Augmented reality

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

 
Jump to: navigation, search
Wikitude World Browser on the iPhone 3GS uses GPS and a solid state compass
Samsung SARI AR SDK markerless tracker used in the AR EdiBear game (Android OS)
AR Tower Defense game on the Nokia N95 smartphone (Symbian OS) uses fiduciary markers

Augmented reality (AR) is a live, copy, view of a physical, real-world environment whose elements are augmented (or supplemented) by computer-generated sensory input such as sound, video, graphics or GPS data. It is related to a more general concept called mediated reality, in which a view of reality is modified (possibly even diminished rather than augmented) by a computer. As a result, the technology functions by enhancing one’s current perception of reality.[1] By contrast, virtual reality replaces the real world with a simulated one.[2][3] Augmentation is conventionally in real-time and in semantic context with environmental elements, such as sports scores on TV during a match. With the help of advanced AR technology (e.g. adding computer vision and object recognition) the information about the surrounding real world of the user becomes interactive and digitally manipulable. Artificial information about the environment and its objects can be overlaid on the real world.[4][5][6][7]

Technology[edit]

Hardware[edit]

Hardware components for augmented reality are: processor, display, sensors and input devices. Modern mobile computing devices like smartphones and tablet computers contain these elements which often include a camera and MEMS sensors such as accelerometer, GPS, and solid state compass, making them suitable AR platforms.[8]

Display[edit]

Various technologies are used in Augmented Reality rendering including optical projection systems, monitors, hand held devices, and display systems worn on one's person.

Head-mounted[edit]

A head-mounted display (HMD) is a display device paired to a headset such as a harness or helmet. HMDs place images of both the physical world and virtual objects over the user's field of view. Modern HMDs often employ sensors for six degrees of freedom monitoring that allow the system to align virtual information to the physical world and adjust accordingly with the user's head movements.[9][10][11] HMDs can provide users immersive, mobile and collaborative AR experiences.[12]

Eyeglasses[edit]

AR displays can be rendered on devices resembling eyeglasses. Versions include eye wear that employ cameras to intercept the real world view and re-display its augmented view through the eye pieces[13] and devices in which the AR imagery is projected through or reflected off the surfaces of the eye wear lens pieces.[14][15][16] Google Glass is not intended for an AR experience, but third-party developers are pushing the device toward a mainstream AR experience.[17][18] After the debut of Google Glass, many other AR devices, Google Glass alternatives, emerged.[19][20][21] Most promising Google Alternatives can be listed as Vuzix M100,[22] Optinvent,[23] Meta Space Glasses,[24] Telepathy,[25] Recon Jet,[26] Glass Up.[27] CrowdOptic, an existing app for smartphones, applies algorithms and triangulation techniques to photo metadata including GPS position, compass heading, and a time stamp to arrive at a relative significance value for photo objects.[28] CrowdOptic technology can be used by Google Glass users to learn where to look at a given point in time.[29]

Contact lenses[edit]

Contact lenses that display AR imaging are in development. These bionic contact lenses might contain the elements for display embedded into the lens including integrated circuitry, LEDs and an antenna for wireless communication.[30][31][32][33] Another version of contact lenses, in development for the U.S. Military, is designed to function with AR spectacles, allowing soldiers to focus on close-to-the-eye AR images on the spectacles and distant real world objects at the same time.[34][35] In 2013, at the Augmented World Expo Conference,[36] a futuristic video named Sight[37] featuring the potential of having augmented reality through contact lenses received the best futuristic augmented reality video award.

Virtual retinal display[edit]

A virtual retinal display (VRD) is a personal display device under development at the University of Washington's Human Interface Technology Laboratory. With this technology, a display is scanned directly onto the retina of a viewer's eye. The viewer sees what appears to be a conventional display floating in space in front of them.[38]

EyeTap[edit]

The EyeTap (also known as Generation-2 Glass[39]) captures rays of light that would otherwise pass through the center of a lens of an eye of the wearer, and substituted each ray of light for synthetic computer-controlled light. The Generation-4 Glass[39] (Laser EyeTap) is similar to the VRD (i.e. it uses a computer controlled laser light source) except that it also has infinite depth of focus and causes the eye itself to, in effect, function as both a camera and a display, by way of exact alignment with the eye, and resynthesis (in laser light) of rays of light entering the eye.[40]

Handheld[edit]

Handheld displays employ a small display that fits in a user's hand. All handheld AR solutions to date opt for video see-through. Initially handheld AR employed fiduciary markers,[41] and later GPS units and MEMS sensors such as digital compasses and six degrees of freedom accelerometergyroscope. Today SLAM markerless trackers such as PTAM are starting to come into use. Handheld display AR promises to be the first commercial success for AR technologies. The two main advantages of handheld AR is the portable nature of handheld devices and ubiquitous nature of camera phones. The disadvantages are the physical constraints of the user having to hold the handheld device out in front of them at all times as well as distorting effect of classically wide-angled mobile phone cameras when compared to the real world as viewed through the eye.[42]

Spatial[edit]

Spatial Augmented Reality (SAR) augments real world objects and scenes without the use of special displays such as monitors, head mounted displays or hand-held devices. SAR makes use of digital projectors to display graphical information onto physical objects. The key difference in SAR is that the display is separated from the users of the system. Because the displays are not associated with each user, SAR scales naturally up to groups of users, thus allowing for collocated collaboration between users.

Examples include shader lamps, mobile projectors, virtual tables, and smart projectors. Shader lamps mimic and augment reality by projecting imagery onto neutral objects, providing the opportunity to enhance the object’s appearance with materials of a simple unit- a projector, camera, and sensor.

Other tangible applications include table and wall projections. One such innovation, the Extended Virtual Table, separates the virtual from the real by including beam-splitter mirrors attached to the ceiling at an adjustable angle.[43] Virtual showcases, which employ beam-splitter mirrors together with multiple graphics displays, provide an interactive means of simultaneously engaging with the virtual and the real.Many more implementations and configurations make spatial augmented reality display an increasingly attractive interactive alternative.

Spatial AR does not suffer from the limited display resolution of current head-mounted displays and portable devices. A projector based display system can simply incorporate more projectors to expand the display area. Where portable devices have a small window into the world for drawing, a SAR system can display on any number of surfaces of an indoor setting at once. The drawbacks, however, are that SAR systems of projectors do not work so well in sunlight and also require a surface on which to project the computer-generated graphics. Augmentations cannot simply hang in the air as they do with handheld and HMD-based AR. The tangible nature of SAR, though, makes this an ideal technology to support design, as SAR supports both a graphical visualisation and passive haptic sensation for the end users. People are able to touch physical objects, and it is this process that provides the passive haptic sensation.[7][44][45][46]

Tracking[edit]

Modern mobile augmented reality systems use one or more of the following tracking technologies: digital cameras and/or other optical sensors, accelerometers, GPS, gyroscopes, solid state compasses, RFID and wireless sensors. These technologies offer varying levels of accuracy and precision. Most important is the position and orientation of the user's head. Tracking the user's hand(s) or a handheld input device can provide a 6DOF interaction technique.[47]

Input devices[edit]

Techniques include speech recognition systems that translate a user's spoken words into computer instructions and gesture recognition systems that can interpret a user's body movements by visual detection or from sensors embedded in a peripheral device such as a wand, stylus, pointer, glove or other body wear.[48][49][50][51]

Computer[edit]

The computer analyzes the sensed visual and other data to synthesize and position augmentations.

Software and algorithms[edit]

A key measure of AR systems is how realistically they integrate augmentations with the real world. The software must derive real world coordinates, independent from the camera, from camera images. That process is called image registration which uses different methods of computer vision, mostly related to video tracking.[52][53] Many computer vision methods of augmented reality are inherited from visual odometry. Usually those methods consist of two parts.

First detect interest points, or fiduciary markers, or optical flow in the camera images. First stage can use feature detection methods like corner detection, blob detection, edge detection or thresholding and/or other image processing methods.[54][55] The second stage restores a real world coordinate system from the data obtained in the first stage. Some methods assume objects with known geometry (or fiduciary markers) present in the scene. In some of those cases the scene 3D structure should be precalculated beforehand. If part of the scene is unknown simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) can map relative positions. If no information about scene geometry is available, structure from motion methods like bundle adjustment are used. Mathematical methods used in the second stage include projective (epipolar) geometry, geometric algebra, rotation representation with exponential map, kalman and particle filters, nonlinear optimization, robust statistics.

Augmented Reality Markup Language (ARML) is a data standard developed within the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC),[56] which consists of an XML grammar to describe the location and appearance of virtual objects in the scene, as well as ECMAScript bindings to allow dynamic access to properties of virtual objects.

To enable rapid development of Augmented Reality Application, some software development kits (SDK) have emerged.[57][58] Some of the well known AR SDKs are offered by Metaio,[59] Vufoia,[60] Wikitude[61] and Layar.[62]

Applications[edit]

Augmented reality has many applications, and many areas can benefit from the use of AR technology. AR was first used for military, industrial, and medical applications, but was soon applied to commercial and entertainment areas.[63]

Archaeology[edit]

AR can be used to aid archaeological research, by augmenting archaeological features onto the modern landscape, enabling archaeologists to formulate conclusions about site placement and configuration.[64]

Another application given to AR in this field is the possibility for users to rebuild ruins, buildings, or even landscapes as they formerly existed.[65]

Architecture[edit]

AR can aid in visualizing building projects. Computer-generated images of a structure can be superimposed into a real life local view of a property before the physical building is constructed there. AR can also be employed within an architect's work space, rendering into their view animated 3D visualizations of their 2D drawings. Architecture sight-seeing can be enhanced with AR applications allowing users viewing a building's exterior to virtually see through its walls, viewing its interior objects and layout.[66][67]

Art[edit]

AR technology has helped disabled individuals create art by using eye tracking to translate a user's eye movements into drawings on a screen.[68] An item such as a commemorative coin can be designed so that when scanned by an AR-enabled device it displays additional objects and layers of information that were not visible in a real world view of it.[69][70] In 2013, L'Oreal used CrowdOptic technology to create an augmented reality at the seventh annual Luminato Festival in Toronto, Canada.[29]

Commerce[edit]

View Description image 1

AR can enhance product previews such as allowing a customer to view what's inside a product's packaging without opening it.[71] AR can also be used as an aid in selecting products from a catalog or through a kiosk. Scanned images of products can activate views of additional content such as customization options and additional images of the product in its use.[72][73] AR is used to integrate print and video marketing. Printed marketing material can be designed with certain "trigger" images that, when scanned by an AR enabled device using image recognition, activate a video version of the promotional material.[74][75][76]

Construction[edit]

With the continual improvements to GPS accuracy, businesses are able to use augmented reality to visualize georeferenced models of construction sites, underground structures, cables and pipes using mobile devices.[77] Following the Christchurch earthquake, the University of Canterbury released, CityViewAR, which enabled city planners and engineers to visualize buildings that were destroyed in the earthquake.[78] Not only did this provide planners with tools to reference the previous cityscape, but it also served as a reminder to the magnitude of the devastation caused, as entire buildings were demolished.

Education[edit]

App iSkull, an augmented human skull for education (iOS OS)

Augmented reality applications can complement a standard curriculum. Text, graphics, video and audio can be superimposed into a student’s real time environment. Textbooks, flashcards and other educational reading material can contain embedded “markers” that, when scanned by an AR device, produce supplementary information to the student rendered in a multimedia format.[79][80][81] Students can participate interactively with computer generated simulations of historical events, exploring and learning details of each significant area of the event site.[82] AR can aid students in understanding chemistry by allowing them to visualize the spatial structure of a molecule and interact with a virtual model of it that appears, in a camera image, positioned at a marker held in their hand.[83] Augmented reality technology also permits learning via remote collaboration, in which students and instructors not at the same physical location can share a common virtual learning environment populated by virtual objects and learning materials and interact with another within that setting.[84]

Everyday[edit]

30 years of Augmediated Reality in everyday life.

Since the 1970s and early 1980s, Steve Mann has been developing technologies meant for everyday use i.e. "horizontal" across all applications rather than a specific "vertical" market. Examples include Mann's "EyeTap Digital Eye Glass", a general-purpose seeing aid that does dynamic-range management (HDR vision) and overlays, underlays, simultaneous augmentation and diminishment (e.g. diminishing the electric arc while looking at a welding torch).[85]

Gaming[edit]

Merchlar's mobile game Get On Target uses a trigger image as fiduciary marker

Augmented reality allows gamers to experience digital game play in a real world environment. In the last 10 years there has been a lot of improvements of technology, resulting in better movement detection and the possibility for the Wii to exist, but also direct detection of the player's movements.[86]

Industrial design[edit]

AR can help industrial designers experience a product's design and operation before completion. Volkswagen uses AR for comparing calculated and actual crash test imagery.[87] AR can be used to visualize and modify a car body structure and engine layout. AR can also be used to compare digital mock-ups with physical mock-ups for finding discrepancies between them.[88][89]

Medical[edit]

Augmented Reality can provide the surgeon with information, which are otherwise hidden, such as showing the heartbeat rate, the blood pressure, the state of the patient’s organ, etc. AR can be used to let a doctor look inside a patient by combining one source of images such as an X-ray with another such as video.

Examples include a virtual X-ray view based on prior tomography or on real time images from ultrasound and confocal microscopy probes[90] or visualizing the position of a tumor in the video of an endoscope.[91] AR can enhance viewing a fetus inside a mother's womb.[92] See also Mixed reality.

Military[edit]

In combat, AR can serve as a networked communication system that renders useful battlefield data onto a soldier's goggles in real time. From the soldier's viewpoint, people and various objects can be marked with special indicators to warn of potential dangers. Virtual maps and 360° view camera imaging can also be rendered to aid a soldier's navigation and battlefield perspective, and this can be transmitted to military leaders at a remote command center.[93]

Navigation[edit]

Augmented reality map on iPhone

AR can augment the effectiveness of navigation devices. Information can be displayed on an automobile's windshield indicating destination directions and meter, weather, terrain, road conditions and traffic information as well as alerts to potential hazards in their path.[94][95][96] Aboard maritime vessels, AR can allow bridge watch-standers to continuously monitor important information such as a ship's heading and speed while moving throughout the bridge or performing other tasks.[97]

Office workplace[edit]

AR can help facilitate collaboration among distributed team members in a work force via conferences with real and virtual participants. AR tasks can include brainstorming and discussion meetings utilizing common visualization via touch screen tables, interactive digital whiteboards, shared design spaces, and distributed control rooms.[98][99][100]

Sports and entertainment[edit]

AR has become common in sports telecasting. Sports and entertainment venues are provided with see-through and overlay augmentation through tracked camera feeds for enhanced viewing by the audience. Examples include the yellow "first down" line seen in television broadcasts of American football games showing the line the offensive team must cross to receive a first down. AR is also used in association with football and other sporting events to show commercial advertisements overlaid onto the view of the playing area. Sections of rugby fields and cricket pitches also display sponsored images. Swimming telecasts often add a line across the lanes to indicate the position of the current record holder as a race proceeds to allow viewers to compare the current race to the best performance. Other examples include hockey puck tracking and annotations of racing car performance and snooker ball trajectories. [52][101]

AR can enhance concert and theater performances. For example, artists can allow listeners to augment their listening experience by adding their performance to that of other bands/groups of users.[102][103][104]

The gaming industry has benefited a lot from the development of this technology. A number of games have been developed for prepared indoor environments. Early AR games also include AR air hockey, collaborative combat against virtual enemies, and an AR-enhanced pool games. A significant number of games incorporate AR in them and the introduction of the smartphone has made a bigger impact.[105][106]

Task support[edit]

Complex tasks such as assembly, maintenance, and surgery can be simplified by inserting additional information into the field of view. For example, labels can be displayed on parts of a system to clarify operating instructions for a mechanic who is performing maintenance on the system.[107][108] Assembly lines gain many benefits from the usage of AR. In addition to Boeing, BMW and Volkswagen are known for incorporating this technology in their assembly line to improve their manufacturing and assembly processes.[109][110][111] Big machines are difficult to maintain because of the multiple layers or structures they have. With the use of AR the workers can complete their job in a much easier way because AR permits them to look through the machine as if it was with x-ray, pointing them to the problem right away.[112]

Television[edit]

Weather visualizations were the first application of Augmented Reality to television. It has now become common in weathercasting to display full motion video of images captured in real-time from multiple cameras and other imaging devices. Coupled with 3D graphics symbols and mapped to a common virtual geospace model, these animated visualizations constitute the first true application of AR to TV.

Augmented reality has also become common in sports telecasting. Sports and entertainment venues are provided with see-through and overlay augmentation through tracked camera feeds for enhanced viewing by the audience. Examples include the yellow "first down" line seen in television broadcasts of American football games showing the line the offensive team must cross to receive a first down. AR is also used in association with football and other sporting events to show commercial advertisements overlaid onto the view of the playing area. Sections of rugby fields and cricket pitches also display sponsored images. Swimming telecasts often add a line across the lanes to indicate the position of the current record holder as a race proceeds to allow viewers to compare the current race to the best performance. Other examples include hockey puck tracking and annotations of racing car performance and snooker ball trajectories.[113][114]

Augmented reality is starting to allow Next Generation TV viewers to interact with the programs they are watching. They can place objects into an existing program and interact with these objects, such as moving them around. Avatars of real persons in real time who are also watching the same program.[115]

Tourism and sightseeing[edit]

Augmented reality applications can enhance a user's experience when traveling by providing real time informational displays regarding a location and its features, including comments made by previous visitors of the site. AR applications allow tourists to experience simulations of historical events, places and objects by rendering them into their current view of a landscape.[116][117][118] AR applications can also present location information by audio, announcing features of interest at a particular site as they become visible to the user.[119][120]

Translation[edit]

AR systems can interpret foreign text on signs and menus and, in a user's augmented view, re-display the text in the user's language. Spoken words of a foreign language can be translated and displayed in a user's view as printed subtitles.[121][122][123]

Notable researchers[edit]

History[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Graham, M., Zook, M., and Boulton, A. "Augmented reality in urban places: contested content and the duplicity of code." Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-5661.2012.00539.x 2012.
  2. ^ Steuer, Jonathan. Defining Virtual Reality: Dimensions Determining Telepresence, Department of Communication, Stanford University. 15 October 1993.
  3. ^ Introducing Virtual Environments National Center for Supercomputing Applications, University of Illinois.
  4. ^ Chen, Brian X. If You’re Not Seeing Data, You’re Not Seeing, Wired, 25 August 2009.
  5. ^ Maxwell, Kerry. Augmented Reality, Macmillan Dictionary Buzzword.
  6. ^ Augmented reality-Everything about AR, Augmented Reality On.
  7. ^ a b Azuma, Ronald. A Survey of Augmented Reality Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, pp. 355–385, August 1997.
  8. ^ Metz, Rachel. Augmented Reality Is Finally Getting Real Technology Review, 2 August 2012.
  9. ^ Fleet Week: Office of Naval Research Technology- Virtual Reality Welder Training, eweek, 28 May 2012.
  10. ^ Rolland, Jannick; Baillott, Yohan; Goon, Alexei.A Survey of Tracking Technology for Virtual Environments, Center for Research and Education in Optics and Lasers, University of Central Florida.
  11. ^ Klepper, Sebastian.Augmented Reality – Display Systems.
  12. ^ Rolland, J; Biocca F, Hamza-Lup F, Yanggang H, Martins R (October 2005). "Development of Head-Mounted Projection Displays for Distributed, Collaborative, Augmented Reality Applications". Presence: Teleoperators & Virtual Environments 14 (5): 528–549. 
  13. ^ Grifatini, Kristina. Augmented Reality Goggles, Technology Review 10 November 2010.
  14. ^ Arthur, Charles. UK company's 'augmented reality' glasses could be better than Google's, The Guardian, 10 September 2012.
  15. ^ Gannes, Liz. "Google Unveils Project Glass: Wearable Augmented-Reality Glasses". http://allthingsd.com. Retrieved 2012-04-04. , All Things D.
  16. ^ Benedetti, Winda. Xbox leak reveals Kinect 2, augmented reality glasses NBC News.
  17. ^ Manjoo, Farhad (2012-06-19). "You Will Want Google Goggles | MIT Technology Review". Technologyreview.com. Retrieved 2013-06-14. 
  18. ^ "faqs – Glass Press". Sites.google.com. Retrieved 2013-07-08. 
  19. ^ "Google Glass Alternative". Digital Trends. Retrieved 15 November 2013. 
  20. ^ "Some of Google Glass Alternative". Premier Logic. Retrieved 15 November 2013. 
  21. ^ "5 Google Glass Alternatives". NBC News. Retrieved 15 November 2013. 
  22. ^ "Vuzix M100". Vuzix M100. Retrieved 15 November 2013. 
  23. ^ "Optinvent". Optinvent. Retrieved 15 November 2013. 
  24. ^ "Meta Space Glasses". Meta Glass. Retrieved 15 November 2013. 
  25. ^ "Telepathy". Telepathy. Retrieved 15 November 2013. 
  26. ^ "Recon Jet". Recon Jet. Retrieved 15 November 2013. 
  27. ^ "Glass Up". Glass Up. Retrieved 15 November 2013. 
  28. ^ "How Crowdoptic’s big data technology reveals the world’s most popular photo objects". VentureBeat. Retrieved 6 June 2013. 
  29. ^ a b "CrowdOptic and L'Oreal To Make History By Demonstrating How Augmented Reality Can Be A Shared Experience". Forbes. Retrieved 6 June 2013. 
  30. ^ Greenemeier, Larry. Computerized Contact Lenses Could Enable In-Eye Augmented Reality. Scientific American, 23 November 2011.
  31. ^ Yoneda, Yuka. Solar Powered Augmented Contact Lenses Cover Your Eye with 100s of LEDs. inhabitat, 17 March 2010.
  32. ^ Rosen, Kenneth. "Contact Lenses Can Display Your Text Messages". Mashable.com. Mashable.com. Retrieved 2012-12-13. 
  33. ^ O'Neil, Lauren. "LCD contact lenses could display text messages in your eye". CBC. Retrieved 2012-12-12. 
  34. ^ Anthony, Sebastian. US military developing multi-focus augmented reality contact lenses. ExtremeTech, 13 April 2012.
  35. ^ Bernstein, Joseph. 2012 Invention Awards: Augmented-Reality Contact Lenses Popular Science, 5 June 2012.
  36. ^ Augmented World Expo Conference. [1]. AR Conference, 15 November 2013.
  37. ^ A Futuristic Short Film: by Sight Systems. [2]. Sight, 15 November 2013.
  38. ^ Tidwell, Michael; Johnson, Richard S.; Melville, David; Furness, Thomas A.The Virtual Retinal Display – A Retinal Scanning Imaging System, Human Interface Technology Laboratory, University of Washington.
  39. ^ a b “GlassEyes”: The Theory of EyeTap Digital Eye Glass, supplemental material for IEEE Technology and Society, Volume Vol. 31, Number 3, 2012, pp. 10-14.
  40. ^ "Intelligent Image Processing", John Wiley and Sons, 2001, ISBN 0-471-40637-6, 384 p.
  41. ^ Marker vs Markerless AR, Dartmouth College Library.
  42. ^ Feiner, Steve. "Augmented reality: a long way off?". AR Week. Pocket-lint. Retrieved 2011-03-03. 
  43. ^ Bimber, Oliver; Encarnação, Miguel; Branco, Pedro. The Extended Virtual Table: An Optical Extension for Table-Like Projection Systems, MIT Press Journal Vol. 10, No. 6, Pages 613–631, March 13, 2006.
  44. ^ a b Ramesh Raskar, Greg Welch, Henry Fuchs Spatially Augmented Reality, First International Workshop on Augmented Reality, Sept 1998.
  45. ^ Knight, Will. Augmented reality brings maps to life 19 July 2005.
  46. ^ Sung, Dan. Augmented reality in action – maintenance and repair. Pocket-lint, 1 March 2011.
  47. ^ Stationary systems can employ 6DOF track systems such as Polhemus, ViCON, A.R.T, or Ascension.
  48. ^ Marshall, Gary.Beyond the mouse: how input is evolving, Touch,voice and gesture recognition and augmented realitytechradar.computing\PC Plus 23 August 2009.
  49. ^ Simonite, Tom. Augmented Reality Meets Gesture Recognition, Technology Review, 15 September 2011.
  50. ^ Chaves, Thiago; Figueiredo, Lucas; Da Gama, Alana; de Araujo, Christiano; Teichrieb, Veronica. Human Body Motion and Gestures Recognition Based on Checkpoints. SVR '12 Proceedings of the 2012 14th Symposium on Virtual and Augmented Reality pp. 271–278.
  51. ^ Barrie, Peter; Komninos, Andreas; Mandrychenko, Oleksii.A Pervasive Gesture-Driven Augmented Reality Prototype using Wireless Sensor Body Area Networks.
  52. ^ a b Azuma, Ronald; Balliot, Yohan; Behringer, Reinhold; Feiner, Steven; Julier, Simon; MacIntyre, Blair. Recent Advances in Augmented Reality Computers & Graphics, November 2001.
  53. ^ Maida, James; Bowen, Charles; Montpool, Andrew; Pace, John. Dynamic registration correction in augmented-reality systems, Space Life Sciences, NASA.
  54. ^ State, Andrei; Hirota, Gentaro; Chen,David T; Garrett, William; Livingston, Mark. Superior Augmented Reality Registration by Integrating Landmark Tracking and Magnetic Tracking, Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
  55. ^ Bajura, Michael; Neumann, Ulrich. Dynamic Registration Correction in Augmented-Reality Systems University of North Carolina, University of Southern California.
  56. ^ "ARML 2.0 SWG". Open Geospatial Consortium website. Open Geospatial Consortium. Retrieved 12 November 2013. 
  57. ^ "Top 5 AR SDKs". Augmented Reality News. Retrieved 15 November 2013. 
  58. ^ "Top 10 AR SDKs". Augmented World Expo. Retrieved 15 November 2013. 
  59. ^ "Metaio AR SDK". Metaio. Retrieved 15 November 2013. 
  60. ^ "Vufoia AR SDK". Vufoia. Retrieved 15 November 2013. 
  61. ^ "Wikitude AR SDK". Wikitude. Retrieved 15 November 2013. 
  62. ^ "Layar AR SDK". Layar. Retrieved 15 November 2013. 
  63. ^ Augmented Reality Landscape 11 August 2012.
  64. ^ Stuart Eve. "Augmenting Phenomenology: Using Augmented Reality to Aid Archaeological Phenomenology in the Landscape". Retrieved 2012-09-25. 
  65. ^ Dähne, Patrick; Karigiannis, John N. "Archeoguide: System Architecture of a Mobile Outdoor Augmented Reality System". Retrieved 2010-01-06. 
  66. ^ Divecha, Devina.Augmented Reality (AR) used in architecture and design. designMENA 8 September 2011.
  67. ^ Architectural dreams in augmented reality. University News, University of Western Australia. 5 March 2012.
  68. ^ Webley, Kayla. The 50 Best Inventions of 2010 – EyeWriter Time, 11 November 2010.
  69. ^ Alexander, Michael.Arbua Shoco Owl Silver Coin with Augmented Reality, Coin Update July 20, 2012.
  70. ^ Royal Mint produces revolutionary commemorative coin for Aruba, Today August 7, 2012.
  71. ^ Humphries, Mathew.[3].Geek.com 19 September 2011.
  72. ^ Netburn, Deborah.Ikea introduces augmented reality app for 2013 catalog. Los Angeles Times, 23 July 2012.
  73. ^ Saenz, Aaron.Virtual Mirror Brings Augmented Reality to Makeup Counters. singularityHub, 15 June 2010.
  74. ^ Katts, Rima. Elizabeth Arden brings new fragrance to life with augmented reality Mobile Marketer, 19 September 2012.
  75. ^ Meyer, David. Telefónica bets on augmented reality with Aurasma tie-in gigaom, 17 September 2012.
  76. ^ Mardle, Pamela.Video becomes reality for Stuprint.com. Printweek, 3 October 2012.
  77. ^ Churcher, Jason. "Internal accuracy vs external accuracy". Retrieved 7 May 2013. 
  78. ^ Lee, Gun (2012). CityViewAR outdoor AR visualization. ACM. p. 97. ISBN 978-1-4503-1474-9. 
  79. ^ Groundbreaking Augmented Reality-Based Reading Curriculum Launches, ‘’PRweb’’, 23 October 2011.
  80. ^ Stewart-Smith, Hanna. Education with Augmented Reality: AR textbooks released in Japan, ‘’ZDnet’’, 4 April 2012.
  81. ^ Augmented reality in education smarter learning.
  82. ^ Lubrecht, Anna. Augmented Reality for Education ‘’Digital Union’’, The Ohio State University 24 April 2012.
  83. ^ Maier, Patrick; Tönnis, Marcus; Klinker, Gudron. Augmented Reality for teaching spatial relations, Conference of the International Journal of Arts & Sciences (Toronto 2009).
  84. ^ Kaufmann, Hannes. Collaborative Augmented Reality in Education, Institute of Software Technology and Interactive Systems, Vienna University of Technology.
  85. ^ Davies, Chris (2012-09-12). "Quantigraphic camera promises HDR eyesight from Father of AR". SlashGear. Retrieved 2012-12-30. 
  86. ^ "YOUR THOUGHTS ABOUT AUGMENTED REALITY IN VIDEO GAMES". 2013-05-01. Retrieved 2013-05-07. 
  87. ^ Noelle, S. (2002). "Stereo augmentation of simulation results on a projection wall". Mixed and Augmented Reality, 2002. ISMAR 2002. Proceedings.: 271–322. Retrieved 2012-10-07. 
  88. ^ Verlinden, Jouke; Horvath, Imre. Augmented Prototyping as Design Means in Industrial Design Engineering. Delft University of Technology. Retrieved 2012-10-07. 
  89. ^ Pang, Y; Nee, A; Youcef-Toumie, Kamal; Ong, S.K; Yuan, M.L (November 18, 2004). Assembly Design and Evaluation in an Augmented Reality Environment. National University of Singapore, M.I.T. Retrieved 2012-10-07. 
  90. ^ Mountney, Peter; Giannarou, Stamatia ; Elson, Daniel; Yang, Guang-Zhong. Optical Biopsy Mapping for Minimally Invasive Cancer Screening. Department of Computing, Imperial College 2009.
  91. ^ Scopis Augmented Reality: Path guidance to craniopharyngioma on YouTube
  92. ^ "UNC Ultrasound/Medical Augmented Reality Research". Archived from the original on 12 February 2010. Retrieved 2010-01-06. 
  93. ^ Cameron, Chris. Military-Grade Augmented Reality Could Redefine Modern Warfare ReadWriteWeb June 11, 2010.
  94. ^ GM's Enhanced Vision System. Techcrunch.com (17 March 2010). Retrieved 9 June 2012.
  95. ^ Couts, Andrew. New augmented reality system shows 3D GPS navigation through your windshield Digital Trens,27 October 2011.
  96. ^ Griggs, Brandon. Augmented-reality' windshields and the future of driving CNN Tech, 13 January 2012.
  97. ^ Cheney-Peters, Scott (12 April 2012). "CIMSEC: Google's AR Goggles". Retrieved 2012-04-20. 
  98. ^ Stafford, Aaron; Piekarski, Wayne; Thomas, Bruce H. "Hand of God". Archived from the original on 2009-12-07. Retrieved 2009-12-18. 
  99. ^ Benford, S, Greenhalgh, C, Reynard, G, Brown, C and Koleva, B. Understanding and constructing shared spaces with mixed-reality boundaries. ACM Trans. Computer-Human Interaction, 5(3):185–223, Sep. 1998.
  100. ^ Office of Tomorrow Media Interaction Lab.
  101. ^ Marlow, Chris. Hey, hockey puck! NHL PrePlay adds a second-screen experience to live games, digitalmediawire April 27, 2012.
  102. ^ Pair, J.; Wilson, J.; Chastine, J.; Gandy, M. "The Duran Duran Project: The Augmented Reality Toolkit in Live Performance". The First IEEE International Augmented Reality Toolkit Workshop, 2002.
  103. ^ Broughall, Nick. Sydney Band Uses Augmented Reality For Video Clip. Gizmodo, 19 October 2009.
  104. ^ Pendlebury, Ty. Augmented reality in Aussie film clip. c|net 19 October 2009.
  105. ^ Hawkins, Mathew. Augmented Reality Used To Enhance Both Pool And Air Hockey Game Set WatchOctober 15, 2011.
  106. ^ One Week Only – Augmented Reality Project Combat-HELO Dev Blog July 31, 2012.
  107. ^ The big idea:Augmented Reality. Ngm.nationalgeographic.com (15 May 2012). Retrieved 2012-06-09.
  108. ^ Henderson, Steve; Feiner, Steven. "Augmented Reality for Maintenance and Repair (ARMAR)". Retrieved 2010-01-06. 
  109. ^ Sandgren, Jeffrey. The Augmented Eye of the Beholder, BrandTech News January 8, 2011.
  110. ^ Cameron, Chris. Augmented Reality for Marketers and Developers, ReadWriteWeb.
  111. ^ Dillow, Clay BMW Augmented Reality Glasses Help Average Joes Make Repairs, Popular Science September 2009.
  112. ^ King, Rachael. Augmented Reality Goes Mobile, Bloomberg Business Week Technology November 3, 2009.
  113. ^ [42]
  114. ^ [81]
  115. ^ [93]
  116. ^ Saenz, Aaron Augmented Reality Does Time Travel Tourism SingularityHUB November 19, 2009.
  117. ^ Sung, Dan Augmented reality in action – travel and tourism Pocket-lint March 2, 2011.
  118. ^ Dawson, Jim Augmented Reality Reveals History to Tourists Life Science August 16, 2009.
  119. ^ Bartie, P and Mackaness, W.Development of a speech-based augmented reality system to support exploration of cityscape. Trans. GIS, 10(1):63–86, 2006.
  120. ^ Benderson, Bejamin B. Audio Augmented Reality: A Prototype Automated Tour Guide Bell Communications Research,, ACM Human Computer in Computing Systems conference, pp. 210–211.
  121. ^ Tsotsis, Alexia. Word Lens Translates Words Inside of Images. Yes Really. TechCrunch (16 December 2010).
  122. ^ N.B. Word Lens: This changes everything The Economist: Gulliver blog 18 December 2010.
  123. ^ Borghino, Dario Augmented reality glasses perform real-time language translation. gizmag, 29 July 2012.
  124. ^ "Knowledge-based augmented reality". ACM. July, 1993. 
  125. ^ "Wearable Computing: A first step towards personal imaging", IEEE Computer, pp. 25–32, Vol. 30, Issue 2, Feb. 1997 link.
  126. ^ a b L. B. Rosenberg. The Use of Virtual Fixtures As Perceptual Overlays to Enhance Operator Performance in Remote Environments. Technical Report AL-TR-0089, USAF Armstrong Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB OH, 1992.
  127. ^ Rosenberg, L., "Virtual fixtures as tools to enhance operator performance in telepresence environments," SPIE Manipulator Technology, 1993.
  128. ^ Rosenberg, "Virtual Haptic Overlays Enhance Performance in Telepresence Tasks," Dept. of Mech. Eng., Stanford Univ., 1994.
  129. ^ a b Rosenberg, "Virtual Fixtures: Perceptual Overlays Enhance Operator Performance in Telepresence Tasks," Ph.D. Dissertation, Stanford University.
  130. ^ Wagner, Daniel (29 September 2009). "First Steps Towards Handheld Augmented Reality". ACM. Retrieved 2009-09-29. 
  131. ^ Piekarski, William; Thomas, Bruce. Tinmith-Metro: New Outdoor Techniques for Creating City Models with an Augmented Reality Wearable Computer Fifth International Symposium on Wearable Computers (ISWC'01), 2001, pp. 31.
  132. ^ Behringer, R.;Improving the Registration Precision by Visual Horizon Silhouette Matching. Rockwell Science Center.
  133. ^ Behringer, R.;Tam, C; McGee, J.; Sundareswaran, V.; Vassiliou, Marius. Two Wearable Testbeds for Augmented Reality: itWARNS and WIMMIS. ISWC 2000, Atlanta, 16–17 October 2000.
  134. ^ R. Behringer, G. Klinker,. D. Mizell. Augmented Reality – Placing Artificial Objects in Real Scenes. Proceedings of IWAR '98. A.K.Peters, Natick, 1999. ISBN 1-56881-098-9.
  135. ^ Johnson, Joel. “The Master Key”: L. Frank Baum envisions augmented reality glasses in 1901 Mote & Beam 10 September 2012.
  136. ^ http://www.google.com/patents?q=3050870
  137. ^ Mann, Steve (2012-11-02). "Eye Am a Camera: Surveillance and Sousveillance in the Glassage". Techland.time.com. Retrieved 2013-10-14. 
  138. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boeing%7CBoeing
  139. ^ Lee, Kangdon (March 2012). "Augmented Reality in Education and Training". Techtrends: Linking Research & Practice To Improve Learning 56 (2). 
  140. ^ L. B. Rosenberg, "The Use of Virtual Fixtures to Enhance Operator Performance in Telepresence Environments" SPIE Telemanipulator Technology, 1993.
  141. ^ Wellner, Pierre. "Computer Augmented Environments: back to the real world". ACM. Retrieved 2012-07-28. 
  142. ^ Barrilleaux, Jon. Experiences and Observations in Applying Augmented Reality to Live Training. Jmbaai.com. Retrieved 2012-06-09.
  143. ^ Wikitude AR Travel Guide. Youtube.com. Retrieved 2012-06-09.
  144. ^ Cameron, Chris. Flash-based AR Gets High-Quality Markerless Upgrade, ReadWriteWeb 9 July 2010.
  145. ^ Miller, Claire. [4], New York Times 20 February 2013.

External links                                              [edit]

Augmented reality on the Open Directory Project

Media related to Augmented reality at Wikimedia Commons