Arrow

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This article is about the weapon. For the symbol, see Arrow (symbol). For other uses, see Arrow (disambiguation).
Traditional target arrow and replica medieval arrow.
Modern arrow with plastic fletchings and nock.

An arrow is a shafted projectile that is shot with a bow. It predates recorded history and is common to most cultures. An arrow usually consists of a shaft with an arrowhead attached to the front end, with fletchings and a nock at the other.

History[edit]

Main article: History of archery

The oldest evidence of stone-tipped projectiles, which may or may not have been propelled by a bow (c.f. atlatl), dating to c. 64,000 years ago, were found in Sibudu Cave, South Africa.[1] The oldest evidence of the use of bows to shoot arrows dates to about 10,000 years ago; it is based on pinewood arrows found in the Ahrensburg valley north of Hamburg. They had shallow grooves on the base, indicating that they were shot from a bow.[2] The oldest bow so far recovered is about 8,000 years old, found in the Holmegård swamp in Denmark. Archery seems to have arrived in the Americas with the Arctic small tool tradition, about 4,500 years ago.

Size[edit]

Schematic of an arrow with many parts.

Arrow sizes vary greatly across cultures, ranging from eighteen inches to five feet (45 cm to 150 cm).[3] However, most modern arrows are 75 centimetres (30 in) to 96 centimetres (38 in); most war arrows from an English ship sunk in 1545 were 76 centimetres (30 in).[4] Very short arrows have been used, shot through a guide attached either to the bow (an "overdraw") or to the archer's wrist (the Turkish "siper").[5] These may fly farther than heavier arrows, and an enemy without suitable equipment may find himself unable to return them.

A Shoshone man using a shaft straightener in traditional arrow construction.

Shaft[edit]

A sideprofile of an Easton Carbon One arrow with a spine of 900, taken with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The arrow is a bond of two carbon tubes, an inner and an outer tube (black wires). In between both carbon layers, an other fiber is used (white fiber). This second fiber is an Mg-Al-Si-fiber. The "white" fiber is twisted around the inner carbon tube. The fibers of the carbon tubes are not twisted, to ensure a maximum of possible mechanical tension of the arrow. The Mg-Al-Si-fiber enhances the flexibility of the arrow. The diameter of a single carbon fiber is approx. 7 µm.

The shaft is the primary structural element of the arrow, to which the other components are attached. Traditional arrow shafts are made from lightweight wood, bamboo or reeds, while modern shafts may be made from aluminium, carbon fibre reinforced plastic, or a combination of materials. Such shafts are typically made from an aluminium core wrapped with a carbon fibre outer.

The stiffness of the shaft is known as its spine, referring to how little the shaft bends when compressed. Hence, an arrow which bends less is said to have more spine. In order to strike consistently, a group of arrows must be similarly spined. "Center-shot" bows, in which the arrow passes through the central vertical axis of the bow riser, may obtain consistent results from arrows with a wide range of spines. However, most traditional bows are not center-shot and the arrow has to deflect around the handle in the archer's paradox; such bows tend to give most consistent results with a narrower range of arrow spine that allows the arrow to deflect correctly around the bow. Higher draw-weight bows will generally require stiffer arrows, with more spine (less flexibility) to give the correct amount of flex when shot.

GPI rating[edit]

The weight of an arrow shaft can be expressed in GPI (Grains Per Inch).[6] The length of a shaft in inches multiplied by its GPI rating gives the weight of the shaft in grains. For example, a shaft that is 30 inches long and has a GPI of 9.5 weighs 285 grains, or about 18.468 grams. This does not include the other elements of a finished arrow, so a complete arrow will be heavier than the shaft alone.

Footed arrows[edit]

Sometimes a shaft will be made of two different types of wood fastened together, resulting in what is known as a footed arrow. Known by some as the finest of wood arrows,[7] footed arrows were used both by early Europeans and Native Americans. Footed arrows will typically consist of a short length of hardwood near the head of the arrow, with the remainder of the shaft consisting of softwood. By reinforcing the area most likely to break, the arrow is more likely to survive impact, while maintaining overall flexibility and lighter weight.

Arrowhead[edit]

Main article: Arrowhead
Obsidian broadhead
Ancient Greek bronze arrowhead, 4th century BC, from Olynthus, Chalcidice
Various Japanese arrowheads
Native American arrowheads
20th century field points
Modern replicas of various medieval European arrowheads

The arrowhead or projectile point is the primary functional part of the arrow, and plays the largest role in determining its purpose. Some arrows may simply use a sharpened tip of the solid shaft, but it is far more common for separate arrowheads to be made, usually from metal, horn, or some other hard material. Arrowheads are usually separated by function:

There are two main types of broadheads used by hunters: The fixed-blade and the mechanical types. While the fixed-blade broadhead keeps its blades rigid and unmovable on the broadhead at all times, the mechanical broadhead deploys its blades upon contact with the target, its blades swinging out to wound the target. The mechanical head flies better because it is more streamlined, but has less penetration as it uses some of the kinetic energy in the arrow to deploy its blades.[11]

Arrowheads may be attached to the shaft with a cap, a socketed tang, or inserted into a split in the shaft and held by a process called hafting.[3] Points attached with caps are simply slid snugly over the end of the shaft, or may be held on with hot glue. Split-shaft construction involves splitting the arrow shaft lengthwise, inserting the arrowhead, and securing it using a ferrule, sinew, or wire.[13]

Fletchings[edit]

Main article: Fletching
Straight parabolic fletchings on an arrow.

Fletchings are found at the back of the arrow and act as airfoils to provide a small amount of force used to stabilize the flight of the arrow. They are designed to keep the arrow pointed in the direction of travel by strongly damping down any tendency to pitch or yaw. Some cultures, for example most in New Guinea, did not use fletching on their arrows.[14]

Fletchings are traditionally made from feathers (often from a goose or turkey) bound to the arrow's shaft, but are now often made of plastic (known as "vanes"). Historically, some arrows used for the proofing of armour used copper vanes.[15] Flight archers may use razor blades for fletching, in order to reduce air resistance. With conventional three-feather fletching, one feather, called the "cock" feather, is at a right angle to the nock, and is normally nocked so that it will not contact the bow when the arrow is shot. Four-feather fletching is usually symmetrical and there is no preferred orientation for the nock; this makes nocking the arrow slightly easier.

Artisans who make arrows by hand are known as "fletchers," a word related to the French word for arrow, flèche. This is the same derivation as the verb "fletch", meaning to provide an arrow with its feathers. Glue and/or thread are the main traditional methods of attaching fletchings. A "fletching jig" is often used in modern times, to hold the fletchings in exactly the right orientation on the shaft while the glue hardens.

Whenever natural fletching is used, the feathers on any one arrow must come from the same side of the bird. The slight twist in natural feathers then makes the arrow rotate in flight, which increases accuracy. Artificial helical fletchings have the same effect. Most arrows will have three fletches, but some have four or even more. Fletchings generally range from two to six inches (152 mm) in length; flight arrows intended to travel the maximum possible distance typically have very low fletching, while hunting arrows with broadheads require long and high fletching to stabilize them against the aerodynamic effect of the head. Fletchings may also be cut in different ways, the two most common being parabolic (i.e. a smooth curved shape) and shield (i.e. shaped as one-half of a very narrow shield) cut.

A flu-flu is a form of fletching, normally made by using long sections of full length feathers taken from a turkey, in most cases six or more sections are used rather than the traditional three. Alternatively two long feathers can be spiraled around the end of the arrow shaft. The extra fletching generates more drag and slows the arrow down rapidly after a short distance, about 30 m or so[citation needed].

Flu-Flu arrows are often used for hunting birds, or for children's archery, and can also be used to play Flu-Flu Golf.

Nocks[edit]

The nock is a notch in the rearmost end of the arrow. It serves to keep the arrow in place on the string as the bow is being drawn. Nocks may be simple slots cut in the back of the arrow, or separate pieces made from wood, plastic, or horn that are then attached to the end of the arrow.[16] Modern nocks, and traditional Turkish nocks, are often constructed so as to curve around the string or even pinch it slightly, so that the arrow is unlikely to slip off.[17] In English it is common to say "nock an arrow" when one readies a shot.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Lyn Wadley from the University of the Witwatersrand (2010); BBC: Oldest evidence of arrows found
  2. ^ McEwen E, Bergman R, Miller C. Early bow design and construction. Scientific American 1991 vol. 264 pp76-82.
  3. ^ a b Stone, George Cameron (1934). A Glossary of the Construction, Decoration, and Use of Arms and Armor in All Countries and in All Times, Mineola: Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-40726-8
  4. ^ Anon: The Mary Rose; Armament p.7
  5. ^ Turkish Archery and the Composite Bow. Paul E. Klopsteg ISBN 1-56416-093-9 ISBN 978-1564160935
  6. ^ GPI explained by an arrow vendor (referred to from their listing of carbon arrows)
  7. ^ Langston, Gene (1994). "Custom Shafts". The Traditional Bowyer's Bible - Volume Three. Guilford: The Lyons Press. ISBN 1-58574-087-X. 
  8. ^ a b Royal Armouries: 6. Armour-piercing arrowheads
  9. ^ Hunting with the Bow and Arrow, by Saxton Pope. http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etext05/8hbow10.txt "To test a steel bodkin pointed arrow such as was used at the battle of Cressy, I borrowed a shirt of chain armor from the Museum, a beautiful specimen made in Damascus in the 15th Century. It weighed twenty-five pounds and was in perfect condition. One of the attendants in the Museum offered to put it on and allow me to shoot at him. Fortunately, I declined his proffered services and put it on a wooden box, padded with burlap to represent clothing. Indoors at a distance of seven yards (6 m), I discharged an arrow at it with such force that sparks flew from the links of steel as from a forge. The bodkin point and shaft went through the thickest portion of the back, penetrated an inch of wood and bulged out the opposite side of the armor shirt. The attendant turned a pale green. An arrow of this type can be shot about two hundred yards, and would be deadly up to the full limit of its flight."
  10. ^ Strickland M, Hardy R. The Great Warbow. Sutton Publishing 2005. Page 272
  11. ^ http://www.huntingblades.com/mevsfiblbr.html
  12. ^ SCA marshall's handbook
  13. ^ Parker, Glenn (1992). "Steel Points". The Traditional Bowyer's Bible - Volume Two. Guilford: The Lyons Press. ISBN 1-58574-086-1. 
  14. ^ Gardens of War: Life and Death in the New Guinea Stone Age. Robert Gardner. Deutsch 1969. ISBN 0-233-96140-2, ISBN 978-0-233-96140-8
  15. ^ Ffoulkes, Charles (1988) [1912]. The Armourer and his Craft (Dover reprint ed.). Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-25851-3. 
  16. ^ Massey, Jay(1992). "Self Arrows" in The Traditional Bowyer's Bible - Volume One, Guilford: The Lyons Press. ISBN 1-58574-085-3
  17. ^ Stone, G.C. "A Glossary of the Construction, Decoration and Use of Arms and Armor"

External links[edit]