Armored car (military)

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A preserved, World War 2, German SdKfz 234/4 heavy armored car (German Tank Museum, 2006)

A military armored (or armoured) car is a wheeled light armored vehicle, lighter than other armored fighting vehicles, primarily being armored and/or armed for self-defense of the occupants. Other multi-axled wheeled military vehicles can be quite large, and actually be superior to some smaller tracked vehicles in terms of armor and armament.

History[edit]

Armed car[edit]

F.R. Simms' Motor Scout, built in 1898 as an armed car.

The Motor Scout was designed and built by British inventor F.R. Simms in 1898. It was the first armed petrol engine powered vehicle ever built. The vehicle was a De Dion-Bouton quadricycle with a mounted Maxim machine gun on the front bar. An iron shield in front of the car protected the driver.[1]

Another early armed car was invented by Royal Page Davidson at Northwestern Military and Naval Academy in 1898 with the Davidson-Duryea gun carriage and the later Davidson Automobile Battery armored car.

However, these were not 'armored cars' as the term is understood today, as they provided no real protection for their crews against any kind of opposing fire. They were also, by virtue of their small capacity engines, far less efficient than the cavalry and horse-drawn guns that they were intended to complement.

First armored cars[edit]

At the beginning of the twentieth century, the first military armored vehicles were manufactured, by adding armor and weapons to existing vehicles.

F.R. Simms' 1902 Motor War Car, the first armored car to be built.

The first armoured car was the Simms' Motor War Car, designed by F.R. Simms and built by Vickers, Sons & Maxim of Barrow on a special Coventry-built Daimler chassis[2] with a German-built Daimler motor in 1899.[2] and a single prototype was ordered in April 1899[2] The prototype was finished in 1902,[2] too late to be used during the Boer War.

The vehicle had Vickers armour 6 mm thick and was powered by a four-cylinder 3.3-litre[2] 16 hp Cannstatt Daimler engine giving it a maximum speed of around 9 miles per hour (14.5 km/h). The armament, consisting of two Maxim guns, was carried in two turrets with 360° traverse.[3][4] It had a crew of four. Simms' Motor War Car was presented at the Crystal Palace, London, in April 1902.[5]

The earliest French armored car - the Charron-Girardot-Voigt 1902.

Another early armoured car of the period was the French Charron, Girardot et Voigt 1902, presented at the Salon de l'Automobile et du cycle in Brussels, on 8 March 1902.[6] The vehicle was equipped with a Hotchkiss machine gun, and with 7 mm armour for the gunner.[7][8]

The Italians used armored cars during the Italo-Turkish War.[9] A great variety of armored cars appeared on both sides during World War I and these were used in various ways.

World War I[edit]

Generally, the armored cars were used by more or less independent car commanders. However, sometimes they were used in larger units up to squadron size. The cars were primarily armed with light machine guns. But larger units usually employed a few cars with heavier guns. As air power became a factor, armored cars offered a mobile platform for anti-aircraft guns.[10]

A Rolls-Royce Armoured Car 1920 pattern

The first effective use of an armored vehicle in combat was achieved by the Belgian Army in August–September 1914. They had placed Cockerill armour plating and a Hotchkiss machine gun on Minerva Armored Cars. Their successes in the early days of the war convinced the Belgian GHQ to create a Corps of Armoured Cars, who would be sent to fight on the Eastern front once the western front immobilized after the Battle of the Yser.[11][12][13]

The British Royal Naval Air Service dispatched aircraft to Dunkirk to defend the UK from Zeppelins. The officers' cars followed them and these began to be used to rescue downed reconnaissance pilots in the battle areas. They mounted machine guns on them[14] and as these excursions became increasingly dangerous, they improvised boiler plate armoring on the vehicles provided by a local shipbuilder. In London Murray Sueter ordered "fighting cars" based on Rolls-Royce, Talbot and Wolseley chassis. By the time Rolls-Royce Armoured Cars arrived in December 1914, the mobile period on the Western Front was already over.[15] As described below, they had a fascinating birth and long and interesting service.

More tactically important was the development of formed units of armoured cars, such as the Canadian Automobile Machine Gun Brigade, which was the first fully mechanized unit in the history of the British Army. The brigade was established on September 2, 1914 in Ottawa, as Automobile Machine Gun Brigade No. 1 by Brigadier-General Raymond Brutinel. The Brigade was originally equipped with 8 Armoured Autocars mounting 2 machine guns. By 1918 Brutinel's force consisted of two Motor Machine Gun Brigades (each of five gun batteries containing eight weapons apiece).[16] The brigade, and its armoured cars, provided yeoman service in many battles, notably at Amiens.[17]

The Rolls-Royce Armoured Car was famously proposed, developed, and utilised[18] by the 2nd Duke of Westminster. He took a squadron of these cars to France in time to make a noted contribution to the Second Battle of Ypres, and thereafter the cars with their master were sent to the Middle East to play a part in the British campaign in Palestine and elsewhere. These cars appear in the memoirs of numerous officers of the BEF during the earlier stages of the Great War - their ducal master often being described in an almost piratical style.

World War II[edit]

American troops in an M8 Greyhound passing the Arc de Triomphe after the liberation of Paris

The British Royal Air Force (RAF) in the Middle East was equipped with Rolls-Royce Armoured Cars and Morris tenders. Some of these vehicles were among the last of a consignment of ex-Royal Navy armored cars that had been serving in the Middle East since 1915.[19] In September 1940 a section of the No. 2 Squadron RAF Regiment Company was detached to General Wavell’s ground forces during the first offensive against the Italians in Egypt. It is said[by whom?] that these armored cars became ‘the eyes and ears of Wavell’. During the actions in the October of that year the Company was employed on convoy escort tasks, airfield defense, fighting reconnaissance patrols and screening operations.

A Fordson armoured car waits outside Baghdad while negotiations for an armistice take place between British officials and representatives of the Iraqi rebel government.

During the Anglo-Iraqi War, some of the units located in the British Mandate of Palestine[20] were sent to Iraq and drove Fordson armored cars.[21] "Fordson" armored cars were Rolls-Royce armored cars which received new chassis from a Fordson truck in Egypt.

Since the Treaty of Versailles did not mention armored cars, Germany began developing them early. By the start of the new war, the German army possessed some highly effective reconnaissance vehicles, such as the Schwerer Panzerspähwagen.

The Soviet BA-64 was influenced by a captured Leichter Panzerspähwagen before it was first tested in January 1942.

In the second half of the war, the American M8 Greyhound and the British Daimler Armoured Cars featured turrets with light guns (40 mm or less) mounted in turrets. As with other wartime armored cars, their reconnaissance roles emphasized greater speed and stealth than a tracked vehicle could provide, so their limited armor, armament and off-road capabilities were seen as acceptable compromises.

Military use[edit]

A preserved, World War 2, American M3 Scout Car

A military armored car is a type of armored fighting vehicle having wheels (from four to ten large, off-road wheels) instead of tracks, and usually light armor. Armored cars are typically less expensive and on roads have better speed and range than tracked military vehicles. They do however have less mobility as they have less off-road capabilities because of the higher ground pressure. They also have less obstacle climbing capabilities than tracked vehicles. Wheels are more vulnerable to enemy fire than tracks, they have a higher signature and in most cases less armor than comparable tracked vehicles. As a result they are not intended for heavy fighting; their normal use is for reconnaissance, command, control, and communications, or for use against lightly armed insurgents or rioters. Only some are intended to enter close combat, often accompanying convoys to protect soft-skinned vehicles.

Light armored cars, such as the British Ferret are armed with just a machine gun. Heavier vehicles are armed with autocannon or a small tank gun. The heaviest armored cars, such as the German, World War II era SdKfz 234 or the modern, US M1128 Mobile Gun System, mount the same guns that arm medium tanks.

Vehicle built by railway shop workers for the Danish resistance movement, near the end of World War 2

Armored cars are popular for peacekeeping or internal security duties. Their appearance is less confrontational and threatening than tanks, and their size and maneuverability is said to be more compatible with tight urban spaces designed for wheeled vehicles. However they do have a larger turning radius compared to tracked vehicles which can turn on the spot and their tires are vulnerable and are less capable in climbing and crushing obstacles. However when there is true combat they are easily outgunned and lightly armored. The threatening appearance of a tank is often enough to keep an opponent from attacking, whereas a less threatening vehicle such as an armored car is more likely to be attacked.

Many modern forces now have their dedicated armored car designs, to exploit the advantages noted above. Examples would be the M1117 Armored Security Vehicle of the USA or Alvis Saladin of the post-World War II era in the United Kingdom.

Alternatively, civilian vehicles may be modified into improvised armored cars in ad hoc fashion. Many militias and irregular forces adapt civilian vehicles into AFVs (armored fighting vehicles) and troop carriers, and in some regional conflicts these "technicals" are the only combat vehicles present. On occasion, even the soldiers of national militaries are forced to adapt their civilian-type vehicles for combat use, often using improvised armor and scrounged weapons.

See also[edit]

French Panhard AML
Polish AMZ Zubr

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Macksey, Kenneth (1980). The Guinness Book of Tank Facts and Feats. Guinness Superlatives Limited, ISBN 0-85112-204-3.
  2. ^ a b c d e Edward John Barrington Douglas-Scott-Montagu Baron Montagu of Beaulieu; Lord Montagu; David Burgess Wise (1995). Daimler Century: The Full History of Britain's Oldest Car Maker. Haynes Publications. ISBN 978-1-85260-494-3. 
  3. ^ Macksey, Kenneth (1980). The Guinness Book of Tank Facts and Feats. Guinness Superlatives Limited. p. 256. ISBN 0-85112-204-3. 
  4. ^ Tucker, Spencer (1999). The European Powers in the First World War. Routledge. p. 816. ISBN 0-8153-3351-X. 
  5. ^ Armoured Fighting Vehicules of the World, Duncan, p.3
  6. ^ Gougaud, Alain (1987). L'aube de la gloire: les autos mitrailleuses et les chars français pendant la Grande Guerre, histoire technique et militaire, arme blindée, cavalerie, chars, Musée des blindés. p. 11. ISBN 978-2-904255-02-1. 
  7. ^ Early Armoured Cars E. Bartholomew, p.4
  8. ^ Gougaud, p.11-12
  9. ^ Crow, Encyclopedia of Armored Cars, pg. 102
  10. ^ Crow, Encyclopedia of Armored Cars, pg. 25
  11. ^ http://www.philatelicdatabase.com/postal-history/wwi-belgium-armoured-car-division-in-russia/
  12. ^ http://www.wio.ru/tank/for-rus.htm
  13. ^ http://www.greatwardifferent.com/Great_War/Russia/Russia_00.htm
  14. ^ Band of Brigands p 59
  15. ^ First World War - Willmott, H.P., Dorling Kindersley, 2003, Pg. 59
  16. ^ P. Griffith p 129 "Battle Tactics on the Western Front - The British Army's art of attack 1916–18 Yale university Press quoting the Official History 1918 vol.4, p42
  17. ^ Cameron Pulsifer (2007). ' 'The Armoured Autocar in Canadian Service' ', Service Publications
  18. ^ Verdin, Lt.-Col. Sir Richard (1971). The Cheshire (Earl of Chester's) Yeomanry. Birkenhead: Willmer Bros. Ltd. pp. 50–51. 
  19. ^ Lyman, Iraq 1941, pg. 40
  20. ^ Lyman, p. 57
  21. ^ Lyman, Iraq 1941, pg. 25

References[edit]

External links[edit]