Ashland, Oregon

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Ashland, Oregon
City
The Plaza
The Plaza
Jackson County Oregon Incorporated and Unincorporated areas Ashland Highlighted.svg
Coordinates: 42°11′29″N 122°42′3″W / 42.19139°N 122.70083°W / 42.19139; -122.70083Coordinates: 42°11′29″N 122°42′3″W / 42.19139°N 122.70083°W / 42.19139; -122.70083
CountryUnited States
StateOregon
CountyJackson
Settled1852
Government
 • MayorJohn Stromberg[1]
Area[2]
 • Total6.59 sq mi (17.07 km2)
 • Land6.59 sq mi (17.07 km2)
 • Water0 sq mi (0 km2)
Elevation[3]1,949 ft (594 m)
Population (2010)[4]
 • Total20,078
 • Estimate (2013[5])20,295
 • Density3,046.7/sq mi (1,176.3/km2)
Time zonePacific (UTC-8)
 • Summer (DST)Pacific (UTC-7)
ZIP code97520
Area code(s)541 and 458
Twin cities
 • Guanajuato[6][7][8]Mexico
FIPS code41-03050[9]
GNIS feature ID1137318[3]
Websitewww.ashland.or.us
 
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Ashland, Oregon
City
The Plaza
The Plaza
Jackson County Oregon Incorporated and Unincorporated areas Ashland Highlighted.svg
Coordinates: 42°11′29″N 122°42′3″W / 42.19139°N 122.70083°W / 42.19139; -122.70083Coordinates: 42°11′29″N 122°42′3″W / 42.19139°N 122.70083°W / 42.19139; -122.70083
CountryUnited States
StateOregon
CountyJackson
Settled1852
Government
 • MayorJohn Stromberg[1]
Area[2]
 • Total6.59 sq mi (17.07 km2)
 • Land6.59 sq mi (17.07 km2)
 • Water0 sq mi (0 km2)
Elevation[3]1,949 ft (594 m)
Population (2010)[4]
 • Total20,078
 • Estimate (2013[5])20,295
 • Density3,046.7/sq mi (1,176.3/km2)
Time zonePacific (UTC-8)
 • Summer (DST)Pacific (UTC-7)
ZIP code97520
Area code(s)541 and 458
Twin cities
 • Guanajuato[6][7][8]Mexico
FIPS code41-03050[9]
GNIS feature ID1137318[3]
Websitewww.ashland.or.us

Ashland is a city in Jackson County, in the U.S. state of Oregon. It lies along Interstate 5 slightly north of the California border and near the south end of the Bear Creek Valley, an arm of the Rogue Valley. As of July 1, 2013, the city's population was estimated to be 20,295.[5]

The city is the home of Southern Oregon University (SOU) and the Oregon Shakespeare Festival (OSF). These are important to Ashland's economy, which also depends on restaurants, galleries, and retail stores that cater to playgoers and other visitors. Lithia Park along Ashland Creek, historic buildings, and a paved intercity bike trail provide additional tourist attractions.

Ashland, originally called Ashland Mills, was named after Ashland County, Ohio, the original home of founder Abel Helman, and secondarily for Ashland, Kentucky, where other founders had family connections. Ashland has a mayor-council government assisted by citizen committees. Historically, its liberal politics have differed, often sharply, with much of the rest of southwest Oregon.

History[edit]

Prior to the arrival of settlers in mid-19th century, the Shasta people lived in the valley along the creek approximately where Ashland is located.[10] Early Hudson's Bay Company hunters and trappers, following the Siskiyou Trail, passed through the site in the 1820s. In the late 1840s, settlers (mostly American) following the Applegate Trail began passing through the area. By the early 1850s, the Donation Land Act brought many white settlers into the Rogue Valley and into conflict with its native people. These often violent clashes continued until 1856.[10]

In 1851, gold was discovered at Rich Gulch, a tributary of Jackson Creek, and a tent city developed on its banks, the area later known as Jacksonville.[11] Settlers arrived in the Ashland area in January 1852, including Robert B. Hargadine, Sylvester Pease, Abel D Helman, Eber Emery, and others.[12] Helman and Hargadine filed the first donation land claims in Ashland.[12] Helman and Emery built a sawmill along what they called Mill Creek (later renamed Ashland Creek) to turn timber into lumber for settlers.[12] In 1854, they and another settler, M. B. Morris, built a second mill, Ashland Flouring Mills, to grind local wheat into flour. The community around the mill became known as Ashland Mills. A post office was established in Ashland Mills in 1855 with Helman as postmaster.[12]

During the 1860s and 1870s the community grew, establishing a school, churches, businesses, and a large employer, Ashland Woolen Mills, which produced clothing and blankets from local wool. In 1871, the Post Office dropped "Mills" from Ashland's name. In 1872 Reverend J. H. Skidmore opened a college, Ashland Academy, a predecessor of Southern Oregon University.[13]

The south wing of the Depot Hotel, listed on the National Register of Historic Places, is all that remains of the city's railway heritage.[14]

In 1887, Portland, Oregon, and San Francisco, California, were joined by rail at Ashland. Until 1926, when most rail service began taking a different route (east through Klamath Falls to avoid the steep grade through the Siskiyou Mountains), Ashland thrived on rail trade of local products, including pears, peaches, and apples.[11]

In 1908, the Women's Civic Improvement Club petitioned for the creation of a park—Ashland Canyon Park—along Ashland Creek. The discovery of lithia water near Emigrant Lake around the same time led to a plan to establish a mineral spa at the park. Voters approved bonds to pay for the project, which included piping the mineral water from its source to Ashland. The town engaged John McLaren, landscape architect of San Francisco's Golden Gate Park, to design the park, renamed Lithia Springs Park, later shortened to Lithia Park. Although the park was popular, the mineral spa plans proved too expensive for local taxpayers and were abandoned in 1916. Meanwhile, entrepreneurs took to bottling and selling mineral waters from the area's springs.[15]

During the Fourth of July celebration in 1935, Angus L. Bowmer arranged the first performances of what would become the Oregon Shakespeare Festival. The festival grew during the 20th century, and has become an award-winning and internationally-known regional theater company.[16]

Many of Ashland's historic buildings have been preserved and restored. The city has 48 individual structures and 2 historic districts (the Ashland Railroad Addition District and the Downtown District) on the National Register of Historic Places.[17] The structures include the Enders Building (home of the Columbia Hotel), which from 1910 to 1928 contained the largest mercantile establishment between Sacramento and Portland.[18]

Geography[edit]

Ashland Creek in Lithia Park

Ashland is at 1,949 feet (594 m) above sea level[3] in the foothills of the Siskiyou and Cascade ranges, about 15 miles (24 km) north of the California border on Interstate 5 (I-5).[19] About 10 miles (16 km) south of Ashland and 5 miles (8 km) north of the California border is Siskiyou Summit, which at 4,310 feet (1,310 m) is the highest point on I-5.[20] Ashland is about 12 miles (19 km) south of Medford and about 300 miles (480 km) south of Portland.[21] According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of about 6.6 square miles (17.1 km2), all land.[2]

Ashland Creek and its tributaries begin on the flanks of Mount Ashland, at 7,533 feet (2,296 m) above sea level in the Siskiyou Mountains south of the city. Upstream (south) of the city boundary, these streams flow mainly through the Rogue River – Siskiyou National Forest. The creek flows through the city to meet Bear Creek, which roughly parallels I-5 along the east side of Ashland. Bear Creek, one of many streams in the Rogue Valley, flows generally northwest to join the Rogue River near Gold Hill, and from there the Rogue River flows generally west to its mouth on the Pacific Ocean.[22] Ashland and the Bear Creek Valley are part of the Rogue Valley.[22]

Oregon Route 99, running roughly parallel to I-5, passes through downtown Ashland. Oregon Route 66 enters Ashland from the east and intersects Route 99 near the city center.[22]

Climate[edit]

Ashland lies within Oregon's southwest interior climate zone, in which all but the higher-elevation sites are in the rain shadow of the Oregon Coast Range to the west. The largest urban areas in this zone in addition to Ashland are Medford and Grants Pass in the Rogue Valley, and Roseburg in the Umpqua River Valley further north. Although the mountain peaks in this zone receive up to 120 inches (3,000 mm) of precipitation a year, the urban areas and the valleys in which they lie generally get 20 inches (510 mm) or less. This valley climate is particularly good for growing fruit, especially pears, and for producing other crops and farm goods such as hay, grain, poultry, and beef.[23]

Cloud cover in nearby Medford varies from an average of 21 percent in July to 86 percent in December.[24] On average, precipitation falls in Ashland on 114 days each year and totals about 20 inches (510 mm).[25] The average annual snowfall is only 1.4 inches (3.6 cm).[25] The average relative humidity, measured at 4 p.m. daily, is 47 percent in Medford, varying from 26 percent in July to 76 percent in December.[26]

The coolest month is December, with an average high temperature of 47 °F (8 °C), and the warmest month is July, with an average high of about 88 °F (31 °C).[25] The highest temperature ever recorded in Ashland was 108 °F (42 °C), observed in August 1981, and the record low of −4 °F (−20 °C) occurred in December 1972.[27]

Climate data for Ashland, Oregon (1981–2010 normals)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °F (°C)71
(22)
78
(26)
82
(28)
94
(34)
101
(38)
105
(41)
106
(41)
108
(42)
103
(39)
97
(36)
80
(27)
70
(21)
108
(42)
Average high °F (°C)49.0
(9.4)
54.0
(12.2)
58.2
(14.6)
63.3
(17.4)
70.9
(21.6)
78.8
(26)
87.6
(30.9)
87.1
(30.6)
80.4
(26.9)
68.3
(20.2)
53.6
(12)
47.4
(8.6)
66.55
(19.2)
Daily mean °F (°C)39.4
(4.1)
42.4
(5.8)
45.5
(7.5)
49.7
(9.8)
56.2
(13.4)
62.8
(17.1)
69.4
(20.8)
68.6
(20.3)
62.0
(16.7)
52.5
(11.4)
43.0
(6.1)
38.3
(3.5)
52.48
(11.38)
Average low °F (°C)29.9
(−1.2)
30.8
(−0.7)
32.8
(0.4)
36.1
(2.3)
41.5
(5.3)
46.7
(8.2)
51.2
(10.7)
50.0
(10)
43.6
(6.4)
36.7
(2.6)
32.5
(0.3)
29.2
(−1.6)
38.42
(3.56)
Record low °F (°C)−1
(−18)
−1
(−18)
15
(−9)
20
(−7)
23
(−5)
29
(−2)
32
(0)
34
(1)
27
(−3)
13
(−11)
12
(−11)
−4
(−20)
−4
(−20)
Precipitation inches (mm)2.36
(59.9)
1.88
(47.8)
2.01
(51.1)
1.80
(45.7)
1.70
(43.2)
0.79
(20.1)
0.52
(13.2)
0.54
(13.7)
0.67
(17)
1.39
(35.3)
3.01
(76.5)
3.28
(83.3)
19.95
(506.7)
Snowfall inches (cm)0.3
(0.8)
0.4
(1)
0.2
(0.5)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.5
(1.3)
1.4
(3.6)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)14.111.913.412.79.65.32.52.63.97.515.215.0113.7
Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)0.50.40.1000000000.31.3
Source: NOAA [25]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
CensusPop.
1860327
187040022.3%
1880842110.5%
18901,784111.9%
19002,63447.6%
19105,02090.6%
19204,283−14.7%
19304,5446.1%
19404,7444.4%
19507,73963.1%
19609,11917.8%
197012,34235.3%
198014,94321.1%
199016,2348.6%
200019,52220.3%
201020,0782.8%
Est. 201320,295[5]1.1%
[4][28]

In the census of 2010, there were 20,078 people, 9,409 households, and 4,542 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,047 inhabitants per square mile (1,176 /km2). There were 10,455 housing units at an average density of 1,587 per square mile (613 /km2). The racial makeup of the city was about 90% White, 1% African American, 1% Native American, 2% Asian, 0.3% Pacific Islander, 1.4% from other races, and 4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were about 5% of the population.[4]

There were 9,409 households out of which about 21% had children under the age of 18 living with them. About 34% were married couples living together; 10% had a female householder with no husband present, about 4% had a male householder with no wife present, and about 52% were non-families. About 38% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.03 and the average family size was 2.63.[4]

The median age in the city was 42.9 years. About 16% of residents were under the age of 18, and about 16% were between the ages of 18 and 24. Rounded to the nearest whole number, 21% were from 25 to 44 years old; 30% were from 45 to 64; and 18% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was about 46% male and 54% female.[4]

In 2010, the median income for a household in the city was $41,334, and the median income for a family was $58,409. Males had a median income of $50,368 versus $34,202 for females. The per capita income for the city was $28,941. About 21% of the population and 13% of families had incomes below the poverty line. Out of the total population, about 30% of those under the age of 18 and 3.5% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.[4]

Government[edit]

Ashland has a mayor–council government consisting of a mayor and six council members elected by the city's voters to serve four-year terms.[29] John Stromberg, whose term ends in 2016, is the current mayor.[30] Unelected citizen committees assist the mayor and council in setting legislative goals.[29]

Peter Buckley, a Democrat from Ashland, represents Ashland and all of Oregon House District 5 in the state legislature.[31] As part of Oregon Senate District 3, Ashland is represented by Democrat Alan Bates.[32] At the federal level, Greg Walden, a Republican, speaks for Ashland and the rest of Oregon's 2nd congressional district in the United States House of Representatives.[32] Ron Wyden and Jeff Merkley, both Democrats, serve the state of Oregon in the United States Senate.[32]

Historically, Ashland has been something of a political outlier in southwest Oregon.[33] In the presidential election of 1860, Ashland favored Abraham Lincoln while its neighbors strongly preferred pro-slavery candidates.[33] In the early 1900s, Ashland voters supported women's suffrage and prohibition, generally out of step with the rest of the region.[33] In more recent elections, liberal Ashland has supported tax levies and environmental regulations opposed by voters elsewhere in Jackson and nearby counties.[33] Critics sometimes refer to the city as the People's Republic of Ashland.[33]

Economy[edit]

Income from tourism is important to Ashland's economy. A large number of restaurants, galleries, and retail stores cater to thousands of visitors who attend plays each year at the Oregon Shakespeare Festival. In 2011, the festival sold more than 390,000 tickets to its theater productions.[34]

The town's largest employer is Southern Oregon University (SOU), which has a faculty and staff of more than 750.[34] In addition to the Oregon Shakespeare Festival and the university, health-service providers make significant contributions to the economy. Businesses related to outdoor recreation, transportation, technology, and light manufacturing are also important.[34] In 2010, the Shakespeare Festival employed about 500 people, the hospital about 400, the public schools about 300, and the City of Ashland about 250.[35] The Bathroom Readers' Press, which produces the Uncle John's Bathroom Reader books, is based in Ashland and San Diego.[36] Brammo, specializing in battery-electric motorcycles, was based in Ashland but recently moved to Talent.[37]

Arts and culture[edit]

Oregon Shakespeare Festival 75th anniversary banner

The Oregon Shakespeare Festival has grown from a summer outdoor series in the 1930s to a season that stretches from February to October, incorporating Shakespearean and non-Shakespearean plays at three theaters.[38] The OSF has become the largest regional repertory theater in the United States.[17]

The Oregon Cabaret Theater features musicals and comedy throughout the year.[39] Opened in 1986, the dinner theater occupies a former First Baptist Church built in Mission Revival style.[40] The Ashland Independent Film Festival, which shows international and domestic films of almost every genre, takes place each April in the Varsity Theatre downtown. About 80 films are shown during the five days of the festival.[41] In 2009, Ashland was the setting for the movie version of Neil Gaiman's Coraline.[42]

The annual Ashland New Plays Festival (ANPF) is a nonprofit organization that encourages playwrights to develop new work through public readings. Each year, the ANPF holds an international competition that winnows hundreds of submissions to four plays that are read to live audiences by professional actors during a five-day festival in October.[43]

Museums and other points of interest[edit]

The National Fish and Wildlife Forensics Laboratory in Ashland is the world's only laboratory dedicated to solving crimes against wildlife. Using forensic science, experts at the laboratory help wildlife officers to investigate possible crimes against animals and to establish links between victims and suspects in cases that go to court.[44] The laboratory has assisted the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) and foreign agencies concerned with the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITIES).[45]

The Ashland City Band (ACB) was organized in the late 19th century as the Ashland Brass Band.[46] The band used an octagonal gazebo-style bandstand in Lithia Park[47] until the Butler Memorial Band Shell was built in Lithia Park in 1946.[46] The ACB gives public concerts there each summer between June and August.[46]

Parks[edit]

View of OSF buildings from a footbridge in Lithia Park

Lithia Park is a 93-acre (38 ha) park, including 42 acres (17 ha) on the National Register of Historic Places, that begins near the downtown shopping area and extends upstream along Ashland Creek near the center of the city.[48] It includes two ponds, a Japanese garden, tennis courts, two public greens, a bandshell (outdoor stage) and miles of hiking trails. The name Lithia comes from natural mineral water found in the Ashland area.[49] It has a strong mineral taste and slight effervescence, and the lithia water fountains found on the town plaza are frequently tasted by unsuspecting tourists (often at the behest of residents or frequent visitors who use the fountains as a cheap, humorous Ashland initiation rite).[50]

A hiking and biking path, the Bear Creek Greenway, begins in Ashland near the intersection of West Nevada Street with Helman Street,[51] close to the confluence of Ashland Creek (which flows through Lithia Park).[52] with Bear Creek.[53] The 25-mile (40 km) path follows Bear Creek between Ashland and Central Point and passes through Talent, Phoenix, and Medford.[54]

Education[edit]

Hannon Library at Southern Oregon University

Southern Oregon University, a public co-ed four-year university founded in 1926, offers courses of study toward degrees in the liberal arts, science, business, and education. Students can focus on any of more than 30 major fields or enroll in programs such as Shakespeare Studies and other minors. With an enrollment of about 5,700 undergraduates as of 2013–14, this urban university also offers graduate-level programs on its 175-acre (71 ha) campus.[55]

About 57 percent of the university's students are women, and about 43 percent are men. Their most popular major fields include those related to business, psychology, visual and performing arts, social sciences, and protective services such as law enforcement and firefighting. The student–faculty ratio in 2013–14 is 20 to 1. Tuition in 2013–14 is $7,863 per year for Oregon residents and $20,238 for all others.[55]

The Ashland School District oversees three elementary schools, one of which is a magnet school focused on science and the arts; one middle school; one high school; and a community learning center.[56] Ashland High School was ranked 1,395th best among the nation's public high schools and 15th best in Oregon by U.S. News & World Report as of 2013.[57]

Media[edit]

The Ashland Daily Tidings is published Monday through Saturday.[58] The Mail Tribune, a morning daily published Monday through Sunday in Medford, also serves Ashland.[58] Fifteen radio stations operate in the region around Ashland,[21] including Jefferson Public Radio[59] and KSKQ, an independent non-profit broadcasting at 89.5 FM.[60] A former student-run radio station with the call letters KSOC and the nickname "Radio Free Ashland" shut down in February 2013 after 14 years of broadcasting.[61] Rogue Valley Community Television, based at Southern Oregon University, serves Jackson and Josephine counties.[62] Ashland has no commercial television stations, but nearby Medford has seven.[63]

Infrastructure and public services[edit]

The Ashland Community Hospital is a general medical and surgical hospital operated by the city. As of 2013, it has 36 inpatient beds.[64]

Ashland Public Library

The Ashland Public Library building was expanded from the city's original Carnegie library.[65] In 2003, the historic Carnegie portion of the library was restored.[65] In 2006, budget problems led to the closing in April 2007 of the Ashland Library and 14 others in Jackson County. The event, which lasted until October 2007, was the largest library closure in U.S. history.[66] Although some of its services are handled by a private company, Library Systems and Services,[67] the Ashland branch remains part of the Jackson County network of public libraries.[65]

Rogue Valley Transportation District (RVTD) Route 10 and Route 15 provides bus service to much of the city, both routes running every 30 minutes providing a combined service frequency of 15 minutes.[68] Route 10 also provides service to Medford, where passengers can connect to any of the other six RVTD routes as well as to Southwest Point, a daily shuttle operated by Klamath Shuttle carrying passengers between Brookings and the Amtrak station in Klamath Falls.[69] The Klamath Falls Amtrak Station serves the Coast Starlight long-haul passenger train on track owned by the Union Pacific Railroad.[70] Ashland Municipal Airport, with a 3,600-foot (1,100 m) asphalt runway, offers general aviation services.[71] Medford International Airport, 12 miles (19 km) from Ashland, also serves the city.[21]

The City of Ashland moved to improve local broadband Internet access in the late 1990s by creating the Ashland Fiber Network (AFN) and building a fiber optic ring inside the city boundaries.[35] However, by 2006 the city faced difficulties servicing AFN's debt load, which was approaching $15.5 million.[35] The city hired a new AFN director, Joe Franell,[72] who suggested scrapping cable television service while retaining the more profitable high-speed Internet access.[73] In October 2006, the cable television service was transferred to a local company, Ashland Home Net, while the City retained both the infrastructure and the wholesale Internet business.[74]

Notable people[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Incorporated Cities: Ashland". Oregon Blue Book. Oregon Secretary of State. 2013. Retrieved April 16, 2013. 
  2. ^ a b "U.S. Gazetteer Files 2010: Place List". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved April 9, 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c "Ashland". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. November 28, 1980. Retrieved April 13, 2013. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f "American FactFinder". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved April 13, 2013. 
  5. ^ a b c "2013 Certified Population Estimates: Cities and Towns" (PDF). Portland State University. Retrieved December 24, 2013. 
  6. ^ Guanajuato Room to be Dedicated. Release date: June 7, 2004. Retrieved March 24, 2011.
  7. ^ State of the City. Ashland State of the City - 2005. Retrieved March 24, 2011.
  8. ^ Ashland's Sister City. City of Ashland, Oregon website. Retrieved March 24, 2011.
  9. ^ "Geographic Identifiers: Ashland City, Oregon". American FactFinder. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved April 17, 2013. 
  10. ^ a b Davidson, p. 137
  11. ^ a b "History of Ashland". City of Ashland. Archived from the original on July 20, 2011. 
  12. ^ a b c d Davidson, p. 138
  13. ^ Davidson, pp. 142–44
  14. ^ "Ashland Oregon: From Stage Coach to Center Stage: Ashland Depot Hotel, South Wing". National Park Service. 2001. Retrieved March 11, 2013. 
  15. ^ Davidson, pp. 35–45
  16. ^ Peterson, p. 93
  17. ^ a b "Ashland Oregon: From Stage Coach to Center Stage: Introduction". National Park Service. Retrieved March 10, 2013. 
  18. ^ "Ashland, Oregon: From Stage Coach to Center Stage: Enders Building". National Park Service. Retrieved March 9, 2013. 
  19. ^ The 2013 Road Atlas. Chicago: Rand McNally. p. 84. ISBN 978-0-528-00622-7. 
  20. ^ LaLande, Jeff. "Siskiyou Pass". The Oregon Encyclopedia. Portland State University. Retrieved July 5, 2013. 
  21. ^ a b c "Ashland Community Profile". Oregon Infrastructure Finance Authority. Retrieved April 17, 2013. 
  22. ^ a b c Oregon Atlas & Gazetteer (7th ed.). Yarmouth, Maine: DeLorme. 2008. pp. 58–61, 68–69. ISBN 978-0-89933-347-2. 
  23. ^ Taylor, p. 57
  24. ^ Taylor, p. 38
  25. ^ a b c d "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved April 10, 2012. 
  26. ^ Taylor, p. 35
  27. ^ "Monthly Averages for Ashland, Oregon". The Weather Channel Interactive. Retrieved April 18, 2013. 
  28. ^ Moffatt, Riley Moore (1996). Population History of Western U.S. Cities and Towns, 1850–1990. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. p. 206. ISBN 978-0-8108-3033-2. 
  29. ^ a b "City Council". City of Ashland. Retrieved December 24, 2013. 
  30. ^ "John Stromberg". City of Ashland. Retrieved December 24, 2013. 
  31. ^ "Your Government: Peter Buckley". The Oregonian (Portland, Oregon). 2013. Retrieved December 25, 2013. 
  32. ^ a b c "Your Government: Ashland". The Oregonian (Portland, Oregon). 2013. Retrieved December 25, 2013. 
  33. ^ a b c d e LaLande, Jeff. "Ashland". The Oregon Encyclopedia. Portland State University. Retrieved December 25, 2013. 
  34. ^ a b c "The Ashland Economy". Ashland Chamber of Commerce. 2011. Retrieved February 22, 2013. 
  35. ^ a b c "Ashland Fiber Network: Proposed 2010–2013 Strategic Business Plan" (PDF). City of Ashland. July 2010. pp. 10–13. Retrieved December 25, 2013. 
  36. ^ "About Us". The Bathroom Reader's Institute. 2013. Retrieved January 25, 2013. 
  37. ^ "Company Overview of Brammo, Inc.". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved April 16, 2014. 
  38. ^ Davidson, pp. 11, 18
  39. ^ "Our History". Oregon Cabaret Theatre. Retrieved December 23, 2013. 
  40. ^ Davidson, p. 25
  41. ^ "About AIFF". Ashland Independent Film Festival. Retrieved March 10, 2013. 
  42. ^ Wloszczyna, Susan (February 5, 2009). "Coraline Is the Perfect Young Heroine for Hard Times". USA Today. Retrieved December 23, 2013. 
  43. ^ "About Us". Ashland New Plays Festival. February 5, 2013. Retrieved April 13, 2013. 
  44. ^ "About the Laboratory". U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved December 24, 2013. 
  45. ^ Davidson, pp. 130–34
  46. ^ a b c Davidson, pp. 55–59
  47. ^ Graves, Kathy. "Ashland City Band: A Short History". Ashland City Band. Retrieved July 11, 2010. 
  48. ^ "Lithia Park". National Park Service. Retrieved July 15, 2010. 
  49. ^ O'Harra, Marjorie; Scriptor, Eldon (1986). Lithia Park. Ashland, Oregon: Ashland Parks and Recreation Department. OCLC 19118066. 
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Works cited[edit]

External links[edit]