Arab League

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League of Arab States
  • جامعة الدول العربية
  • Jāmiʻat ad-Duwal al-ʻArabiyya
Administrative centerCairoa
Official languages
 - Arab League SecretariatNabil el-Araby
 - Arab ParliamentAli Al-Daqbaashi
 - Council Presidency Lebanon
LegislatureArab Parliament
 - Alexandria Protocol22 March 1945 
 - Total area13,132,327 km2
5,070,420 sq mi
 - 2014 estimate356,785,231
 - Density27.17/km2
70.37/sq mi
GDP (PPP)2014 estimate
 - Total$3.335 trillion
 - Per capita$9347
GDP (nominal)2011 estimate
 - Total$3.526 trillion
 - Per capita$4,239
Time zone(UTC+0 to +4)
a.From 1979 to 1989, Tunis, Tunisia.
b.Suspended. The Syrian National Coalition currently represents Syria.
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League of Arab States
  • جامعة الدول العربية
  • Jāmiʻat ad-Duwal al-ʻArabiyya
Administrative centerCairoa
Official languages
 - Arab League SecretariatNabil el-Araby
 - Arab ParliamentAli Al-Daqbaashi
 - Council Presidency Lebanon
LegislatureArab Parliament
 - Alexandria Protocol22 March 1945 
 - Total area13,132,327 km2
5,070,420 sq mi
 - 2014 estimate356,785,231
 - Density27.17/km2
70.37/sq mi
GDP (PPP)2014 estimate
 - Total$3.335 trillion
 - Per capita$9347
GDP (nominal)2011 estimate
 - Total$3.526 trillion
 - Per capita$4,239
Time zone(UTC+0 to +4)
a.From 1979 to 1989, Tunis, Tunisia.
b.Suspended. The Syrian National Coalition currently represents Syria.

The Arab League (Arabic: الجامعة العربيةal-Jāmiʻa al-ʻArabiyya), formally, the League of Arab States (Arabic: جامعة الدول العربيةJāmiʻat ad-Duwal al-ʻArabiyya), is a regional organization of Arab countries in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa, and Southwest Asia. It was formed in Cairo on 22 March 1945 with six members: Kingdom of Egypt, Kingdom of Iraq, Transjordan (renamed Jordan in 1949), Lebanon, Saudi Arabia and Syria.[3] Yemen joined as a member on 5 May 1945. Currently, the League has 22 members, although Syria's participation has been suspended since November 2011, as a consequence of government repression during the ongoing uprising and civil war.[4]

The League's main goal is to "draw closer the relations between member States and co-ordinate collaboration between them, to safeguard their independence and sovereignty, and to consider in a general way the affairs and interests of the Arab countries".[5]

Through institutions such as the Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (ALECSO) and the Economic and Social Council of the Arab League's Council of Arab Economic Unity (CAEU), the Arab League facilitates political, economic, cultural, scientific and social programs designed to promote the interests of the Arab world.[6][7] It has served as a forum for the member states to coordinate their policy positions, to deliberate on matters of common concern, to settle some Arab disputes, and to limit conflicts such as the 1958 Lebanon crisis. The League has served as a platform for the drafting and conclusion of many landmark documents promoting economic integration. One example is the Joint Arab Economic Action Charter, which outlines the principles for economic activities in the region.

Each member state has only one vote in the League Council, while decisions are binding only for those states that have voted for them. The aims of the league in 1945 were to strengthen and coordinate the political, cultural, economic, and social programs of its members, and to mediate disputes among them or between them and third parties. Furthermore, the signing of an agreement on Joint Defense and Economic Cooperation on 13 April 1950 committed the signatories to coordination of military defense measures. In the early 1970s, the Economic Council of the League of Arab States put forward a proposal to create the Joint Arab Chambers of Commerce across the European states. This led, under the decree of the League of Arab States no. K1175/D52/G, to the decision by the Arab governments to set up the Arab British Chamber of Commerce which was mandated to: "promote, encourage and facilitate bilateral trade" between the Arab world and its major trading partner, the United Kingdom.

The Arab League has also played a role in shaping school curricula, advancing the role of women in the Arab societies, promoting child welfare, encouraging youth and sports programs, preserving Arab cultural heritage, and fostering cultural exchanges between the member states.[citation needed] Literacy campaigns have been launched, intellectual works reproduced, and modern technical terminology is translated for the use within member states. The league encourages measures against crime and drug abuse, and deals with labour issues—particularly among the emigrant Arab workforce.[citation needed]


Following adoption of the Alexandria Protocol in 1944, the Arab League was founded on 22 March 1945. It aimed to be a regional organisation of Arab states with a focus to developing the economy, resolving disputes, and coordinating political aims.[8] Other countries joined the league at later dates.[9] Each country was given one vote in the council. The first major action was the joint intervention, allegedly on behalf of the majority Arab population that was being uprooted as the State of Israel emerged in 1948 (and in response to popular outcry in the Arab world), although in fact a main participant in this intervention, Transjordan, had agreed with the Israelis to divide up the Arab Palestinian state proposed by the UN General Assembly, while Egypt intervened primarily to prevent its rival in Amman from accomplishing its objective.[10] This was followed by the creation of a mutual defense treaty two years later. A common market was established in 1965.[8][11]


Joining dates of member States; the Comoros (circled) joined in 1993.
     1940s      1950s      1960s      1970s

The area of members of the Arab League covers over 13,000,000 km2 (5,000,000 sq mi) and straddles two continents: Africa and Asia. The area consists of large arid deserts, namely the Sahara. Nevertheless, it also contains several very fertile lands, such as the Nile Valley, the Jubba and Shebelle valley of Somalia, the High Atlas Mountains, and the Fertile Crescent which stretches over Mesopotamia and the Levant. The area comprises deep forests in southern Arabia, as well as parts of the world's longest river, the Nile.

Member states[edit]

Starting with only six members in 1945, the Arab League today occupies an area spanning around 14 million km² and counts 22 members, and 4 observer states. The 22 members today include 3 of the largest African countries (Sudan, Algeria and Libya), and the largest country in the Middle East (Saudi Arabia).

There was a continual increase in membership during the second half of the 20th century, with an additional 15 Arab states being admitted. At present, there are a total of 21 member states due to Syria's suspension following the 2011 uprising. The Arab League member states are as follows:

and 3 observer states:

On 22 February 2011, following the start of the Libyan civil war and the use of military force against civilians, the Arab League Secretary-General, Amr Moussa, stated that Libya's membership in the Arab League had been suspended: "the organisation has decided to halt the participation of the Libyan delegations from all Arab League sessions".[12] This makes Libya the second country in the League's history to have a frozen membership. Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi declared that the League was illegitimate, saying: "The Arab League is finished. There is no such thing as the Arab League."[13][14] On 25 August 2011, Secretary-General Nabil Elaraby announced it was "about time" Libya's full member status was restored. The National Transitional Council, the partially recognised interim government of Libya, will send a representative to be seated at the Arab League meeting on 17 August to participate in a discussion as to whether to readmit Libya to the organisation.[15]

The Arab Parliament recommended the suspension of member states Syria and Yemen on 20 September 2011, over persistent reports of disproportionate violence against regime opponents and activists during the Arab Spring.[16] A vote on 12 November agreed to formally suspend Syria four days after the vote, giving Assad a last chance to avoid suspension. Syria, Lebanon, and Yemen voted against the motion, while Iraq abstained.[17] A wave of criticism rose as the Arab League sent in December 2011 a commission "monitoring" violence on people protesting against the regime. The commission was headed by Mohammad Ahmed Mustafa al-Dabi, who served as head of Omar al-Bashir's military intelligence, while war crimes including genocide were allegedly committed on his watch.[18][19][20] On 6 March 2013, the Arab League granted the Syrian National Coalition Syria's seat in the Arab League.[1] On 9 March 2014, pan-Arab group's secretary general Nabil al-Arabi said that Syria's seat at the Arab League will remain vacant until the opposition completes the formation of its institutions.[21]

Politics and administration[edit]

Headquarters of the Arab League, Cairo.
Administrative divisions in the Arab League.

The Arab League is a political organization which tries to help integrate its members economically, and solve conflicts involving member states without asking for foreign assistance. It possesses elements of a state representative parliament while foreign affairs are often dealt with under UN supervision.

The Charter of the Arab League[5] endorsed the principle of an Arab homeland while respecting the sovereignty of the individual member states. The internal regulations of the Council of the League[22] and the committees[23] were agreed in October 1951. Those of the Secretariat-General were agreed in May 1953.[24]

Since then, governance of the Arab League has been based on the duality of supra-national institutions and the sovereignty of the member states. Preservation of individual statehood derived its strengths from the natural preference of ruling elites to maintain their power and independence in decision making. Moreover, the fear of the richer that the poorer may share their wealth in the name of Arab nationalism, the feuds among Arab rulers, and the influence of external powers that might oppose Arab unity can be seen as obstacles towards a deeper integration of the league.

Mindful of their previous announcements in support of the Arabs of Palestine the framers of the Pact were determined to include them within the League from its inauguration.[25] This was done by means of an annex that declared:[5]

At the Cairo Summit of 1964, the Arab League initiated the creation of an organisation representing the Palestinian people. The first Palestinian National Council convened in East Jerusalem on 29 May 1964. The Palestinian Liberation Organization was founded during this meeting on 2 June 1964. Palestine was shortly admitted in to the Arab League, represented by the PLO. Today, State of Palestine is a full member of the Arab League.

At the Beirut Summit on 28 March 2002, the league adopted the Arab Peace Initiative,[26] a Saudi-inspired peace plan for the Arab–Israeli conflict. The initiative offered full normalization of the relations with Israel. In exchange, Israel was required to withdraw from all occupied territories, including the Golan Heights, to recognize Palestinian independence in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, with East Jerusalem as its capital, as well as a "just solution" for the Palestinian refugees. The Peace Initiative was again endorsed at 2007 in the Riyadh Summit. In July 2007, the Arab League sent a mission, consisting of the Jordanian and Egyptian foreign ministers, to Israel to promote the initiative. Following Venezuela's move to expel Israeli diplomats amid the 2008–2009 Israel–Gaza conflict, Kuwaiti member of parliament Waleed al-Tabtabai proposed moving Arab League headquarters to Caracas, Venezuela.[27] On 13 June 2010, Amr Mohammed Moussa, Secretary-General of the Arab League, visited the Gaza Strip, the first visit by an official of the Arab League since Hamas' armed takeover in 2007.

Foreign relations[edit]

The Arab League is filled with critical crises and conflicts, from the Iraq in the East to Ceuta in the West. Many superpowers have several interests in this vast rich region. China, Europe and the USA are seeking to expand their influence over the oil rich countries. The EU is trying to stop illegal immigration to its lands by poorer African Citizens passing from Arab States such as Libya, Morocco and Tunisia. The U.S. fears for one of its greatest allies, Israel, from neighbouring Arab States that do not support its existence, while also fears on the Iranian influence in the oil rich Persian Gulf. Russia with its strong diplomatic relations with Arab States from the Soviet Era, is trying to regain its strength by supporting their causes, especially in the Security Council. China has also started to take interest in the oil rich reserves that will help increase its economic growth.

Meanwhile, other countries have large interests in the region. Turkey has faced tensions several times with its neighbouring Arab countries, Syria and Iraq over the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, when it built dams blocking their flow into the two states. Iran is trying to strengthen its Shia and Islamic influence by supporting rebellion and liberation movements against Israel, and U.S. led coalition forces in Iraq, while Spain and Morocco have increasing tensions over the Melilla and Ceuta dispute.


113–17 January 1964Egypt Cairo
25–11 September 1964Egypt Alexandria
313–17 September 1965Morocco Casablanca
429 August 1967Sudan Khartoum
521–23 December 1969Morocco Rabat
626–28 November.1973Algeria Algiers
729 October 1974Morocco Rabat
825–26 October 1976Egypt Cairo
92–5 November.1978Iraq Baghdad
1020–22 November 1979Tunisia Tunis
1121–22 November 1980Jordan Amman
126–9 September 1982Morocco Fes
131985Morocco Casablanca
141987Jordan Amman
15June 1988Algeria Algiers
161989Morocco Casablanca
171990Iraq Baghdad
181996Egypt Cairo
1927–28 March 2001Jordan Amman
2027–28 March 2002Lebanon Beirut
211 March 2003Egypt Sharm el-Sheikh
2222–23 May 2004Tunisia Tunis
2322–23 March 2005Algeria Algiers
2428–30 March 2006Sudan Khartoum
2527–28 March 2007Saudi Arabia Riyadh
2629–30 March 2008Syria Damascus
2728–30 March 2009Qatar Doha
2827–28 March 2010Libya Sirte
2927–29 March 2012Iraq Baghdad
3021–27 March 2013Qatar Doha[28]
31March 2014Kuwait Kuwait City[29]
32Spring 2015Egypt [30]
33Spring 2016Oman Muscat


The Arab League as an Organization has no military Force, like the UN or EU, but at the 2007 summit, the Leaders decided to reactivate their joint defense and establish a peacekeeping force to deploy in South Lebanon, Darfur, Iraq, and other hot spots.

Emergency summits[edit]

121–27 September 1970Egypt Cairo
217–28 October 1976Saudi Arabia Riyadh
37–9 September 1985Morocco Casablanca
48–12 November 1987Jordan Amman
57–9 June 1988Algeria Algiers
623–26 June 1989Morocco Casablanca
728–30 March 1990Iraq Baghdad
89–10 August 1990Egypt Cairo
922–23 June 1996Egypt Cairo
1021–22 October 2000Egypt Cairo
  • Two summits are not added to the system of Arab League summits:
    • Anshas, Egypt: 28–29 May 1946.
    • Beirut, Lebanon: 13 – 15 November 1958.
  • Summit 14 in Fes, Morocco, occurred in two stages:
    • On 25 November 1981: the 5-hour meeting ended without an agreement on document.
    • On 6–9 September 1982.

Economic resources[edit]

The Arab League is rich in resources, with enormous oil and natural gas resources in certain member states. Another industry that is growing steadily in the Arab League is telecommunications. Within less than a decade, local companies such as Orascom and Etisalat have managed to compete internationally.

Economic achievements initiated by the League amongst member states have been less impressive than those achieved by smaller Arab organisations such as the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC).[31] Among them is the Arab Gas Pipeline, that will transport Egyptian and Iraqi gas to Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, and Turkey. As of 2013, a significant difference in economic conditions exist between the developed oil states of Algeria, Qatar, Kuwait and the UAE, and developing countries like Comoros, Djibouti, Mauritania, Somalia, Sudan and Yemen.

OAPEC Members

The Arab League is rich in resources, with enormous Oil and Natural Gas resources, it also has great fertile lands in South of the Sudan, usually referred to as the food basket of the Arab World, the region's instability has not affected its tourism industry, that is considered the fastest growing industry in the region, with Egypt, UAE, Lebanon, Tunisia and Jordan Leading the way. Another industry that is growing steadily in the Arab League is Telecommunications, within less than a decade, Local companies have managed to compete internationally, such as Orascom and Etisalat.

Economical achievements within members have been low in the league's history, other smaller Arab Organizations have achieved more than the league has, such as the GCC, but lately several major economic projects that are promising are to be completed, the Arab Gas Pipeline is to end by the year 2010, Connecting Egyptian and Iraqi Gas to Jordan, Syria and Lebanon, and then to Turkey thus Europe, a free trade Agreement (GAFTA) is to be completed by 1 January 2008, making 95% of all Arab Products tax free of customs.


The Arab League is divided into five parts when it comes to transportation, with the Arabian Peninsula and the Near East being entirely connected by air, sea, highways and railway. Another part of the League is the Nile Valley, made up of Egypt and Sudan. These two member states have started to improve the Nile river's navigation system to improve accessibility and thus foster trading. A new railway system is also set to connect the southern Egyptian city of Abu Simbel with the northern Sudanese city of Wadi Halfa, and then to Khartoum and the Port of Sudan. The third division of the League is the Maghreb, where a 3000 km stretch of railway runs from the southern cities of Morocco to Tripoli in Western Libya. The fourth division of the League is the Horn of Africa, whose member states include Djibouti and Somalia. These two Arab League states are separated by only ten nautical miles from the Arabian Peninsula by the Bab el Mandeb, and this is quickly changing as Tarik bin Laden, the brother of Osama bin Laden, has initiated the construction of the ambitious Bridge of Horns project, which ultimately aims to connect the Horn of Africa with the Arabian Peninsula via a massive bridge. The project is intended to facilitate and accelerate the already centuries-old trade and commerce between the two regions. The last division of the League is the isolated island of Comoros, which is not physically connected to any other Arab state, but still trades with other League members.

Literacy in Arab league countries[edit]

In collecting literacy data, many countries estimate the number of literate people based on self-reported data. Some use educational attainment data as a proxy, but measures of school attendance or grade completion may differ. Because definitions and data collection methods vary across countries, literacy estimates should be used with caution. United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Report 2010.

RankCountryLiteracy rate
1 Qatar97.3[32]
2 Jordan97.2[32]
3 Palestine95.3[32]
4 Bahrain94.6[32]
5 Kuwait93.9[32]
6 United Arab Emirates90.0[32]
7 Lebanon89.6[32]
8 Libya89.5[32]
9 Saudi Arabia87.2[32]
10 Oman86.9[32]
11 Syria84.1[32]
12 Tunisia79.1[32]
13 Iraq78.5[32]
14 Comoros75.5[32]
15 Egypt73.9[32]
16 Algeria72.6[32]
17 Sudan71.9[32]
18 Morocco71.0[32]
19 Djibouti70.0[33]
20 Yemen65.3[32]
21 Mauritania58.6[32]
22 SomaliaN/A[34]

Demographics of Arab League countries[edit]

Population Density of the Arab World in 2008

The Arab League is a culturally and ethnically one association of 22 member states, with the overwhelming majority of the League's population identified as Arab (either on a cultural basis, or on an ethno-racial basis). As of July 1, 2013, about 359,000,000 people live in the states of the Arab League. Its population grows faster than in most other global regions. The most populous member state is Egypt, with a population of about 91 million.[35] The least populated is the Comoros, with over 0.6 million inhabitants.

RankCountryPopulationDensity (/km2)Density (sq mi)Notes
1 Egypt83,550,00094243[36]
2 Algeria37,100,0001641[37]
3 Morocco32,064,17377199[38]
4 Iraq31,234,00071184[37]
5 Sudan30,894,0001641[39]
6 Saudi Arabia28,146,6581231[37]
7 Yemen23,580,00045117[37]
8 Syria21,906,000118306[37]
9 Tunisia10,673,80065168[40]
10 Somalia9,133,0001436[37]
11 United Arab Emirates8,264,07099256[41]
12 Libya6,733,6203.89.8[37][42]
13 Jordan9,932,00071184[37]
14 Lebanon4,224,0004041,046[37]
15 Palestine4,136,5406871,779[43]
16 Kuwait3,566,437200518[37]
17 Mauritania3,291,0003.28.3[37]
18 Oman2,845,0009.224[37]
19 Qatar1,699,435154399[37]
20 Bahrain1,234,5961,6464,263[44]
21 Djibouti864,0003796[37]
22 Comoros691,000309800[37]
Total Pan-Arab States313,147,32930.478.7


The vast majority of the Arab League's citizens adhere to Islam, with Christianity being the second largest religion. Over 15 million Christians combined live in Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, Sudan and Syria. In addition, there are smaller but significant numbers of Druze, Yezidis, Shabaks and Mandaeans. Numbers for non-religious Arabs are generally not available but research by the Pew Forum suggests around 1% of people in the MENA region are 'unaffiliated'.[45]


The Official Language of the Arab League is the Fus'ha Arabic, of Classic Arabic, but within the League members there are several official and non-official languages spoken, such as Kurdish, Assyrian, Nubian, Armenian, Tamazigh and several others, there are also different Arabic dialects, like the Masri and the Levantine Arabic.



The pan Arab Games, are considered the Biggest Arab Sport Event, another Arab Tournament was made by the ART (Arab Radio and Television) to sponsor Arab Champions League, between Arab Clubs.[citation needed]

other Competitions include the Arab Basketball Federation with annual competitions, Sport Federations also exist for 43 games, include Volleyball, Handball, Table Tennis, Tennis, Squash and Swimming.[citation needed]

Most of these Federations and their competitions are sponsored by the Arab League.[citation needed]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b
  2. ^
  3. ^ "Arab League". The Columbia Encyclopedia. 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.  – via Questia (subscription required)
  4. ^ Sly, Liz (12 November 2011). "Syria suspended from Arab League". Washington Post. 
  5. ^ a b c "Pact of the League of Arab States, 22 March 1945". The Avalon Project. Yale Law School. 1998. Archived from the original on 25 July 2008. Retrieved 15 July 2012. 
  6. ^ "The Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (ALESCO)". 
  7. ^ Ashish K. Vaidya, Globalization (ABC-CLIO: 2006), p. 525.
  8. ^ a b Arab League formed — This Day in History — 3/22/1945. Retrieved on 2014-04-28.
  9. ^ HowStuffWorks "Arab League". (2008-02-27). Retrieved on 2014-04-28.
  10. ^ Avi Shlaim, Collusion Across the Jordan: King Abdullah, the Zionist Movement, and the Partition of Palestine. Oxford, U.K., Clarendon Press, 1988; Uri Bar-Joseph, Uri, The Best of Enemies: Israel and Transjordan in the War of 1948. London, Frank Cass, 1987; Joseph Nevo , King Abdullah and Palestine: A Territorial Ambition (London: Macmillan Press; New York: St. Martin's Press, 1996.
  11. ^ Robert W. MacDonald, The League of Arab States: A Study in Regional Organization. Princeton, New Jersey, USA, Princeton University Press, 1965.
  12. ^ Libya suspended from Arab League sessions - Israel News, Ynetnews. (1995-06-20). Retrieved on 2014-04-28.
  13. ^ Souhail Karam - Tom Heneghan - Michael Roddy (16 March 2011). "Gaddafi taunts critics, dares them to get him". Reuters. Retrieved 20 March 2011. 
  14. ^ Kat Higgins (16 March 2011). "Libya: Clashes Continue As World Powers Stall". Sky News. Retrieved 20 March 2011. 
  15. ^ "Arab League Recognizes Libyan Rebel Council". RTT News. 25 August 2011. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  16. ^ "Arab League parliament urges Syria suspension". Al Jazeera. 20 September 2011. Retrieved 20 September 2011. 
  17. ^ "Arab League Votes to Suspend Syria Over Crackdown". New York Times. 12 November 2011. Retrieved 12 November 2011. 
  18. ^ D. Kenner, "The World's Worst Human Rights Observer". Foreign Policy, 27 December 2011. As Arab League monitors work to expose President Bashar al-Assad's crackdown, the head of the mission is a Sudanese general accused of creating the fearsome "janjaweed," which was responsible for the worst atrocities during the Darfur genocide.
  19. ^ Syrian activists slam Arab League mission head CNN, 28 December 2011.
  20. ^ "Violence in second Syrian city ahead of Arab League monitors' visit", The Guardian, 28 December 2011,
  21. ^ Syria opposition 'not yet ready for Arab League seat'
  22. ^ "Internal Regulations of the Council of the League of Arab States". Model League of Arab States. Ed Haynes, Winthrop University. 6 April 1998. Archived from the original on 6 April 2008. Retrieved 9 July 2008. 
  23. ^ "Internal Regulations of the Committees of the League of Arab States". Model League of Arab States. Ed Haynes, Winthrop University. 6 April 1998. Archived from the original on 6 April 2008. Retrieved 9 July 2008. 
  24. ^ "Internal Regulations of the Secretariat-General of the League". Model League of Arab States. Ed Haynes, Winthrop University. 6 April 1998. Archived from the original on 6 April 2008. Retrieved 9 July 2008. 
  25. ^ Geddes, 1991, p. 208.
  26. ^ Council of Arab States (1 October 2005). "The Arab Peace Initiative, 2002". al bab. Retrieved 9 July 2008. 
  27. ^ "Kuwaiti MP calls to move Arab league to Venezuela". AFP, via CaribbeanNetNews. 15 January 2009. Retrieved 16 January 2009. 
  28. ^ Arab League Summit 2013. (2013-03-27). Retrieved on 2014-04-28.
  29. ^ Arab League summit hit by new rifts - Features. Al Jazeera English. Retrieved on 2014-04-28.
  30. ^ Opposition fail to get Syria Arab League seat - Middle East. Al Jazeera English. Retrieved on 2014-04-28.
  31. ^
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t The World Factbook. Retrieved on 2014-04-28.
  33. ^ DK Publishing (2012). Compact Atlas of the World. Penguin. p. 138. ISBN 0756698596. 
  34. ^ No reliable data on nationwide literacy rate. 2013 FSNAU survey indicates considerable differences per region, with the autonomous northeastern Puntland region having the highest registered literacy rate (72%) [1].
  35. ^ "Central Agency for Public Mobilization And Statistics". 
  36. ^ Official Egyptian Population clock
  37. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "World Population Prospects, Table A.1" (PDF). 2008 revision. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. 2009. p. 17. Retrieved 22 September 2010. 
  38. ^ Official Moroccan Population clock
  39. ^ 2008 Sudanese census
  40. ^ National Statistics Institute of Tunisia
  41. ^ "المركز الوطني للإحصاء: المواطنون 947.9 ألفاً - جريدة الاتحاد". Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2011. 
  42. ^ CIA World Factbook. July 2012 population estimate for Libya.
  44. ^ Bahraini Census 2010 - تعداد السكــان العام للبحريــن 2010. Retrieved on 2014-04-28.
  45. ^ Global Religious Diversity

External links[edit]