Asparagus racemosus

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Satavar
Shatawari plant photographed at Pune
Scientific classification e
Kingdom:Plantae
clade:Angiosperms
clade:Monocots
Order:Asparagales
Family:Asparagaceae
Subfamily:Asparagoideae
Genus:Asparagus
Species:A. racemosus
Binomial name
Asparagus racemosus
Willd.[1]
Synonyms
 
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Satavar
Shatawari plant photographed at Pune
Scientific classification e
Kingdom:Plantae
clade:Angiosperms
clade:Monocots
Order:Asparagales
Family:Asparagaceae
Subfamily:Asparagoideae
Genus:Asparagus
Species:A. racemosus
Binomial name
Asparagus racemosus
Willd.[1]
Synonyms

Asparagus racemosus (Satavar, Shatavari, or Shatamull) is a species of asparagus common throughout Sri Lanka, India and the Himalayas. It grows one to two metres tall and prefers to take root in gravelly, rocky soils high up in piedmont plains, at 1,300 - 1,400 metres elevation).[2][3] It was botanically described in 1799.[1] Due to its multiple uses, the demand for Asparagus racemosus is constantly on the rise. Due to destructive harvesting, combined with habitat destruction, and deforestation, the plant is now considered 'endangered' in its natural habitat.

Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari) is recommended in Ayurvedic texts for the prevention and treatment of gastric ulcers, dyspepsia and as a galactogogue. A. racemosus has also been used successfully by some Ayurvedic practitioners for nervous disorders.[4]

Shatawari has different names in the different Indian languages, such as Shatuli, Vrishya and other terms. In Nepal it is called Kurilo. The name Shatawari means "curer of a hundred diseases" (shat: "hundred"; vari: "curer").

Contents

Leaves, flowers and fruits

Close-up on flowers

Satavar has small pin-needle-like phylloclades (photosynthetic branches) that are uniform and shiny green. In July, it produces minute, white flowers on short, spiky stems, and in September it fruits, producing blackish-purple, globular berries.[3]

Roots

It has an adventitious root system with tuberous roots that measure about one metre in length, tapering at both ends, with roughly a hundred on each plant.[3]

Uses

Asparagus racemosus is an important medicinal plant of tropical and subtropical India. Its medicinal usage has been reported in the Indian and British Pharmacopoeias and in traditional systems of medicine such as Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha. It is mainly known for its phytoestrogenic properties.[citation needed] In Ayurveda, Asparagus racemosus has been described as a rasayana herb and has been used extensively as an adaptogen to increase the non-specific resistance of organisms against a variety of stresses. Besides use in the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery, the plant also has antioxidant, immunostimulant, anti-dyspepsia and antitussive effects."[5]

The roots are used in Ayurvedic medicine, following a regimen of processing and drying. It is generally used as a uterine tonic, as a galactogogue (to improve breast milk), in hyperacidity, and as a general health tonic.

The reputed adaptogenic effects of Shatavari may be attributed to its concentrations of saponins,[citation needed] known as Shatavarins. In Sanskrit, Shatavar(shat+var) means she who possesses a hundred husbands."

Pharmacological Research

Asparagus racemosus has been shown to mitigate the discomfort due to Amlapitta (Acid dyspepsia with or without ulcer) on 109 cases in a clinical Study at Central Research Institute for Ayurveda, New-Delhi.[6]

Antibacterial activity (some) [7]

Antisecretory and antiulcer activity,[8][9]

Antidepressant activity of Asparagus racemosus in rodent models.[10]

Anti-inflammatory effects[11]

Anti-cancer [12]

Antioxidant,[13][14][15]

Antitussive[16]

Enhances memory and protects against amnesia in rodent models.[17]

Antilithiatic [18]

Hepatoprotective effects in mice fed a high-fat diet.[19]

Aphrodisiac .[20]

Teratogenic? [21]

Immunomodulatory (extract), Immunoadjuvant,[22][23]

Oestrogenic effect[24]

Neuroprotective [25]

Potential to prevent hepatocarcinogenesis[26]

Use in diabetes treatment to reduce blood glucose[27]

Constituents

Asparagamine A, a polycyclic alkaloid with antitumor activity against a variety of cell lines was isolated from the dried roots[28] and subsequently synthesized to allow for the construction of analogs.[29]

Two new steroidal saponins, shatavaroside A and shatavaroside B together with a known saponin, filiasparoside C, were isolated from the roots of Asparagus racemosus.[30]

Five steroidal saponins, shatavarins VI-X, together with five known saponins, shatavarin I (or asparoside B), shatavarin IV (or asparinin B), shatavarin V, immunoside and schidigerasaponin D5 (or asparanin A), have been isolated from the roots of Asparagus racemosus.[31]

Isoflavone, 8-methoxy-5,6,4'-trihydroxyisoflavone 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside[32]

References

  1. ^ a b c d "Asparagus racemosus information from NPGS/GRIN". Germplasm Resources Information Network. USDA. August 6, 2002. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?5540. Retrieved April 25, 2009. 
  2. ^ Robert Freeman (February 26, 1998). "LILIACEAE - Famine Foods". Centre for New Crops and Plant Products, Department of Horticulture & Landscape Architecture. Purdue University. http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/faminefoods/ff_families/liliaceae.html. Retrieved April 25, 2009. 
  3. ^ a b c "Asparagus racemosa". Archived from the original on 19 April 2009. http://www.herbalcureindia.com/herbs/asparagus-racemosus.htm. Retrieved April 25, 2009. 
  4. ^ Asparagus racemosus--an update. [Review] [28 refs] Goyal RK. Singh J. Lal H. Indian Journal of Medical Sciences. 57(9):408-14, 2003 Sep.
  5. ^ Asparagus racemosus--ethnopharmacological evaluation and conservation needs. [Review] [77 refs] Bopana N. Saxena S. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 110(1):1-15, 2007 Mar 1.
  6. ^ T.N. Pandey and S.S. Rajagopalan -- Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha -- Vol-XV. No. 1-2. pages 23–34
  7. ^ Evaluation of antibacterial activity of Asparagus racemosus willd. root. Mandal SC. Nandy A. Pal M. Saha BP. Phytotherapy Research. 14(2):118-9, 2000 Mar.
  8. ^ Antisecretory and antiulcer activity of Asparagus racemosus Willd. against indomethacin plus phyloric ligation-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Bhatnagar M. Sisodia SS. Journal of Herbal Pharmacotherapy. 6(1):13-20, 2006.
  9. ^ Gastroduodenal ulcer protective activity of Asparagus racemosus: an experimental, biochemical and histological study. Sairam K. Priyambada S. Aryya NC. Goel RK. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 86(1):1-10, 2003 May.
  10. ^ Antidepressant activity of Asparagus racemosus in rodent models. Singh GK. Garabadu D. Muruganandam AV. Joshi VK. Krishnamurthy S. Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior. 91(3):283-90, 2009 Jan.
  11. ^ Anti-inflammatory effects of Asparagus cochinchinensis extract in acute and chronic cutaneous inflammation. Lee do Y. Choo BK. Yoon T. Cheon MS. Lee HW. Lee AY. Kim HK. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 121(1):28-34, 2009 Jan 12.
  12. ^ Asparanin A induces G(2)/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. Liu W. Huang XF. Qi Q. Dai QS. Yang L. Nie FF. Lu N. Gong DD. Kong LY. Guo QL. Biochemical & Biophysical Research Communications. 381(4):700-5, 2009 Apr 17.
  13. ^ Suppression of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide by Asparagus racemosus root extract using in vitro studies. Visavadiya NP. Soni B. Soni B. Madamwar D. Cellular & Molecular Biology. 55 Suppl:OL1083-95, 2009.
  14. ^ Identification of antioxidant compound from Asparagus racemosus. Wiboonpun N. Phuwapraisirisan P. Tip-pyang S. Phytotherapy Research. 18(9):771-3, 2004 Sep.
  15. ^ Antioxidant properties of Asparagus racemosus against damage induced by gamma-radiation in rat liver mitochondria. Kamat JP. Boloor KK. Devasagayam TP. Venkatachalam SR. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 71(3):425-35, 2000 Aug.
  16. ^ Antitussive effect of Asparagus racemosus root against sulfur dioxide-induced cough in mice. Mandal SC. Kumar C K A. Mohana Lakshmi S. Sinha S. Murugesan T. Saha BP. Pal M. Fitoterapia. 71(6):686-9, 2000 Dec.
  17. ^ Asparagus recemosus enhances memory and protects against amnesia in rodent models. Ojha R. Sahu AN. Muruganandam AV. Singh GK. Krishnamurthy S. Brain & Cognition. 74(1):1-9, 2010 Oct.
  18. ^ Antilithiatic effect of Asparagus racemosus Willd on ethylene glycol-induced lithiasis in male albino Wistar rats. Christina AJ. Ashok K. Packialakshmi M. Tobin GC. Preethi J. Murugesh N. Methods & Findings in Experimental & Clinical Pharmacology. 27(9):633-8, 2005 Nov.
  19. ^ Hypolipidaemic and hepatoprotective effects of ethanolic and aqueous extracts from Asparagus officinalis L. by-products in mice fed a high-fat diet. Zhu X. Zhang W. Zhao J. Wang J. Qu W. Journal of the Science of Food & Agriculture. 90(7):1129-35, 2010 May.
  20. ^ A comparative study on aphrodisiac activity of some ayurvedic herbs in male albino rats. Thakur M. Chauhan NS. Bhargava S. Dixit VK. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 38(6):1009-15, 2009 Dec.
  21. ^ Teratogenicity of Asparagus racemosus Willd. root, a herbal medicine. Goel RK. Prabha T. Kumar MM. Dorababu M. Prakash. Singh G. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 44(7):570-3, 2006 Jul.
  22. ^ Immunomodulatory activity of Asparagus racemosus on systemic Th1/Th2 immunity: implications for immunoadjuvant potential. Gautam M. Saha S. Bani S. Kaul A. Mishra S. Patil D. Satti NK. Suri KA. Gairola S. Suresh K. Jadhav S. Qazi GN. Patwardhan B. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 121(2):241-7, 2009 Jan 21.
  23. ^ Immunoadjuvant potential of Asparagus racemosus aqueous extract in experimental system. Gautam M. Diwanay S. Gairola S. Shinde Y. Patki P. Patwardhan B. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 91(2-3):251-5, 2004 Apr.
  24. ^ Effect of Asparagus racemosus rhizome (Shatavari) on mammary gland and genital organs of pregnant rat. Pandey SK. Sahay A. Pandey RS. Tripathi YB. Phytotherapy Research. 19(8):721-4, 2005 Aug
  25. ^ Experimental excitotoxicity provokes oxidative damage in mice brain and attenuation by extract of Asparagus racemosus. Parihar MS. Hemnani T. Journal of Neural Transmission. 111(1):1-12, 2004 Jan.
  26. ^ The effect of the aqueous extract of the roots of Asparagus racemosus on hepatocarcinogenesis initiated by diethylnitrosamine. Agrawal A. Sharma M. Rai SK. Singh B. Tiwari M. Chandra R. Phytotherapy Research. 22(9):1175-82, 2008 Sep.
  27. ^ Insulin secretory actions of extracts of Asparagus racemosus root in perfused pancreas, isolated islets and clonal pancreatic beta-cells. Hannan JM. Marenah L. Ali L. Rokeya B. Flatt PR. Abdel-Wahab YH. Journal of Endocrinology. 192(1):159-68, 2007 Jan.
  28. ^ The Ley Group: Combinatorial Chemistry and total synthesis of natural products
  29. ^ Total Synthesis Of The Antitumor Agent Asparagamine A retrieved 11-02-2011
  30. ^ Steroidal saponins from Asparagus racemosus. Sharma U. Saini R. Kumar N. Singh B. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 57(8):890-3, 2009 Aug.
  31. ^ Steroidal saponins from the roots of Asparagus racemosus. Hayes PY. Jahidin AH. Lehmann R. Penman K. Kitching W. De Voss JJ. Phytochemistry. 69(3):796-804, 2008 Feb.
  32. ^ A new isoflavone from the roots of Asparagus racemosus. Saxena VK. Chourasia S. Fitoterapia. 72(3):307-9, 2001 Mar.

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