Austronesian peoples

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Austronesian people
Langues-autronesiennes.png
Modern distribution of Austronesian languages
Total population
386,000,000+
Regions with significant populations
Indonesia: 222,781,000 (2005)

Philippines: 92,226,600 [1]
Malaysia: 12,290,000 (2006) [2]
Papua New Guinea: 6,300,000
Madagascar: over 5 million (1998) [3]
East Timor: 947,000 (2004)
New Zealand: 855,000 (2006) [4] [5]
Brunei: 724,000? (2006)
Singapore: over 600,000[1]
Solomon Islands: 478,000 (2005)
Taiwan: 480,000 (2006)
Fiji: 456,000 (2005) [6]
Hawaii (United States): 140,652 or 401,162 (depending on definition) [2]
Suriname: 71,000 (2009) [3]

Languages

Austronesian (Malayo-Polynesian languages or Formosan languages)

Religion

Islam, Christianity, Animism, and Hinduism.

 
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Austronesian people
Langues-autronesiennes.png
Modern distribution of Austronesian languages
Total population
386,000,000+
Regions with significant populations
Indonesia: 222,781,000 (2005)

Philippines: 92,226,600 [1]
Malaysia: 12,290,000 (2006) [2]
Papua New Guinea: 6,300,000
Madagascar: over 5 million (1998) [3]
East Timor: 947,000 (2004)
New Zealand: 855,000 (2006) [4] [5]
Brunei: 724,000? (2006)
Singapore: over 600,000[1]
Solomon Islands: 478,000 (2005)
Taiwan: 480,000 (2006)
Fiji: 456,000 (2005) [6]
Hawaii (United States): 140,652 or 401,162 (depending on definition) [2]
Suriname: 71,000 (2009) [3]

Languages

Austronesian (Malayo-Polynesian languages or Formosan languages)

Religion

Islam, Christianity, Animism, and Hinduism.

The Austronesian-speaking peoples[4] are various populations in Southeast Asia and Oceania that speak languages of the Austronesian family. They include Taiwanese aborigines; the majority ethnic groups of East Timor, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Brunei, Madagascar, Micronesia, and Polynesia, as well as the Polynesian peoples of New Zealand and Hawaii, and the non-Papuan people of Melanesia. They are also found in Singapore, the Pattani region of Thailand, and the Cham areas of Vietnam (remnants of the Champa kingdom which covered central and southern Vietnam), Cambodia, and Hainan, China. The territories populated by Austronesian-speaking peoples are known collectively as Austronesia.

Contents

Prehistory and history

Archaeological evidence demonstrates a technological connection between the farming cultures of the south (Southeast Asia and Melanesia) and sites that are first known from mainland China, whereas a combination of archaeological and linguistic evidence has been interpreted as supporting a northern (southern China and Taiwan) origin for the Austronesian language family. In a recent treatment, all Austronesian languages were classified into 10 subfamilies, with all the extra-Formosan languages grouped in one subfamily and with representatives of the remaining 9 known only in Taiwan.[5] It has been argued that these patterns are best explained by dispersal of an agricultural people from Taiwan into insular Southeast Asia, Melanesia, and, ultimately, the remote Pacific. Although this model—termed the “express train to Polynesia”[6][7] – is broadly consistent with available data, concerns have been raised.[8] Alternatives to this model posit an indigenous origin for the Austronesian languages in Melanesia or Southeast Asia.[9][10][11][12]

An Atayal tribal woman from Taiwan with tattoo on her face as a symbol of maturity, which was a tradition for both males and females.
A Rukai village chief visiting the Department of Anthropology in the Tokyo Imperial University during the Japanese rule.

Migration and dispersion

Out of Taiwan model

An element in the ancestry of Austronesian-speaking peoples, the one which carried their ancestral language, originated on the island of Taiwan following the migration of pre-Austronesian-speaking peoples from continental Asia approximately 10,000-6000 BC.[5][13] Other research has suggested that, according to radiocarbon dates, Austronesians may have migrated from mainland China to Taiwan as late as 4000 BC.[14]

According to mainstream "out-of-Taiwan model", a large-scale Austronesian expansion began around 5000-2500 BC. Population growth primarily fueled this migration. These first settlers may have landed in northern Luzon in the archipelago of the Philippines, intermingling with the earlier Australo-Melanesian population who had inhabited the islands since about 23,000 years earlier. Over the next thousand years, Austronesian peoples migrated southeast to the rest of the Philippines, and into the islands of the Celebes Sea, Borneo, and Indonesia. The Austronesian peoples of Maritime Southeast Asia sailed eastward, and spread to the islands of Melanesia and Micronesia between 1200 BC and 500 AD respectively. The Austronesian inhabitants that spread westward through Maritime Southeast Asia had reached some parts of mainland Southeast Asia, and later on Madagascar.[13][15]

Sailing from Melanesia, and Micronesia, the Austronesian peoples discovered Polynesia by 1000 BC. These people settled most of the Pacific Islands. They had settled Easter Island by 300 AD, Hawaii by 400 AD, and into New Zealand by about 1280 AD. In the Indian Ocean they sailed west from Maritime Southeast Asia; the Austronesian peoples reached Madagascar by 0-500 AD.[16][17]

The Taiwan hypothesis is mainly based on linguistic and partly archaeological evidence, and says nothing about genes or the oldest migrations to East Asia and the initial colonizing of the area, only about the migration that led to the spread of the Austronesian languages.

Out of Sundaland model

This "out of Taiwan model" has been recently challenged by a study from Leeds University and published in Molecular Biology and Evolution. Examination of mitochondrial DNA lineages shows that they have been evolving within Island Southeast Asia (ISEA) for a longer period than previously believed. Population dispersals occurred at the same time as sea levels rose, which may have resulted in migrations from the Philippine Islands to as far north as Taiwan within the last 10,000 years.[18] The population migrations were most likely to have been driven by climate change — the effects of the drowning of a huge ancient peninsula called ‘Sundaland’ (that extended the Asian landmass as far as Borneo and Java). This happened during the period 15,000 to 7,000 years ago following the last Ice Age. He outlines how rising sea levels in three massive pulses caused flooding and the submergence of the Sunda Peninsula, creating the Java and South China Seas and the thousands of islands that make up Indonesia and the Philippines today.

The new findings from HUGO also shows that Asia was populated primarily through a single migration event from the south.[19] They found genetic similarities between populations throughout Asia and an increase in genetic diversity from northern to southern latitudes. Although the Chinese population is very large, it has less variation than the smaller number of individuals living in South East Asia, because the Chinese expansion occurred very recently, following the development of rice agriculture - within only the last 10,000 years.

Genomic analysis of cultivated coconut (Coco nucifera L.) has shed light on the movements of Austronesian peoples. By examining 10 microsatelite loci, researchers found that there are 2 genetically distinct subpopulations of coconut – one originating in the Indian Ocean, the Other in the Pacific Ocean. However, there is evidence of admixture, the transfer of genetic material, between the two populations. Given that coconuts are ideally suited for ocean dispersal, it seems possible that individuals from one population could have floated to the other. However, the locations of the admixture events are limited to Madagascar and coastal east Africa and exclude the Seychelles. This pattern coincides with the known trade routes of Austronesian sailors. Additionally, there is a genetically distinct subpopulation of coconut on the eastern coast of South America which has undergone a genetic bottleneck resulting from a founder effect, however its ancestral population is the pacific coconut which suggests that Austronesian peoples may have sailed as far east as the Americas [20]

Formation of tribes and kingdoms

By the beginning of the first millennium AD, most of the Austronesian inhabitants in Maritime Southeast Asia began trading with India and China which allowed the creation of Indianized kingdoms such as Srivijaya, Melayu, Majapahit, and the establishment of Hinduism and Buddhism. Muslim traders from the Arabian peninsula were thought to have brought Islam by the 10th century. Islam was established as the dominant religion in the Indonesian archipelago by the 16th century. The Austronesian inhabitants of Polynesia were unaffected by this cultural trade, and retained their indigenous culture in the Pacific region.[citation needed]

Europeans in search of spices later colonized most of the Austronesian speaking countries of the Asia-Pacific region, beginning from the 16th century with the Portuguese, and Spanish colonization of some parts of Indonesia (present day East Timor), the Philippines, Palau, Guam, and the Mariana Islands; the Dutch colonization of the Indonesian archipelago; the British colonization of Malaysia and Oceania; the French colonization of French Polynesia; and later, the American governance of the Pacific.[citation needed]

Meanwhile, the British, Germans, French, Americans, and Japanese began establishing spheres of influence within the Pacific Islands during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The Japanese later invaded most of Southeast Asia and some parts of the Pacific during World War II. The latter half of the 20th century initiated independence of modern-day Malaysia, Philippines, the Indonesia, and many of the Pacific Island nations.[citation needed]

Genetic studies

Genetic studies have been done on the people and related groups.[21] The Haplogroup O1 (Y-DNA)a-M119 genetic marker is frequently detected in Austronesians, as well as some ethnic minorities in China (southern non-Han Chinese).[22] Other genetic markers found in native Austronesian populations are Haplogroup C (Y-DNA) and Haplogroup O3 (Y-DNA).[citation needed]

Geographic distribution

Map showing the distribution of the Austronesian language family (light pink). It roughly corresponds to the distribution of the Austronesian people.

Austronesian peoples consist of the following groupings by name and geographic location.

According to a recent studies by Stanford University in the United States, there is wide variety of paternal ancestry among the Austronesian people. Aside from European introgression found in Maritime Southeast Asia, Oceania, and Madagascar. They constitute the dominant ethnic group in Maritime Southeast Asia, Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia, and Madagascar. An estimated figure of around 380,000,000 people living in these regions are of Austronesian descent.

They constitute the dominant ethnic groups in Malaysia, Indonesia, Brunei, the Philippines, the southernmost part of Thailand and East Timor, which together with Singapore make up what is called the Malay archipelago. Outside this area, they inhabit Palau, Guam and the Northern Marianas, most of Madagascar, the Cham areas of Vietnam and Cambodia (the remnants of the Champa kingdom which covered central and southern Vietnam), and all countries in the Micronesian and Polynesian sphere of influence.

Culture

A Tagalog couple of the Maginoo caste depicted in the 16th century Boxer Codex

The native culture of Austronesia is diverse, varying from region to region.

The early Austronesian peoples considered the sea as the basic tenet of their life. Following their diaspora to Southeast Asia and Oceania, they used boats to migrate to other islands. Boats of different sizes and shapes have been found in every Austronesian culture, from Madagascar, Maritime Southeast Asia, to Polynesia, and have different names (reference required).

In Southeast Asia, head-hunting was particularly restricted to the highlands as a result of warfare. Mummification is only found among the highland Austronesian Filipinos, and in some Indonesian groups in Celebes and Sumatra.

Language

Writing

Petroglyph on the western coast of Hawaii. Petroglyphs were symbolic, but could not encode language.
An Austronesian abugida known as Baybayin.

With the possible exception of rongorongo on Easter Island, writing among pre-modern Austronesians was limited to the Indianized states and the sultanates of the Malay Archipelago. These systems included abugidas from the Brahmic family, such as Baybayin, the Javanese script, and Old Kawi, and abjads derived from the Arabic script such as Jawi.

Since the 20th century, new scripts were mostly alphabets adapted from the Latin alphabet, as in the Hawaiian alphabet, Filipino alphabet, and Malay alphabet; however, several Formosan languages are written in zhuyin, and Cia-Cia off Sulawesi has experimented with hangul.

Religion

Indigenous religions were initially predominant. Mythologies vary by culture and geographical location, but are generally bound by the belief in an all-powerful divinity. Other beliefs such as ancestor worship, animism, and shamanism are also practiced. Currently, many of these beliefs have gradually been replaced. Examples of native religions include: Anito, Gabâ, Kejawen, and the Māori religion. The moai of the Rapa Nui is another example since they are built to represent deceased ancestors.

Southeast Asian contact with India and China allowed the introduction of Hinduism and Buddhism. Later, Muslim traders introduced the Islamic faith between the periods of the 10th, and 13th century. The European Age of Discovery, brought Christianity to various parts of the region, including both Aotearoa (the native name for New Zealand before it was named later by the Dutch) and Australia. Currently, the dominant religions are Islam found in Indonesia, Malaysia, southern Thailand, the southern Philippines, and Brunei; Hinduism in Bali, and Fiji; and Christianity in the Philippines, East Timor, Papua New Guinea, most of the Pacific Islands, and Madagascar.

Arts

A young Bontok man from the Philippines with tattoos on chest, and arms (circa 1908).

Body art among Austronesian peoples is common, especially tattooing. It is particularly prominent in Polynesian cultures, from where the word "tattoo" derives. One such example is the Te moko of New Zealand Māori, but tattooing is also prominent among Austronesian groups in the Philippines, Indonesia, and Borneo. Decorated jars and other forms of pottery are also common.

Austronesian peoples living close to mainland Asia, are influenced by the native, Chinese, Indian, and Islamic art forms.

Music

Gamelan's traditional instruments – Indonesian Embassy in Canberra.

The Austronesian music in Maritime Southeast Asia had a mixture of Chinese, Indian, and Islamic musical styles and sounds that had fused together with the indigenous Austronesian culture and music. In Indonesia, Gamelan, a type of orchestra that incorporates Xylophone and Metallophone elements, is widely used in its Hindu, Buddhist, and Islamic cultural tradition. In some parts of the southern, and northern Philippines, an Islamic gong-drum known as Kulintang, and a gong-chime known as Gangsa, is also used. The Austronesian music of Oceania have retained their indigenous Austronesian sounds. The Slit drums is an indigenous Austronesian musical instrument that were invented and used by the Southeast Asian-Austronesian, and Oceanic-Austronesian ethnic groups.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ About 13.6% of the Singaporeans are of Malay descent. In addition to these, many Chinese Singaporeans are also of mixed Austronesian descent. See also http://www.singstat.gov.sg/keystats/c2000/indicators.pdf
  2. ^ U.S. 2000 Census
  3. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ns.html#People
  4. ^ According to the anthropologist Wilhelm Solheim II: "I emphasize again, as I have done in many other articles, that 'Austronesian' is a linguistic term and is the name of a super language family. It should never be used as a name for a people, genetically speaking, or a culture. To refer to people who speak an Austronesian language the phrase 'Austronesian speaking people' should be used." Origins of the Filipinos and Their Languages. (January 2006).
  5. ^ a b Blust R (1999) Subgrouping, circularity and extinction: some issues in Austronesian comparative linguistics. In: Zeitoun E, Jen-kuei Li, P (eds) Selected papers from the Eighth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics. Academia Sinica, Taipei, pp 31–94
  6. ^ Jared M. Diamond (1988). "Express train to Polynesia". Nature 336 (6197): 307–308. doi:10.1038/336307a0. 
  7. ^ Jared M. Diamond (1998). Guns, Germs, and Steel. Vintage. pp. 336ff. ISBN 84-8306-667-X. 
  8. ^ Richards, Martin; Oppenheimer, Stephen; Sykes, Bryan (1998). "mtDNA suggests Polynesian origins in Eastern Indonesia". American Journal of Human Genetics 63 (4): 1234–1236. doi:10.1086/302043. PMC 1377476. PMID 9758601. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1377476/. 
  9. ^ Isidore Dyen (1962). "The lexicostatistical classification of Malayapolynesian languages". Language (Language, Vol. 38, No. 1) 38 (1): 38–46. doi:10.2307/411187. JSTOR 411187. 
  10. ^ Isidore Dyen (1965). "A Lexicostatistical Classification of the Austronesian Languages". Internationald Journal of American Linguistics, Memoir 19: 38–46. 
  11. ^ Oppenheimer, Stephen (1998). Eden in the east: the drowned continent. London: Weidenfield & Nicholson. ISBN 0-297-81816-3. 
  12. ^ http://hpgl.stanford.edu/publications/AJHG_2001_v68_p432.pdf
  13. ^ a b Gray, RD; Drummond, AJ; Greenhill, SJ (2009). "Language Phylogenies Reveal Expansion Pulses and Pauses in Pacific Settlement". Science 323 (5913): 479–483. doi:10.1126/science.1166858. PMID 19164742. 
  14. ^ Kun, Ho Chuan (2006). "On the Origins of Taiwan Austronesians". In K. R. Howe (in English). Vaka Moana: Voyages of the Ancestors (3 ed.). Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. pp. 92, 92-93. ISBN 978-0-8248-3213-1. 
  15. ^ Pawley, A. (2002). The Austronesian dispersal: languages, technologies and people. In P. Bellwood & C. Renfrew, Examining the farming/language dispersal hypothesis (p. 251-273). Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research.
  16. ^ Dewar, RE; Wright, HT (1993). "The culture history of Madagascar". Journal of World Prehistory 7 (4): 417–466. doi:10.1007/BF00997802. 
  17. ^ Burney DA, Burney LP, Godfrey LR, Jungers WL, Goodman SM, Wright HT, Jull AJ (2004). "A chronology for late prehistoric Madagascar". Journal of Human Evolution 47 (1–2): 25–63. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2004.05.005. PMID 15288523. 
  18. ^ Dr. Martin Richards. "Climate Change and Postglacial Human Dispersals in Southeast Asia". Oxford Journals. http://www.physorg.com/news130761648.html. Retrieved 2010. 
  19. ^ A study done by HUGO showed that the continent was likely populated primarily through a single migration event from the south.
  20. ^ Gunn, Bee; Luc Baudouin, Kenneth M. Olsen (2011). "Independent Origins of Cultivated Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) in the Old World Tropics". PLoS ONE 6 (6). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0021143. http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0021143. Retrieved 28 November 2011. 
  21. ^ The Austronesian Moment
  22. ^ 臺灣原住民族的Y 染色體多樣性與華南史前文化的關連性

Books

External links