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April 1, 1960: TIROS I opens era of satellite weather images
April 21, 1960: The new city of Brasilia is dedicated
April 8, 1960: Green Bank telescope picks up signals after pointing toward Epsilon Eridani
April 19, 1960: South Koreans protest nationwide against Rhee government
The following events occurred in April, 1960.
- 1 April 1, 1960 (Friday)
- 2 April 2, 1960 (Saturday)
- 3 April 3, 1960 (Sunday)
- 4 April 4, 1960 (Monday)
- 5 April 5, 1960 (Tuesday)
- 6 April 6, 1960 (Wednesday)
- 7 April 7, 1960 (Thursday)
- 8 April 8, 1960 (Friday)
- 9 April 9, 1960 (Saturday)
- 10 April 10, 1960 (Sunday)
- 11 April 11, 1960 (Monday)
- 12 April 12, 1960 (Tuesday)
- 13 April 13, 1960 (Wednesday)
- 14 April 14, 1960 (Thursday)
- 15 April 15, 1960 (Friday)
- 16 April 16, 1960 (Saturday)
- 17 April 17, 1960 (Sunday)
- 18 April 18, 1960 (Monday)
- 19 April 19, 1960 (Tuesday)
- 20 April 20, 1960 (Wednesday)
- 21 April 21, 1960 (Thursday)
- 22 April 22, 1960 (Friday)
- 23 April 23, 1960 (Saturday)
- 24 April 24, 1960 (Sunday)
- 25 April 25, 1960 (Monday)
- 26 April 26, 1960 (Tuesday)
- 27 April 27, 1960 (Wednesday)
- 28 April 28, 1960 (Thursday)
- 29 April 29, 1960 (Friday)
- 30 April 30, 1960 (Saturday)
- 31 References
April 1, 1960 (Friday)
- The United States launched the first weather satellite, the 270 pound TIROS-1, from Cape Canaveral at 6:40 a.m. EST. The name was an acronym for Television Infra-Red Observation Satellite. The same evening, satellite weather photos were introduced to the world, on television, for the first time. Taken from an altitude of 450 miles, the pictures of cloud cover confirmed the spiral pattern of winds in a storm.
- The 1960 United States Census began. Officially, there were 179,323,175 United States residents on that day.
- R Griggs & Co. began the production of Dr. Martens boots under licence in the UK. Known as style 1460, the original product is still in production today.
- Died: Abdul Rahman of Negeri Sembilan, 64, the first Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia, died in office.
April 2, 1960 (Saturday)
April 3, 1960 (Sunday)
- The Charismatic Movement, also referred to as the "Charismatic Renewal", began when Episcopal Priest Dennis Bennett told his congregation at St. Mark's in Van Nuys, California, that he had experienced Spirit baptism accompanied by speaking in tongues. The media soon covered the event as the intrusion of Pentecostalism into a main line church.
- Born: Marie Denise Pelletier, Canadian singer, in Montreal
- Died: Norodom Suramarit, 64, King of Cambodia since 1955. He had been preceded by, and was succeeded by, his son Norodom Sihanouk.
April 4, 1960 (Monday)
- Senegal signed a transfer of power agreement with France, leading up to the country's independence.
- Elections in Burma resulted in victory for U Nu, who began his third non-consecutive term as prime minister.
- Sweden's first three female priests were ordained.
- At the 32nd Academy Awards ceremony, Ben Hur won a record eleven Oscars, including Best Picture.
- Born: Hugo Weaving, Australian actor
April 5, 1960 (Tuesday)
- Choosing between two U.S. Senators, voters in Wisconsin overwhelmingly favored John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts over Hubert Humphrey from neighboring Minnesota, by a margin of 478,118 to 372,034 in the first major primary for the Democratic nomination. Vice-President Nixon was unopposed for the Republican nomination.
- The name for Oakland, California's new pro football team was announced. The Oakland Señors were renamed the "Raiders" nine days later.
April 6, 1960 (Wednesday)
- The Short SC.1 VTOL aircraft made its first transition from vertical to horizontal flight and back.
- Alberto Lleras Camargo, the President of Colombia, addressed a joint session of Congress as part of a 13 day state visit to the United States. Lleras was given a ticker-tape parade in New York on April 11.
April 7, 1960 (Thursday)
April 8, 1960 (Friday)
- Project Ozma, under the direction of astronomer Frank Drake at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, in Green Bank, West Virginia, began a search for extraterrestrial life. After detecting nothing from Tau Ceti, Drake steered the telescope toward Epsilon Eridani and picked up signals at precisely eight times per second. As rumors spread that the Project had picked up signs of intelligent life, Drake was forced to say that he had no comment. The source was later traced to an airplane.
- In West Germany and the Netherlands signed a border agreement to restore land taken during the Dutch annexation of German territory after World War II. Germany agreed to pay DM 280,000,000 for the return of Elten, Selfkant (Zelfkant), and Suderwick (Zuiderwijk) and as reparitions (wiedergutmachung).
April 9, 1960 (Saturday)
- The last successful American U-2 overflight of the Soviet Union took place, as a pilot passed near the missile range at Tyuratam. The S-75 Dvina missile batteries that could have downed the plane had not been alerted in time of the intrusion, and several Soviet senior commanders were fired. On May 1, a U-2 plane flown by Francis Gary Powers would be downed.
- A fisherman in Masan, South Korea, discovered the mutilated body of Kim Chu Yol, a high school student who had been killed during March protests against the fraudulent presidential election. A police tear gas shell was visible in Kim's eye socket, and the outrage against the government's brutality triggered a riot. The violence in Masan was then followed by rioting in other South Korean cities.
- Born: Jeremy Clarkson, English television presenter
- Died: Archibald McIndoe, 59, New Zealand plastic surgeon
- Eric Peugeot, the four year old grandson of French automotive tycoon Jean-Pierre Peugeot of Peugeot, was kidnapped from a playground at Saint-Cloud, near Paris. Eric was released three days later, in exchange for a ransom of $300,000.
- Candlestick Park, described by one source as "the windiest, coldest, and the most hated baseball stadium in the history of the game"  opened at San Francisco, and began a 40 season run as the home of the San Francisco Giants. U.S. Vice-President Richard Nixon (and Republican presidential candidate) threw out the first pitch.
- The International Court of Justice, more popularly known as the World Court, resolved a dispute between Portugal and India after more than four years, in Portugal's favor, ruling 11–4 that Portuguese officials could cross over India's territory to reach its colonies in Goa, Daman and Diu. The victory was short-lived, as India annexed all three territories the following year.
- Nine miners were killed in a mining accident at Tower Colliery, Hirwaun, Wales.
April 13, 1960 (Wednesday)
April 14, 1960 (Thursday)
- The Montreal Canadiens won the NHL's Stanley Cup, sweeping the Toronto Maple Leafs, four games to zero. In the final game, Montreal won four goals to zero.
- Hisamuddin Alam Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Alaeddin Sulaiman Shah became the second Yang di-Pertuan Agong (Malaysian head of state).
- The first underwater launching of the Polaris missile took place, fired from the ballistic submarine USS George Washington, off of the coast of California.
- East Germany's Communist SED Communist completed its collectivization drive, designated as Socialist Spring in the Countryside, seizing privately owned farms and businesses to be owned by the State. An exodus of thousands of business owners and farm owners followed.
- Bye Bye Birdie, the first Broadway musical to acknowledge rock 'n roll as part of its score, opened at the Martin Beck Theatre, and introduced such songs as Put On A Happy Face. With music and lyrics by Charles Strouse and Lee Adams, the Tony Award winning musical featured Dick Van Dyke, Paul Lynde, Michael J. Pollard, Charles Nelson Reilly, Chita Rivera, Dick Gautier, and others.
- Motown Record Corporation was incorporated in Michigan.
April 16, 1960 (Saturday)
- The "New Realism" artistic movement was founded by art critic Pierre Restany with the publication of his Manifeste des Nouveaux Réalistes.
- The Sino-Soviet split widened as the Chinese Communist Party journal Hongqi (Red Flag) published the editorial Long Live Leninism, an assertion that began with the premise that the Soviet Union had, by pursuing peaceful change, deviated from Lenin's thesis that "so long as imperialism exists, war is inevitable".
- Born: Rafael Benítez, Spanish football manager, in Madrid; Wahab Akbar, Filipino politician (d. 2007), in Lantawan, Basilan
- Rock musician Eddie Cochran, 21, died a day after he, musician Gene Vincent, and Cochran's fiancee, songwriter Sharon Sheeley were in an automobile accident during a tour of the United Kingdom. The taxi in which they were riding blew a tire, and crashed into a lamp post on Rowden Hill, near Chippenham. Cochran, who wrote and recorded the classic "Summertime Blues", had a posthumous hit with the ironically titled "Three Steps to Heaven", and was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1987.
- The Russwood Park baseball stadium in Memphis, Tennessee, burned to the ground shortly after a Chicago White Sox vs Cleveland Indians game.
- April Revolution: More than 100,000 students in South Korea marched in Seoul in protest over election fraud by President Syngman Rhee. Police fired into the crowds, killing 140 protestors.
- The People's Republic of China struck oil, five days after workers began drilling at Taching (Daqing).
April 20, 1960 (Wednesday)
- Elvis Presley returned to Hollywood for the first time since his return from military service in Germany, to begin filming G.I. Blues.
- Rebels led by General Jose Maria Castro León seized control of the Venezuelan state of Táchira and its capital, San Cristóbal, and attempted unsuccessfully to persuade other military garrisons to revolt against the government of President Rómulo Betancourt. The uprising was quickly put down.
April 21, 1960 (Thursday)
- The city of Brasilia was dedicated by President Juscelino Kubitschek, three years after he had directed construction to begin on a new capital city for Brazil. Located 600 miles inland, the city was designed by architect Oscar Niemeyer and urban planner Lucio Costa at a cost of ten billion dollars.
- After a week in which 6,000 East Germans fled to West Berlin, several DDR police crossed the border and began searching luggage at railroad stations. West Berlin police arrested two of the DDR police, while others fled. The exodus of thousands came after the East German government "collectivized" private farms and businesses and directed landowners and shopkeepers to become employees of state-owned cooperatives.
- France's President Charles De Gaulle was given an enthusiastic welcome by 200,000 people upon his arrival in Washington, D.C., on the fifth day of his tour of the Western Hemisphere. President De Gaulle spoke to a joint session of Congress on April 25, urging nuclear disarmament, and was cheered by more than a million people the next day at a ticker-tape parade in New York.
April 23, 1960 (Saturday)
- One of the first widely publicized stories of hysterical strength happened in Tampa, Florida, when Mrs. Florence Rogers, a 123 pound woman, lifted one end of a 3,600 pound car that had fallen off of a jack and onto her 16 year old son, Charles Trotter. Mrs. Rogers, an LPN, fractured several vertebrae in the process.
- When more than 100 black protesters marched on to a "whites only" beach in Biloxi, Mississippi, for a "wade-in" to force desegregation, they were attacked by several hundred white people, while Harrison County sheriff's deputies at the scene stood by. The violence then spilled over into the most violent riot in Mississippi history. A U.S. Department of Justice suit ended beach segregation the following month.
- A fraudulent parliamentary election in Laos resulted in a landslide victory for the ruling CDNI Party.
- Died: Max von Laue, 80, German physicist and Nobel Prize laureate, sixteen days after his car was struck by a motrocyclist.
- Syngman Rhee resigned as President of South Korea after 12 years of dictatorial rule, after a week long uprising in which 145 students had died. Vice-President Lee Ki-Poong, his wife and two sons committed suicide two days later. Rhee was replaced in the interim by an assistant, Huh Chung.
- The "Manifesto of the Eighteen" was published in Saigon.
- Born: Affectionately, thoroughbred racehorse (d. 1979)
April 27, 1960 (Wednesday)
- The West African nation of Togo, formerly a French colony, became independent, as the Togolese Republic was proclaimed at 12:10 a.m. local (and GMT) in Lomé. Sylvanus Olympio became the new nation's first President. The symbolic first raising of the new flag was confounded by tangled ropes and the problem was not resolved until later in the hour.
- USS Tullibee (SSN-597), the first nuclear-powered electric-drive submarine, was launched from Groton, Connecticut.
- The Ghanaian constitutional referendum resulted in a vote in favour of replacing the constitutional monarchy with a republic led by a president.
April 28, 1960 (Thursday)
- The construction of what would become Shea Stadium, at Flushing, Queens, was approved by New York City's Board of Estimate, 20–2, giving the proposed Continental League the chance to launch. The Continental League never played, but the stadium gave the National League the impetus to return to the city, with the New York Mets.
- Born: Ian Rankin, Scottish crime novelist, in Cardenden, Fife; Walter Zenga, Italian footballer and football manager, in Milan
- Italy's new government, led by Fernando Tambroni of the Christian Democrats, narrowly won a vote of confidence, 128–110, in the Italian Senate. Tambroni had quit on April 11, shortly after taking office.
April 30, 1960 (Saturday)
- ^ a b c d e "Chronology—April 1960", The World Almanac and book of fact 1961 pp164–168
- ^ "U.S. Puts Weather Satellite in Orbit", Oakland Tribune, April 1, 1960, p1
- ^ "Space TV Spots Storm in Midwest—Scores Fabulous 'First'", The Independent (Long Beach, CA), April 2, 1960, p1
- ^ census results
- ^ Margo DeMello, Feet and Footwear: A Cultural Encyclopedia (ABC-CLIO, 2009), p98; Hutchinson Encyclopedia
- ^ Britannica Online
- ^ Steve Roper, Camp 4: Recollections of a Yosemite Rockclimber (Mountaineers, 1994), p108
- ^ "Police Halt March on Cape Town", Oakland Tribune, April 2, 1960, p1
- ^ "Awujale of Ijebuland", KingdomsOfNigeria.com
- ^ Ben Lunis, Get Out of the Box (Xulon Press, 2003), p153
- ^ "Victory Adds Power To Kennedy Campaign", Oakland Tribune, April 6, 1960, p1
- ^ "Grid Team Named 'Oakland Senors'", Oakland Tribune, April 5, 1960, p1; "Now It's Hi, Raiders! (Bye, Senors)", Tribune, April 14, 1960, p1
- ^ African History (Most sources give the date as April 8, 1960-- Hein Marais, South Africa: Limits to Change: The Political Economy of Transition (University of Cape Town Press, 2001), p25
- ^ Fred Kaplan, 1959: The Year Everything Changed (J. Wiley & Sons, 2009), pp154–155
- ^ Strange Maps
- ^ "South Africa Prime Minister Shot Down by White Assassin", Oakland Tribune, April 9, 1960, p1
- ^ "1960 NBA Finals: Boston 4, St. Louis 3", NBA Encyclopedia: Playoff Edition www.nba.com
- ^ Steve Zaloga, Red SAM: The SA-2 Guideline Anti-aircraft Missile (Osprey Publishing, 2007), p9
- ^ John Kie-chiang Oh, Korean Politics: The Quest for Democratization and Economic Development (Cornell University Press, 1999), p41
- ^ "Grandson of Auto Tycoon Kidnapped", Oakland Tribune, April 13, 1960, p1
- ^ "Huge Manhunt in Peugeot Kidnap-- Child Safe", Oakland Tribune, April 15, 1960, p1
- ^ Gene Elston, A Stitch in Time: A Baseball Chronology (Halcyon Press, 2006), p84
- ^ Terry D. Gill, Rosenne's The World Court: What it is and How it Works (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2003), pp152–154
- ^ "U.S. Navigation Satellite in Orbit", Oakland Tribune, April 13, 1960, p1
- ^ Jan Van Sickle, GPS for Land Surveyors (CRC Press, 2001) p88
- ^ Robert McKenna, The Dictionary of Nautical Literacy (McGraw-Hill, 2001), p287
- ^ Arvid Nelson, Cold War Ecology: Forests, Farms, & People in the East German Landscape, 1945–1989 (Yale University Press, 2005), p111
- ^ BroadwayMusicalHome.com
- ^ Arthur M. Woodford, This Is Detroit, 1701–2001 (Wayne State University Press, 2001), p198
- ^ Klaus P. Fischer, America in White, Black, and Gray: The Stormy 1960s (Continuum International, 2006), pp108–109
- ^ "Neo-Dada Performance Art", by Gunter Berghaus, in Neo-avant-garde (Rodopi, 2006), p84
- ^ K. R. Sharma, China: Revolution to Revolution (Mittal Publications, 1989), p34
- ^ Richard Crouse, Big Bang, Baby: Rock Trivia (Hounslow Press, 2000), 79–80
- ^ Edward Lawson, Encyclopedia of Human Rights (2d. Ed., Taylor & Francis, 1996), p488
- ^ Lou Cannon, Governor Reagan: His Rise to Power (PublicAffairs, 2003) p112
- ^ "Korean Rioters Defy Rhee", Oakland Tribune, April 19, 1960, p1
- ^ Edward Vernoff and Peter J. Seybolt, Through Chinese Eyes: Tradition, Revolution, and Transformation (CITE Books, 2007), p131
- ^ Alan Rake, African Leaders: Guiding the New Millennium (Scarecrow Press, 2001) p176
- ^ Boston Athletic Association
- ^ R. J. Bray, et al. Plasma Loops in the Solar Corona (Cambridge University Press, 2005), p17
- ^ Shri Ram Sharma, India-China relations: 1972–1991, p32
- ^ Robert J. Alexander, Rómulo Betancourt and the Transformation of Venezuela (Transaction Books, 1982), pp478–80
- ^ E. Bradford Burns, A History of Brazil (Columbia University Press, 1993), p404
- ^ "German Reds Try To Stop Exodus", Oakland Tribune, April 21, 1960, p1
- ^ UnknownExploers.com
- ^ "Mother Lifts 3,600-Lb. Car", Pacific Stars and Stripes, April 27, 1960, p3; "My Mother Saved My Life", by Charles Trotter as told to John M. Ross, Family Weekly Magazine, August 28, 1960, pp12–13; David S. Goldstein, M.D., Adrenaline and the Inner World: An Introduction to Scientific Integrative Medicine (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006) p71
- ^ "Swim Attempts Trigger Race Brawl", Tucson Daily Citizen, April 25, 1960, p1; Walter Rucker and James Nathaniel Upton, Encyclopedia of American Race Riots (Greenwood Press, 2007), Vol. 1, p32
- ^ Arthur J. Dommen, The Indochinese Experience of the French and the Americans: Nationalism and Communism in Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam (Indiana University Press, 2001), p386
- ^ Bergt Samuelsson and Michael Sohlman, eds, Nobel Lectures: Physics 1901–1921 (World Scientific, 1998), p359
- ^ Naval Historical Foundation
- ^ "Korean Mobs Riot, Celebrate As Rhee Agrees to Resign", Oakland Tribune, April 26, 1960, p1
- ^ "Rhee Retires; Aide In Family Suicide", Oakland Tribune, April 28, 1960, p1
- ^ Seth Jacobs, Cold war mandarin: Ngo Dinh Diem and the origins of America's war in Vietnam (Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2006)
- ^ "Togoland Proclaims Freedom", Pacific Stars and Stripes, April 28, 1960, p1; U.S. Department of State
- ^ USS Tullibee home page; "Navy's First Killer A-Sub Launched", Oakland Tribune, April 27, 1960, p1
- ^ "Paraguay Battles Invasion Forces", Oakland Tribune, April 30, 1960, p1