Arthralgia

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Arthralgia
Classification and external resources
ICD-10M25.5
ICD-9719.4
DiseasesDB15237
MedlinePlus003261
MeSHD018771
 
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Arthralgia
Classification and external resources
ICD-10M25.5
ICD-9719.4
DiseasesDB15237
MedlinePlus003261
MeSHD018771

Arthralgia (from Greek arthro-, joint + -algos, pain) literally means joint pain;[1][2] it is a symptom of injury, infection, illnesses (in particular arthritis) or an allergic reaction to medication.[3]

According to MeSH, the term "arthralgia" should only be used when the condition is non-inflammatory, and the term "arthritis" should be used when the condition is inflammatory.[4]

Diagnosis and causes[edit]

Diagnosis involves interviewing the patient and performing physical exams. When attempting to establish the cause of the arthralgia, the emphasis is on the interview.[2] The patient is asked questions intended to narrow the number of potential causes. Given the varied nature of these possible causes, some questions may seem irrelevant. For example, the patient may be asked about dry mouth, light sensitivity, rashes or a history of seizures.[2][5] Answering yes or no to any of these questions limits the number of possible causes and guides the doctor toward the appropriate exams and lab tests.

The causes of arthralgia are varied and range, from a joints perspective, from degenerative and destructive processes such as osteoarthritis and sports injuries to inflammation of tissues surrounding the joints, such as bursitis.[6] These might be triggered by other things, such as infections or vaccinations.[7]

Causes of arthralgia[edit]

CauseMono- or
polyarticular
Speed of onset
Rheumatoid arthritisPolyarticular [8]Weeks-months[9]
Systemic lupus erythematosusPolyarticular[8]Months[10]
Viral arthritisPolyarticular[8]
Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome[11]
Reactive arthritisPolyarticular[8]
Rheumatic feverPolyarticular[8]
Lyme diseasePolyarticular[8]
Gonococcal arthritisPolyarticular[8]
Drug-induced arthritisPolyarticular[8]
OsteoarthritisMonoarticular[8]
Gout attackMonoarticular[8]Hours[12]
PseudogoutMonoarticular[8]
Physical traumaMonoarticular[8]Immediate
Septic arthritisMonoarticular[8]Hours[12]
HemarthrosisMonoarticular[8]

Treatment[edit]

Treatment depends on a specific underlying cause. The underlying cause will be treated first and foremost. The treatments may include joint replacement surgery for severely damaged joints, immunosuppressants for immune system dysfunction, antibiotics when an infection is the cause, and discontinuing medication when an allergic reaction is the cause. When treating the primary cause, pain management may still play a role in treatment. The extent of its role varies depending on the specific cause of the arthralgia. Pain management may include stretching exercises, over the counter pain medications, prescription pain medication, or other treatments deemed appropriate for the symptoms. Capsaicin a substance found in chili peppers may relieve joint pain from arthritis and other conditions. Capsaicin blocks substance P, which helps transmit pain signals, and it triggers the release of chemicals in the body called endorphins, which block pain. Side effects of capsaicin cream include burning or stinging in the area where it is applied. Another topical option is an arthritis cream containing the ingredient, methyl salicylate (Ben Gay).

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Arthralgia Definition". MedicineNet.com. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-20. 
  2. ^ a b c Joe G. Hardin. "Arthralgia". Clinical Methods - The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations. Retrieved 2007-09-20. 
  3. ^ James R Philp. "Allergic Drug Reactions - Systemic Allergic Drug Reactions". Clinical Methods - The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations. Retrieved 2007-09-20. 
  4. ^ "MeSH". Retrieved 2007-12-23. 
  5. ^ "Table 159mptomatic Extraarticular Features of the Connective Tissue Diseases and the Spondyloarthropathies". Clinical Methods - The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations. Retrieved 2007-09-20. 
  6. ^ Joe G. Hardin. "Table 161.1. Some Common Regional Rheumatic Syndromes". Clinical Methods - The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations. Retrieved 2007-09-20. 
  7. ^ Loris McVittie, Ph.D. "Information from CDC and FDA on the Safety of Gardasil Vaccine". supplement to your biologics license application (BLA) for Human Papillomavirus Quadrivalent (Types 6, 11, 16 and 18) Vaccine, Recombinant (GARDASIL), to include arthralgia, myalgia, asthenia, fatigue, and malaise in the Adverse Reactions section of the package insert. Retrieved 2008-07-21. [dead link]
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Table 6-8 in: Elizabeth D Agabegi; Agabegi, Steven S. (2008). Step-Up to Medicine (Step-Up Series). Hagerstwon, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 0-7817-7153-6. 
  9. ^ Diagnosis lag time of median 4 weeks, and median diagnosis lag time of 18 weeks, taken from: Chan, K. W.; Felson, D. T.; Yood, R. A.; Walker, A. M. (1994). "The lag time between onset of symptoms and diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis". Arthritis and rheumatism 37 (6): 814–820. doi:10.1002/art.1780370606. PMID 8003053.  edit
  10. ^ Doria, A.; Zen, M.; Canova, M.; Bettio, S.; Bassi, N.; Nalotto, L.; Rampudda, M.; Ghirardello, A.; Iaccarino, L. (2010). "SLE diagnosis and treatment: When early is early". Autoimmunity Reviews 10 (1): 55–60. doi:10.1016/j.autrev.2010.08.014. PMID 20813207.  edit
  11. ^ http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/ehlers-danlos-syndrome/basics/definition/con-20033656/
  12. ^ a b Page 740 (upper right of page) in: Schaider, Jeffrey; Wolfson, Allan B.; Gregory W Hendey; Louis Ling; Carlo L Rosen (2009). Harwood-Nuss' Clinical Practice of Emergency Medicine (Clinical Practice of Emergency Medicine (Harwood-Nuss)). Hagerstwon, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 0-7817-8943-5.