List of antibiotics

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The following is a list of antibiotics, sorted by class. The highest division is between bactericidal antibiotics and bacteriostatic antibiotics. Bactericidals kill bacteria directly, whereas bacteriostatics prevent them from dividing. However, these classifications are based on laboratory behavior. In practice, both can prevent a bacterial infection.[1]

See also pathogenic bacteria for a list of antibiotics sorted by target bacteria.

Antibiotics by class
Generic nameBrand namesCommon uses[2]Possible side effects[2]Mechanism of action
Aminoglycosides
AmikacinAmikinInfections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella particularly Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Effective against Aerobic bacteria (not obligate/facultative anaerobes) and tularemia.Binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit (some work by binding to the 50S subunit), inhibiting the translocation of the peptidyl-tRNA from the A-site to the P-site and also causing misreading of mRNA, leaving the bacterium unable to synthesize proteins vital to its growth.
GentamicinGaramycin
KanamycinKantrex
NeomycinNeo-Fradin[3]
NetilmicinNetromycin
TobramycinNebcin
ParomomycinHumatin
StreptomycinTuberculosis
Spectinomycin(Bs)TrobicinGonorrhea
Ansamycins
GeldanamycinExperimental, as antitumor antibiotics
Herbimycin
RifaximinXifaxanTraveler's diarrhea caused by E. coli
Carbacephem
LoracarbefLorabidDiscontinuedprevents bacterial cell division by inhibiting cell wall synthesis.
Carbapenems
ErtapenemInvanzBactericidal for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms and therefore useful for empiric broad-spectrum antibacterial coverage. (Note MRSA resistance to this class.)
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Nausea
  • Seizures
  • Headache
  • Rash and allergic reactions
Inhibition of cell wall synthesis
DoripenemDoribax
Imipenem/CilastatinPrimaxin
MeropenemMerrem
Cephalosporins (First generation)
CefadroxilDuricefGood coverage against Gram-positive infections.
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Nausea (if alcohol taken concurrently)
  • Allergic reactions
Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls.
CefazolinAncef
Cefalotin or CefalothinKeflin (discontinued)
CefalexinKeflex
Cephalosporins (Second generation)
CefaclorDistaclorLess Gram-positive cover, improved Gram-negative cover.
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Nausea (if alcohol taken concurrently)
  • Allergic reactions
Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls.
CefamandoleMandol (discontinued)
CefoxitinMefoxin (discontinued)
CefprozilCefzil
CefuroximeCeftin, Zinnat (UK)
Cephalosporins (Third generation)
CefiximeSupraxImproved coverage of Gram-negative organisms, except Pseudomonas. Reduced Gram-positive cover. But still not cover Mycoplasma and Chlamydia
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Nausea (if alcohol taken concurrently)
  • Allergic reactions
Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls.
CefdinirOmnicef, Cefdiel
CefditorenSpectracef, Meiact
Cefoperazone [Unlike most third-generation agents, cefoperazone is active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa]Cefobid (discontinued)
CefotaximeClaforan
CefpodoximeVantin
Ceftazidime [Unlike most third-generation agents, ceftazidime is active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa]Fortaz
CeftibutenCedax
CeftizoximeCefizox (discontinued)
Ceftriaxone [IV and IM, not orally, effective also for syphilis and uncomplicated gonorrhea]Rocephin
Cephalosporins (Fourth generation)
CefepimeMaxipime

Covers pseudomonal infections.

  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Nausea (if alcohol taken concurrently)
  • Allergic reactions
Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls.
Cephalosporins (Fifth generation)
Ceftaroline fosamilTeflaroUsed to treat MRSA
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Allergic reaction
Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls.
CeftobiproleZefteraUsed to treat MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and enterococci
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Nausea (if alcohol taken concurrently)
  • Allergic reactions
Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls.
Glycopeptides
TeicoplaninTargocid (UK)Active against aerobic and anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria including MRSA; Vancomycin is used orally for the treatment of C. difficileinhibiting peptidoglycan synthesis
VancomycinVancocin
TelavancinVibativ
DalbavancinDalvance
OritavancinOrbactiv
Lincosamides(Bs)
ClindamycinCleocinSerious staph-, pneumo-, and streptococcal infections in penicillin-allergic patients, also anaerobic infections; clindamycin topically for acnePossible C. difficile-related pseudomembranous enterocolitisBind to 50S subunit of bacterial ribosomal RNA thereby inhibiting protein synthesis
LincomycinLincocin
Lipopeptide
DaptomycinCubicinGram-positive organismsBind to the membrane and cause rapid depolarization, resulting in a loss of membrane potential leading to inhibition of protein, DNA and RNA synthesis
Macrolides(Bs)
AzithromycinZithromax, Sumamed, XithroneStreptococcal infections, syphilis, upper respiratory tract infections, lower respiratory tract infections, mycoplasmal infections, Lyme disease
  • Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea (especially at higher doses)
  • Prolonged cardiac QT interval (especially erythromycin)
  • Hearing loss (especially at higher doses)
  • Jaundice
inhibition of bacterial protein biosynthesis by binding reversibly to the subunit 50S of the bacterial ribosome, thereby inhibiting translocation of peptidyl tRNA.
ClarithromycinBiaxin
DirithromycinDynabac (discontinued)
ErythromycinErythocin, Erythroped
Roxithromycin
TroleandomycinTao (discontinued)
TelithromycinKetekPneumoniaVisual Disturbance, Liver Toxicity.[4]
SpiramycinRovamycineMouth infections
Monobactams
AztreonamAzactamGram-negative bacteriaSame mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls.
Nitrofurans
FurazolidoneFuroxoneBacterial or protozoal diarrhea or enteritis
Nitrofurantoin(Bs)Macrodantin, MacrobidUrinary tract infections
Oxazolidinones(Bs)
LinezolidZyvoxVRSAProtein synthesis inhibitor; prevents the initiation step
PosizolidPhase II clinical trials
RadezolidPhase II clinical trials
TorezolidPhase II clinical trials
Penicillins
AmoxicillinNovamox, AmoxilWide range of infections; penicillin used for streptococcal infections, syphilis, and Lyme diseaseSame mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls.
AmpicillinPrincipen (discontinued)
Azlocillin
CarbenicillinGeocillin (discontinued)
CloxacillinTegopen (discontinued)
DicloxacillinDynapen (discontinued)
FlucloxacillinFloxapen (Sold to European generics Actavis Group)
MezlocillinMezlin (discontinued)
MethicillinStaphcillin (discontinued)
NafcillinUnipen (discontinued)
OxacillinProstaphlin (discontinued)
Penicillin GPentids (discontinued)
Penicillin VVeetids (Pen-Vee-K) (discontinued)
PiperacillinPipracil (discontinued)
Penicillin GPfizerpen
TemocillinNegaban (UK) (discontinued)
TicarcillinTicar (discontinued)
Penicillin combinations
Amoxicillin/clavulanateAugmentinBoth Amoxicillin/clavulanate and Ampicillin/sulbactam are effective against non-recurrent acute Otitis media[5] Only a few oral-antibiotics active for skin and soft tissue infections, one of it is Amoxicillin/clavulanaterowspan="4"The second component prevents bacterial resistance to the first component
Ampicillin/sulbactamUnasyn
Piperacillin/tazobactamZosyn
Ticarcillin/clavulanateTimentin
Polypeptides
BacitracinEye, ear or bladder infections; usually applied directly to the eye or inhaled into the lungs; rarely given by injection, although the use of intravenous colistin is experiencing a resurgence due to the emergence of multi drug resistant organisms.Kidney and nerve damage (when given by injection)Inhibits isoprenyl pyrophosphate, a molecule that carries the building blocks of the peptidoglycan bacterial cell wall outside of the inner membrane[6]
ColistinColy-Mycin-SInteract with the Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane and cytoplasmic membrane, displacing bacterial counterions, which destabilizes the outer membrane. Act like a detergent against the cytoplasmic membrane, which alters its permeability. Polymyxin B and E are bactericidal even in an isosmotic solution.
Polymyxin B
Quinolones/Fluoroquinolone
CiprofloxacinCipro, Ciproxin, CiprobayUrinary tract infections, bacterial prostatitis, community-acquired pneumonia, bacterial diarrhea, mycoplasmal infections, gonorrheaNausea (rare), irreversible damage to central nervous system (uncommon), tendinosis (rare)inhibit the bacterial DNA gyrase or the topoisomerase IV enzyme, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and transcription.
EnoxacinPenetrex
GatifloxacinTequin
GemifloxacinFactive[7]
LevofloxacinLevaquin
LomefloxacinMaxaquin
MoxifloxacinAvelox
Nalidixic acidNegGram
NorfloxacinNoroxin
OfloxacinFloxin (discontinued), Ocuflox
TrovafloxacinTrovanWithdrawn
GrepafloxacinRaxarWithdrawn
SparfloxacinZagamWithdrawn
TemafloxacinOmnifloxWithdrawn
Sulfonamides(Bs)
MafenideSulfamylonUrinary tract infections (except sulfacetamide, used for eye infections, and mafenide and silver sulfadiazine, used topically for burns)Folate synthesis inhibition. They are competitive inhibitors of the enzyme dihydropteroate synthetase, DHPS. DHPS catalyses the conversion of PABA (para-aminobenzoate) to dihydropteroate, a key step in folate synthesis. Folate is necessary for the cell to synthesize nucleic acids (nucleic acids are essential building blocks of DNA and RNA), and in its absence cells cannot divide.
SulfacetamideSulamyd, Bleph-10
SulfadiazineMicro-Sulfon
Silver sulfadiazineSilvadene
SulfadimethoxineDi-Methox, Albon
SulfamethizoleThiosulfil Forte
SulfamethoxazoleGantanol
Sulfanilimide (archaic)
SulfasalazineAzulfidine
SulfisoxazoleGantrisin
Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole (Co-trimoxazole) (TMP-SMX)Bactrim, Septra
Sulfonamidochrysoidine (archaic)Prontosil
Tetracyclines(Bs)
DemeclocyclineDeclomycinSyphilis, chlamydial infections, Lyme disease, mycoplasmal infections, acne rickettsial infections, *malaria *Note: Malaria is caused by a protist and not a bacterium.
  • Gastrointestinal upset
  • Sensitivity to sunlight
  • Potential toxicity to mother and fetus during pregnancy
  • Enamel hypoplasia (staining of teeth; potentially permanent)
  • transient depression of bone growth
inhibiting the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the mRNA-ribosome complex. They do so mainly by binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit in the mRNA translation complex. But Tetracycline cannot be taken together with all dairy products, aluminium, iron and zinc minerals.
DoxycyclineVibramycin
MinocyclineMinocin
OxytetracyclineTerramycin
TetracyclineSumycin, Achromycin V, Steclin
Drugs against mycobacteria
ClofazimineLampreneAntileprotic
DapsoneAvlosulfonAntileprotic
CapreomycinCapastatAntituberculosis
CycloserineSeromycinAntituberculosis, urinary tract infections
Ethambutol(Bs)MyambutolAntituberculosis
EthionamideTrecatorAntituberculosisInhibits peptide synthesis
IsoniazidI.N.H.Antituberculosis
PyrazinamideAldinamideAntituberculosis
Rifampicin (Rifampin in US)Rifadin, Rimactanemostly Gram-positive and mycobacteriaReddish-orange sweat, tears, and urineBinds to the β subunit of RNA polymerase to inhibit transcription
RifabutinMycobutinMycobacterium avium complexRash, discolored urine, GI symptoms
RifapentinePriftinAntituberculosis
StreptomycinAntituberculosisNeurotoxicity, ototoxicityAs other aminoglycosides
Others
ArsphenamineSalvarsanSpirochaetal infections (obsolete)
Chloramphenicol(Bs)ChloromycetinMeningitis, MRSA, topical use, or for low-cost internal treatment. Historic: typhus, cholera. Gram-negative, Gram-positive, anaerobesRarely: aplastic anemia.Inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 50S subunit of the ribosome
FosfomycinMonurol, MonurilAcute cystitis in womenThis antibiotic is not recommended for children and 75 up of ageInactivates enolpyruvyl transferase, thereby blocking cell wall synthesis
Fusidic acidFucidin
MetronidazoleFlagylInfections caused by anaerobic bacteria; also amoebiasis, trichomoniasis, giardiasisDiscolored urine, headache, metallic taste, nausea; alcohol is contraindicatedProduces toxic free radicals that disrupt DNA and proteins. This non-specific mechanism is responsible for its activity against a variety of bacteria, amoebae, and protozoa.
MupirocinBactrobanOintment for impetigo, cream for infected cutsInhibits isoleucine t-RNA synthetase (IleRS) causing inhibition of protein synthesis
Platensimycin
Quinupristin/DalfopristinSynercid
ThiamphenicolGram-negative, Gram-positive, anaerobes. Widely used in veterinary medicine.Rash. Lacks known anemic side-effects.A chloramphenicol analog. May inhibit bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 50S subunit of the ribosome
Tigecycline(Bs)TigacylSlowly Intravenous. Indicated for complicated skin/skin structure infections, soft tissues infections and complicated intra-abdominal infections. Effective for gram positive and negative and also anaerob antibiotics, against multi-resistant antibiotics bacteries such as Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Acinetobacter baumannii, but not effective for Pseudomonas spp and Proteus sppTeeth discoloration and same side effects as Tetracycline. Not to be given for children and pregnant or lactate women. Relatively safe and no need dose adjusted when be given for mild to moderate liver function or renal patientsSimilar structure with tetracycline, but 5 times stronger, big volume distribution and long half-time in the body
TinidazoleTindamax FasigynProtozoal infectionsUpset stomach, bitter taste, and itchiness
Trimethoprim(Bs)Proloprim, TrimpexUrinary tract infections
Generic NameBrand NamesCommon Uses[2]Possible Side Effects[2]Mechanism of action

Note: (Bs): Bacteriostatic

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pelczar, M.J., Chan, E.C.S. and Krieg, N.R. (1999) “Host-Parasite Interaction; Nonspecific Host Resistance”, In: Microbiology Conceptsand Applications, 6th ed., McGraw-Hill Inc., New York, U.S.A. pp. 478-479.
  2. ^ a b c d For common Uses and possible side effects reference is: Robert Berkow (ed.) The Merck Manual of Medical Information - Home Edition. Pocket (September 1999), ISBN 0-671-02727-1.
  3. ^ "Neomycin Drug Information". uptodate. Retrieved 2/11/2012.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)(subscription required)
  4. ^ Splete, Heidi; Kerri Wachter (March 2006). "Liver toxicity reported with Ketek". Internal Medicine News. 
  5. ^ "Amoxicillin-sulbactam versus amoxicillin-clavulanic acid for the treatment of non-recurrent-acute otitis media in Argentinean children". Retrieved July 23, 2014. 
  6. ^ Mechanism of Action of Bacitracin: Complexation with Metal Ion and C55-Isoprenyl Pyrophosphate K. John Stone and Jack L. Strominger
  7. ^ "List of Antibiotics". Retrieved February 7, 2014. 

See also[edit]