Apple Lisa

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Apple Lisa
Apple Lisa.jpg
Apple Lisa, with an Apple ProFile external hard disk sitting atop it. Note the dual 5.25-inch "Twiggy" floppy drives.
TypePersonal computer
Release dateJanuary 19, 1983
Introductory priceUS$ 9,995 (1983)
DiscontinuedAugust 1986
Operating systemLisa OS, Xenix
CPUMotorola 68000 @ 5 MHz
 
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For the MOS 6502 assembler for Apple II computers, see Lisa assembler.
Apple Lisa
Apple Lisa.jpg
Apple Lisa, with an Apple ProFile external hard disk sitting atop it. Note the dual 5.25-inch "Twiggy" floppy drives.
TypePersonal computer
Release dateJanuary 19, 1983
Introductory priceUS$ 9,995 (1983)
DiscontinuedAugust 1986
Operating systemLisa OS, Xenix
CPUMotorola 68000 @ 5 MHz

The Lisa is a personal computer designed by Apple Computer, Inc. during the early 1980s. It was the first personal computer to offer a graphical user interface in an inexpensive machine aimed at individual business users. Development of the Lisa began in 1978.[1]

In 1982, after Steve Jobs was forced out of the Lisa project,[2] he joined the Macintosh project. The Macintosh is not a direct descendant of Lisa, although there are obvious similarities between the systems. The final revision, the Lisa 2/10, was modified and sold as the Macintosh XL.[3]

The Lisa was a more advanced system than the Macintosh of this time in many respects, such as its inclusion of protected memory, preemptive multitasking,[4] a generally more sophisticated hard disk based operating system, a built-in screensaver, an advanced calculator with a paper tape and RPN, support for up to 2 megabytes (MB) of RAM, expansion slots, a numeric keypad, data corruption protection schemes such as block sparing, non-physical file names (with the ability to have multiple documents with the same name), and a larger higher-resolution display. It would be many years before many of those features were implemented on the Macintosh platform. Protected memory, for instance, didn't reappear until the Mac OS X operating system was released in 2001. The Macintosh featured a faster 68000 processor (7.89 MHz) and sound, however, while the complexity of the Lisa operating system and its programs taxed the 5 MHz Motorola 68000 microprocessor so that consumers said it felt sluggish, particularly when scrolling in documents.

Etymology[edit]

While the documentation shipped with the original Lisa only ever referred to it as The Lisa, officially, Apple stated the name was an acronym for Local Integrated System Architecture or "LISA".[5] Since Steve Jobs' first daughter (born in 1978) was named Lisa Nicole Brennan, it was normally inferred that the name also had a personal association, and perhaps that the acronym was invented later to fit the name. Andy Hertzfeld[6] states the acronym was reverse engineered from the name "Lisa" in autumn 1982 by the Apple marketing team, after they had hired a marketing consultancy firm to come up with names to replace "Lisa" and "Macintosh" (at the time considered by Jef Raskin to be merely internal project codenames) and then rejected all of the suggestions. Privately, Hertzfeld and the other software developers used "Lisa: Invented Stupid Acronym", a recursive backronym, while computer industry pundits coined the term "Let's Invent Some Acronym" to fit the Lisa's name. Decades later, Jobs would tell his biographer Walter Isaacson: "Obviously it was named for my daughter."[7]

Development[edit]

The project began in 1978 as an effort to create a more modern version of the then-conventional design epitomized by the Apple II. Initial team lead Ken Rothmuller was soon replaced by John Couch, under whose direction the project evolved to the 'windows & mouse-driven' form that was finally released. Trip Hawkins, who was then on the marketing team for the nascent Lisa project, and Jef Raskin contributed to the change in design.[8]

Several years prior to this, research had been going on at Xerox's Palo Alto Research Center to create a new way to organize everything on the screen, today known as the desktop metaphor.

Steve Jobs visited Xerox PARC in 1979. He was excited by the revolutionary mouse-driven GUI of the Xerox Alto and was keen to use these ideas back at Apple. By late 1979, Jobs successfully negotiated with Xerox for his Lisa team to receive two demonstrations of ongoing research projects at Xerox PARC; when the Apple team saw the demonstration of the Alto computer they were able to see in action the basic elements of what constituted a workable GUI. A great deal of work was put into making the graphical interface into a mainstream commercial product by the Lisa team.

The Lisa was a major project at Apple, which reportedly spent more than $50 million on its development.[9] More than 90 people participated on the design, plus more on the sales and marketing effort to launch the machine. BYTE credited Wayne Rosing with being the most important person on the development of the computer's hardware until the machine went into production, at which point he became technical lead for the entire Lisa project. Bruce Daniels was in charge of applications development, and Larry Tesler was in charge of system software.[10] After a six-month period in which the user interface was designed, the hardware, operating system, and applications were all created in parallel.

Hardware[edit]

The hardware development team for the Lisa was headed by Robert Paratore. The Lisa was first introduced on January 19, 1983 and cost US$9,995 (approximately $23,666.74 in today's dollars.[11]) It was the second personal computer system with a graphical user interface (GUI) to be sold commercially, the first being the Xerox Star. It used a Motorola 68000 CPU clocked at 5 MHz and had 1 MB RAM.

The industrial design, product design and mechanical packaging and enclosure/structural design and development were headed by Bill Dresselhaus, the Principal Product Designer of Lisa, with his team of internal product designers and contract product designers from the firm that eventually became IDEO.

Drives[edit]

The original Lisa or Lisa 1 had two Apple FileWare 5.25-inch double-sided floppy disk drives, more commonly known by Apple's internal code name for the drive: "Twiggy".[12] They had a capacity of approximately 870 kB each, but proved unreliable[13] and required special diskettes. The Macintosh, which was originally designed to have a single Twiggy drive, was revised to use a Sony 400 kB microfloppy drive. An optional external 5 MB or, later, a 10 MB Apple ProFile hard drive (originally designed for the Apple III) was available. With the introduction of the Lisa 2/10, an optional 10 MB internal proprietary hard disk manufactured by Apple, known as the "Widget", was also offered.

Lisa 2[edit]

Lisa 2

The first hardware revision, the Lisa 2, was released in January 1984 and was priced between $3,495 and $5,495 US.[3][14] It was much less expensive than the original model and dropped the Twiggy floppy drives in favor of a single 400k Sony microfloppy.[15] It was possible to purchase the Lisa 2 with as little as 512k RAM. The Lisa 2/5 consisted of a Lisa 2 bundled with an external 5MB or 10MB hard drive.[16] In 1984, at the same time the Macintosh was officially announced, Apple offered free upgrades to the Lisa 2/5 to all Lisa 1 owners, by swapping the pair of Twiggy drives for a single 3.5-inch drive,[17] and updating the boot ROM and I/O ROM. In addition, the Lisa 2's new front faceplate was included to accommodate the reconfigured floppy disk drive. With this change, the Lisa 2 had the notable distinction of introducing the new Apple inlaid logo, as well as the first Snow White design language features. The Lisa 2/10 featured a 10MB internal hard drive (but no external parallel port) and a standard configuration of 1MB of RAM.[16]

There were relatively few third-party hardware offerings for the Lisa, as compared to the earlier Apple II.[citation needed] AST offered a 1.5 MB memory board, which — when combined with the standard Apple 512 KB memory board — expanded the Lisa to a total of 2 MB of memory, the maximum the MMU could address.

Late in the product life of the Lisa, there were third-party hard disk drives, SCSI controllers, and double-sided 3½ inch floppy-disk upgrades. Unlike the original Macintosh, the Lisa features expansion slots. Like the Apple II, it was an 'open system'. The Lisa 2 motherboard had a very basic backplane with virtually no electronic components, but plenty of edge connector sockets/slots. There were two RAM slots, one CPU slot and one I/O slot all in parallel placement to each other. At the other end, there were three 'Lisa' slots, parallel to each other. This flexibility provided the potential for a developer to create a replacement for the CPU 'card' to upgrade the Lisa to run a newer CPU, albeit with potential limitations from other parts of the system.

Macintosh XL[edit]

Macintosh XL
Main article: Macintosh XL

In January 1985, following on the heels of the Macintosh, the Lisa 2/10 (with integrated 10 MB hard drive) was re-branded the Macintosh XL and with new software, positioned as Apple's high-end Macintosh. The price was lowered yet again, to $4000 and sales tripled, but (according to CEO Sculley) Apple would have lost money increasing production to meet the new demand.[18] Apple discontinued the Macintosh XL, leaving an eight-month void in Apple's high-end product line until the Macintosh Plus was introduced in 1986.

Software[edit]

A screen shot of the Lisa Office System 3.1

The Lisa operating system featured preemptive multitasking and protected memory,[19] then extremely advanced features for a personal computer. Based in part on advanced elements from the failed Apple III SOS operating system released three years earlier, the Lisa also organized its files in hierarchal directories, making the use of large hard drives practical. The Macintosh would eventually adopt this disk organizational design as well for its HFS filing system. Conceptually, the Lisa resembles the Xerox Star in the sense that it was envisioned as an office computing system; consequently, Lisa has two main user modes: the Lisa Office System and the Workshop. The Lisa Office System is the GUI environment for end users. The Workshop was a program development environment, and was almost entirely text-based, though it used a GUI text editor. The Lisa Office System was eventually renamed "7/7", in reference to the seven supplied application programs: LisaWrite, LisaCalc, LisaDraw, LisaGraph, LisaProject, LisaList, and LisaTerminal.

Third-party software[edit]

A screen shot of the Apple Lisa Workshop

A significant impediment to third-party software on the Lisa was the fact that, when first launched, the Lisa Office System could not be used to write programs for itself: a separate development OS was required called Lisa Workshop. During this development process, an engineer ran the two OSes in a dual-boot config, writing and compiling code on one machine and testing it on the other. Later, the same Lisa Workshop was used to develop software for the Macintosh. After a few years, a Macintosh-native development system was developed. For most of its lifetime, the Lisa never went beyond the original seven applications that Apple had deemed enough to "do everything."[citation needed]

MacWorks[edit]

Main article: MacWorks

In April 1984, following the success of the Macintosh, Apple introduced MacWorks, a software emulation environment which allowed the Lisa to run Macintosh System software and applications.[20] MacWorks helped make the Lisa more attractive to potential customers, but did not enable the Macintosh emulation to access the hard disk until September. In January 1985, re-branded MacWorks XL, it became the primary system application designed to turn the Lisa into the Macintosh XL.

Reception[edit]

An original Apple Lisa at work, Apple Convention, Boston, Spring 1983

BYTE wrote in February 1983 after previewing the Lisa that it was "the most important development in computers in the last five years, easily outpacing [the IBM PC]". It acknowledged that the $9995 price was high, and concluded "Apple ... is not unaware that most people would be incredibly interested in a similar but less expensive machine. We'll see what happens".[9]

The Apple Lisa was a commercial failure for Apple, the largest since the failure of the Apple III of 1980. The intended business customers were reluctant to purchase the machine because of its high price (it cost $9,995 at product launch[21]), making it largely unable to compete with the less expensive IBM PCs, which were already beginning to dominate business desktop computing, as well as Steve Jobs' announcement that they'd be releasing a superior system in the future which would not be compatible with it.[22] The largest Lisa customer was NASA, which used LisaProject for project management and was eventually faced with significant problems when the Lisa was discontinued.[22]

The release of the Apple Macintosh in 1984, which was faster and much less expensive, was the most significant factor in the Lisa's demise. Two later Lisa models were released (the Lisa 2 and its Mac ROM-enabled sibling Macintosh XL) before the Lisa line was discontinued in April 1985.[23] In 1986, Apple offered all Lisa/XL owners the opportunity to return their computer and US$1,498.00, in return for a Macintosh Plus and Hard Disk 20.[24]

Historical importance[edit]

The Apple Lisa was immediately recognized as a significant machine, with BYTE for example opining it more important than the IBM PC.[25] Further, though a limited number of Lisas were sold, the Lisa software, in combination with an Apple dot-matrix printer, could produce documents that surpassed other comparably priced options available at the time.[citation needed] This one compelling usage meant that the Lisa was introduced into a number of larger offices, and due to the price, the number of people who had used a Lisa was much larger than the number of Lisas sold.[citation needed]

An often-overlooked feature the Lisa system used is its early approach of document-centric[citation needed] computing instead of application-centric computing. On a Macintosh, Windows, or Linux system, a user typically seeks a program. In the Lisa system, users use stationery to begin using an application. Apple implemented stationery documents on System 7 in 1991 and attempted to further advance this approach on the Mac platform later with OpenDoc. Microsoft also later implemented stationery in a limited fashion via the Windows Start menu for Microsoft Office.

Internationalization[edit]

Within a few months of the Lisa's introduction in the US, fully translated versions of the software and documentation were commercially available for British, French, German, Italian, and Spanish markets, followed by several Scandinavian versions shortly thereafter. The user interface for the OS, all seven applications, LisaGuide, and the Lisa diagnostics (in ROM) can be fully translated, without any programming required, using resource files and a translation kit. The keyboard can identify its native language layout, and the entire user experience will be in that language, including any hardware diagnostic messages.

Although several foreign-language keyboard layouts were available, the Dvorak keyboard layout was never ported to the Lisa, though such porting had been available for the Apple III, IIe, and IIc, and later for the Macintosh. Keyboard-mapping on the Lisa was complex and required building a new OS/kernel. All kernels contain images for all layouts, so due to serious memory constraints, keyboard layouts were stored as differences from a set of standard layouts, thus only a few bytes are needed to accommodate most additional layouts. A notable exception is the Dvorak layout that moves just about every key and thus requires hundreds of extra bytes of precious kernel storage regardless of whether it was needed.[citation needed]

Each localized version (built on a globalized core) requires grammatical, linguistic, and cultural adaptations throughout the user interface, including formats for dates, numbers, times, currencies, sorting, even for word and phrase order in alerts and dialog boxes. A kit was provided, and the translation work was done by native-speaking Apple marketing staff in each country. This localization effort resulted in about as many Lisa unit sales outside the US as inside the US over the product's lifespan,[citation needed] while setting new standards for future localized software products, and for global project co-ordination.[citation needed]

The end of the Lisa[edit]

Like other early GUI computers, working Lisas are now fairly valuable collectors items, for which people will pay hundreds or even thousands of dollars. The original model is the most sought after, although working ProFile and Widget hard disks, which are necessary for running the Lisa OS, are also particularly valued. The high cost and delays in its release date helped to create the Lisa's demise, although Lisa was repackaged and sold at $4,995 as the Lisa 2. People going to the store to buy Apple weren't interested in the Lisa; they wanted the Macintosh they had heard so much about instead. In 1986, the Lisa was discontinued.

In 1987, Sun Remarketing purchased about 5,000 Macintosh XLs and upgraded them. Some leftover Lisa computers and spare parts were available until recently when Cherokee Data (who purchased Sun Remarketing) went out of business.

With the help of Sun Remarketing in 1989, Apple disposed of approximately 2,700 unsold Lisas in a guarded landfill in Logan, Utah, in order to receive a tax write-off on the unsold inventory.[26]

Timeline of Lisa models


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Christoph Dernbach (October 12, 2007). "Apple Lisa". Mac History. Retrieved November 15, 2012. 
  2. ^ Simon, Jeffrey S. Young, William L. (2006-04-14). iCon : Steve Jobs, the greatest second act in the history of business (Newly updated. ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley (retrieved via Google Books). ISBN 978-0471787846. Retrieved 2014-01-06. 
  3. ^ a b Linzmayer, Owen W. (2004). Apple confidential 2.0 : the definitive history of the world's most colorful company (2nd ed.). San Francisco, Calif.: No Starch Press (retrieved via Google Books). p. 79. ISBN 978-1593270100. Retrieved 2014-01-06. 
  4. ^ Lisa Operating System Reference Manual. p. 34. 
  5. ^ O'Grady, Jason D. (2009). Apple Inc.. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press (retrieved via Google Books). p. 7. ISBN 978-0313362446. Retrieved 2014-01-06. 
  6. ^ Andy Hertzfeld (2005). "Bicycle". Revolution in the Valley. O'Reilly. p. 36. ISBN 0-596-00719-1. 
  7. ^ Isaacson, Walter (2011). Steve Jobs. Simon & Schuster. p. 93. ISBN 978-1-4516-4853-9. 
  8. ^ A History of Apple's Lisa, 1979–1986
  9. ^ a b Williams, Gregg (1983-02). "The Lisa Computer System". BYTE. p. 33. 
  10. ^ Morgan, Chris; Williams, Gregg; Lemmons, Phil (February 1983). "An Interview with Wayne Rosing, Bruce Daniels, and Larry Tesler". BYTE. pp. 90–114. 
  11. ^ Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–2014. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved February 27, 2014.
  12. ^ Linzmayer, Owen W. (2004). Apple confidential 2.0 : the definitive history of the world's most colorful company (2nd ed.). San Francisco, Calif.: No Starch Press (retrieved via Google Books). pp. 77–78. ISBN 978-1593270100. 
  13. ^ Linzmayer, Owen W. (2004). Apple confidential 2.0 : the definitive history of the world's most colorful company (2nd ed.). San Francisco, Calif.: No Starch Press (retrieved via Google Books). p. 78. ISBN 978-1593270100. Retrieved 2014-01-06. 
  14. ^ Re: MACINTOSH opinion and request
  15. ^ Mace, Scott (1984-02-13). "Apple introduces Lisa 2; basic model to cost $3,500". InfoWorld 6 (7): 65. Retrieved 2014-01-06. 
  16. ^ a b Pina, Larry (1990). Macintosh Repair & Upgrade Secrets (1st ed. ed.). Carmel, IN, USA: Hayden Books. p. 236. ISBN 0672484528. 
  17. ^ Mace, Scott (1984-02-13). "Apple introduces Lisa 2; basic model to cost $3,500". InfoWorld 6 (7): 66. Retrieved 2014-01-06. 
  18. ^ "Apple's LISA meets a bad end". InfoWorld 7 (22): 21. June 3, 1985. ISSN 0199-6649. 
  19. ^ Lisa Operating System Reference Manual. p. 50. 
  20. ^ "The Lisa 2: Apple’s ablest computer". BYTE (12/1984): A106–A114. 
  21. ^ http://www.technologeek.net/a-look-back-at-apple-products-of-old/
  22. ^ a b Steve Jobs by Walter Isaacson
  23. ^ "Back In Time", A+ Magazine, Feb 1987: 48–49.
  24. ^ Signal 26, March 1986, circulation 45,013
  25. ^ Williams, Gregg (1983-02). "The Lisa Computer System – Apple designs a new kind of machine". BYTE: 33. 
  26. ^ McCollum, Charles (2011-10-16). "Editor's Corner: Logan has interesting link to Apple computer history". The Herald Journal. Retrieved 2014-02-24. 

External links[edit]

Preceded by
Apple II Plus
Apple III
Apple Lisa, Lisa 2
January 19, 1983
Succeeded by
Macintosh XL
Macintosh