Area codes 905, 289, and 365

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Area code 905 (with overlay area codes 289 and 365) is a telephone dialing area in southern Ontario, Canada. It includes the Niagara Peninsula, Hamilton, Oshawa, and the suburban greater Toronto area. It was assigned on October 4, 1993, as a split from area code 416. 289 began sharing the service area on June 9, 2001; since then, all local calls require ten-digit dialling. On April 13, 2010, the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) announced that area codes 905 and 289 would be overlaid by a third area code, 365,[1] which became operational beginning on March 25, 2013.[2][3]

It surrounds area code 416/647/437 (the city of Toronto) and is bounded with area code 519/226 in the west, 705/249 in the north, 613/343 in the east, and New York State area code 716 on the eastern prong of the Niagara Peninsula.

The incumbent local exchange carrier for these area codes is Bell Canada, which acquired the remaining independent company around 1980.[citation needed]


The 905 area code was once used as a block of alternate numbers for calls from the United States to Mexico (+52-5-...) in the days when overseas calls otherwise would have needed to be placed through a telephone operator. This use became obsolete with the widespread introduction of direct dial overseas calls and was completely abolished no later than February 1, 1991. Partly because of this prior usage of the number 905, area code 905 was the last of the "original-1947-format" area codes (that is, area codes with "0" [zero] or "1" [one] for the middle digit, and 2-9 for the last digit) to be assigned. By October 1991, the numbering plan area (NPA) had been assigned to relieve exchanges in what was, then as now, Canada's largest toll-free calling zone. Automatic number identification (ANI) on the NPA's switching systems began transmission on October 11, 1992 for some central office codes, and full conversion was achieved by January 1, 1994.

Five years after its introduction, 905 was close to exhaustion far sooner than anticipated due to Canada's inefficient system of number allocation (with no number pooling in Canada, blocks of 10,000 numbers were assigned to each CLEC in each tiny hamlet served, with most of these wasted). This was exacerbated by the proliferation of cell phones, fax lines, and secondary phone lines for home dial-up Internet use. By 1999, the CRTC had established an ad-hoc committee to study NPA relief planning for area code 905. A split of the 905 NPA was considered, with various options presented:

The overlay option was chosen because it would cause the least disruption; it would require no changes for existing customers in the 905 area. It would also be far easier to implement technically.

The 289 NPA overlay was approved by the CRTC on August 15, 2000 (Order CRTC 2000-772). Earlier that month, Toufic Saliba, consultant and technical engineer at the Commission, directed the addition of area code 289 in the 905 area code region. In doing so, Saliba directed that all carriers put in place a 10-digit dialing plan for all local calls. In this order, the Commission directed Bell Canada to implement the 10-digit local dialing plan.[4] 289 came into service on April 7, 2001, and was in full operation by June 9, 2001.

905 officially became exhausted in November 2005. All new central office prefixes are assigned in NPA 289, as there are no longer any available prefixes in 905. Due to the fact that this is a large and rapidly growing region, area code 365 has been assigned for further relief on March 25, 2013, and area code 742 has been set aside for further relief as the area is expected to exhaust by 2036 at current growth rates.[5]

In popular culture[edit]

The term the 905 or the 905 belt is used to describe the suburban areas of the Greater Toronto Area,[6] while Toronto proper is referred to as the 416. The term 905er is often used pejoratively by downtown and inner-city Toronto residents to refer to people from Toronto's suburbs.[7]

Canadian rapper Maestro rendered homage to the area code in his song "416/905 (TO Party Anthem)".

Rate centres and central office codes[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Hui, Ann (April 13, 2010). "‘905’ gets some new numbers". Toronto Star. Retrieved April 13, 2010. 
  2. ^ Lu, Vanessa (July 22, 2011). Toronto Star (Toronto Star Newspapers). 
  3. ^ "2 new area codes coming to GTA next month". CBC News. February 13, 2013. Retrieved March 23, 2013. 
  4. ^ Order CRTC 2001-840 (copy archived February 3, 2004)
  5. ^ "Telecom Decision CRTC 2010-213". Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission. 13 April 2010. Retrieved 27 October 2014. 
  6. ^ "905 region to add new area code". CBC News. April 13, 2010. Retrieved April 18, 2010. "The area around Toronto is known colloquially as "the 905," after the area code that was added in 1993 and covers such areas as Mississauga and Niagara Falls." 
  7. ^ Toronto, Cultural Tips, Places of a Lifetime, Travel, Photography - National Geographic

External links[edit]

Ontario area codes: 226, 249, 289, 343, 365, 416, 519, 613, 647, 705, 807, 905
North: 705
West: 519/226Area codes 905 and 289 completely surrounding 416/647East: 613/343, 716
South: 716, 585, Lake Ontario
New York area codes: 212, 315, 347, 516, 518, 585, 607, 631, 646, 716, 718, 845, 914, 917, 929

Coordinates: 43°37′48″N 79°50′20″W / 43.630°N 79.839°W / 43.630; -79.839