100 km/h on the autobahn must keep a distance of at least 50 meters (165 feet). Fines and penalties will increase at higher speeds and will also take into account how long the driver tailgates." 
  47. ^ Melissa Eddy (October 28, 2003). "DaimlerChrysler car tester charged in fatal tailgating crash on German autobahn". Jacksonville Times (AP). Retrieved 2013-09-24. "The 34-year-old German man faces charges of manslaughter and endangering traffic as well as fleeing the scene the July 14 accident [that killeda young mother and her 2-year-old daughter]... According to the indictment, he was barreling down the highway behind the wheel of a company-owned, 476-horsepower Mercedes Benz CL 600 coupe when he tried to overtake the woman on the far-left shoulder. The 21-year-old woman lost control of her car after swerving sharply to the right to avoid the Mercedes, which prosecutors said approached at up to 250 kilometers an hour (155 mph) to within a few meters of her bumper. She spun across two lanes and smashed into a bank of trees." 
  48. ^ http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/stvo_2013/__11.html

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]