Life extension

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

 
  (Redirected from Anti-aging)
Jump to: navigation, search

Life extension science, also known as anti-aging medicine, experimental gerontology, and biomedical gerontology, is the study of slowing down or reversing the processes of aging to extend both the maximum and average lifespan. Some researchers in this area, and "life extensionists" or "longevists" (who wish to achieve longer lives for themselves), believe that future breakthroughs in tissue rejuvenation with stem cells, molecular repair, and organ replacement (such as with artificial organs or xenotransplantations) will eventually enable humans to have indefinite lifespans (agerasia[1]) through complete rejuvenation to a healthy youthful condition.

The sale of putative anti-aging products such as nutrition, physical fitness, skin care, hormone replacements, vitamins, supplements and herbs is a lucrative global industry, with the US market generating about $50 billion of revenue each year.[2] Medical experts state that the use of such products has not been shown to affect the aging process, and many claims of anti-aging medicine advocates have been roundly criticized by medical experts, including the American Medical Association.[2][3][4][5][6] However, it has not been shown that the goal of indefinite human lifespans itself is necessarily unfeasible; some animals such as lobsters and certain jellyfish do not die of old age, and an award was offered to anyone who could prove life extensionist Aubrey De Grey's hopes were 'unworthy of learned debate'; nobody won the prize. [7] Bioethicists question the ethical ramifications of life extension.

Contents

Average and maximum lifespans

During the process of aging, an organism accumulates damage to macromolecules, its cells, its tissues and its organs. This accumulated damage is the result of oxidation damage to the cell contents caused by free radicals[citation needed]. The longest a human has ever been proven to live is 122 years, the case of Jeanne Calment who was born in 1875 and died in 1997, whereas the maximum lifespan of a mouse, commonly used as a model in research on aging, is about four years. Genetic differences between humans and mice that may account for these different aging rates include efficiency of DNA repair, types and quantities of antioxidant enzymes, and different rates of free radical production. The most important and challenging factor remains the telomere limitation of each individual species.

Average lifespan in a population is lowered by infant and child mortality, which are frequently linked to infectious diseases or nutrition problems. Later in life, vulnerability to accidents and age-related chronic disease such as cancer or cardiovascular disease play an increasing role in mortality. Extension of expected lifespan can often be achieved by access to improved medical care, vaccinations, good diet, exercise and avoidance of hazards such as smoking.

Maximum lifespan is determined by the rate of aging for a species inherent in its genes and by environmental factors. One widely recognized method of extending maximum lifespan in organisms such as nematodes is calorie restriction. Another technique used evolutionary pressure such as breeding from only older members.

Theoretically, extension of maximum lifespan could be achieved by reducing the rate of aging damage, by periodic replacement of damaged tissues, or by molecular repair or rejuvenation of deteriorated cells and tissues and the enhancement of telomerase enzyme activity. Future research will be geared towards telomere repair strategies.

Current anti-aging strategies and issues

Diets and supplements

Much life extension research focuses on nutrition—diets or supplements—as a means to extend lifespan, although few of these have been systematically tested for significant longevity effects. The many diets promoted by anti-aging advocates are often contradictory. A dietary pattern with some support from scientific research is caloric restriction.[8][9]

The free-radical theory of aging suggests that antioxidant supplements, such as Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Q10, lipoic acid, carnosine, and N-acetylcysteine, might extend human life. However, combined evidence from several clinical trials suggest that β-Carotene supplements and high doses of Vitamin E increase mortality rates.[10] Other substances proposed to extend lifespan include oxytocin, insulin, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and erythropoietin (EPO). Resveratrol is a sirtuin stimulant that appears to extend lifespan in simple organisms such as nematodes[11] and short-lived fish.[12]

Some supplements, including the minerals selenium[13] or zinc[14][15] have been reported to extend the lifespan of rats and mice, though none have been proven to do so in humans, and significant toxic effects were observed. Metformin[16] may also extend life span in mice.

Interestingly there is a tea called Jiaogulan that has been dubbed "China's Immortality Herb".[citation needed]

Hormone treatments

The anti-aging industry offers several hormone therapies. Some of these have been criticized for possible dangers to the patient and a lack of proven effect. For example, the American Medical Association has been critical of some anti-aging hormone therapies.[2]

Even if some recent clinical studies have shown that low-dose GH treatment for adults with GH deficiency changes the body composition by increasing muscle mass, decreasing fat mass, increasing bone density and muscle strength, improves cardiovascular parameters (i.e. decrease of LDL cholesterol), and affects the quality of life without significant side effects.[17][18][19] The evidence for use of growth hormone as an anti-aging therapy is mixed and based on animal studies. An early study suggested that supplementation of mice with growth hormone increased average life expectancy.[20] Additional animal experiments have suggested that growth hormone may generally act to shorten maximum lifespan; knockout mice lacking the receptor for growth hormone live especially long.[21] Furthermore, mouse models lacking the insulin-like growth factor also live especially long and have low levels of growth hormone.[21]

Scientific controversy regarding anti-aging nutritional supplementation and medicine

Some critics dispute the portrayal of aging as a disease. For example, Leonard Hayflick, who determined that fibroblasts are limited to around 50 cell divisions, reasons that aging is an unavoidable consequence of entropy. Hayflick and fellow biogerontologists Jay Olshansky and Bruce Carnes have strongly criticized the anti-aging industry in response to what they see as unscrupulous profiteering from the sale of unproven anti-aging supplements.[4]

Ethics and politics of anti-aging nutritional supplementation and medicine

Politics relevant to the substances of life extension pertain mostly to communications and availability.[citation needed]

In the United States, product claims on food and drug labels are strictly regulated. The First Amendment (freedom of speech) protects third-party publishers' rights to distribute fact, opinion and speculation on life extension practices. Manufacturers and suppliers also provide informational publications, but because they market the substances, they are subject to monitoring and enforcement by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), which polices claims by marketers. What constitutes the difference between truthful and false claims is hotly debated and is a central controversy in this arena.[citation needed]

Consumer motivations for using anti-aging products

Research by Sobh and Martin (2011) suggests that people buy anti-aging products to obtain a hoped-for self (e.g., keeping a youthful skin) or to avoid a feared-self (e.g., looking old). The research shows that when consumers pursue a hoped-for self, it is expectations of success that most strongly drive their motivation to use the product. The research also shows why doing badly when trying to avoid a feared self is more motivating than doing well. Interestingly, when product use is seen to fail it is more motivating than success when consumers seek to avoid a feared-self. [22]

Proposed strategies of life extension

Nanotechnology

Future advances in nanomedicine could give rise to life extension through the repair of many processes thought to be responsible for aging. K. Eric Drexler, one of the founders of nanotechnology, postulated cell repair machines, including ones operating within cells and utilizing as yet hypothetical molecular computers, in his 1986 book Engines of Creation. Raymond Kurzweil, a futurist and transhumanist, stated in his book The Singularity Is Near that he believes that advanced medical nanorobotics could completely remedy the effects of aging by 2030.[23]

Cloning and body part replacement

Some life extensionists suggest that therapeutic cloning and stem cell research could one day provide a way to generate cells, body parts, or even entire bodies (generally referred to as reproductive cloning) that would be genetically identical to a prospective patient. Recently, the US Department of Defense initiated a program to research the possibility of growing human body parts on mice.[24] Complex biological structures, such as mammalian joints and limbs, have not yet been replicated. Dog and primate brain transplantation experiments were conducted in the mid-20th century but failed due to rejection and the inability to restore nerve connections. As of 2006, the implantation of bio-engineered bladders grown from patients' own cells has proven to be a viable treatment for bladder disease.[25] Proponents of body part replacement and cloning contend that the required biotechnologies are likely to appear earlier than other life-extension technologies.

The use of human stem cells, particularly embryonic stem cells, is controversial. Opponents' objections generally are based on interpretations of religious teachings or ethical considerations. Proponents of stem cell research point out that cells are routinely formed and destroyed in a variety of contexts. Use of stem cells taken from the umbilical cord or parts of the adult body may not provoke controversy.[26]

The controversies over cloning are similar, except general public opinion in most countries stands in opposition to reproductive cloning. Some proponents of therapeutic cloning predict the production of whole bodies, lacking consciousness, for eventual brain transplantation.

Cryonics

For cryonicists (advocates of cryopreservation), storing the body at low temperatures after death may provide an "ambulance" into a future in which advanced medical technologies may allow resuscitation and repair. They speculate cryogenic temperatures will minimize changes in biological tissue for many years, giving the medical community ample time to cure all disease, rejuvenate the aged and repair any damage that is caused by the cryopreservation process.

Many cryonicists do not believe that legal death is "real death" because stoppage of heartbeat and breathing—the usual medical criteria for legal death—occur before biological death of cells and tissues of the body. Even at room temperature, cells may take hours to die and days to decompose. Although neurological damage occurs within 4–6 minutes of cardiac arrest, the irreversible neurodegenerative processes do not manifest for hours.[27] Cryonicists state that rapid cooling and cardio-pulmonary support applied immediately after certification of death can preserve cells and tissues for long-term preservation at cryogenic temperatures. People, particularly children, have survived up to an hour without heartbeat after submersion in ice water. In one case, full recovery was reported after 45 minutes underwater.[28] To facilitate rapid preservation of cells and tissue, cryonics "standby teams" are available to wait by the bedside of patients who are to be cryopreserved to apply cooling and cardio-pulmonary support as soon as possible after declaration of death.[29]

No mammal has been successfully cryopreserved and brought back to life, and resuscitation from cryonics is not possible with current science. Some scientists still support the idea based on their expectations of the capabilities of future science.[30][31]

Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence (SENS)

Another proposed life extension technology would combine existing and predicted future biochemical and genetic techniques. One such theoretical strategy proposes a cure for cancer, stem cell treatments, addition of new enzymes to the human body and moving mitochondrial DNA to the cellular nucleus.[32] There is no scientific evidence that supports this strategy,[5] and has been called pseudoscientific because its proposed techniques are speculative.[3]

Genetic modification

Gene therapy, in which artificial genes are integrated with an organism to replace mutated or otherwise deficient genes, has been proposed as a future strategy to prevent aging.[33][34] Targeting catalase to the mitochondria resulted in a 20% lifespan increase in transgenic mice, and improved performance in AAV therapeutically infected mice.[35]

Fooling genes

In The Selfish Gene, Richard Dawkins describes an approach to life-extension that involves "fooling genes" into thinking the body is young.[36] Dawkins attributes inspiration for this idea to Peter Medawar. The basic idea is that our bodies are composed of genes that activate throughout our lifetimes, some when we are young, and others when we are older. Presumably, these genes are activated by environmental factors (this is known as epigenetics), and the changes caused by these genes activating can be lethal. It is a statistical certainty that we possess more lethal genes that activate in later life than in early life. Therefore, to extend life, we should be able to prevent these genes from switching on, and we should be able to do so by "identifying changes in the internal chemical environment of a body that take place during aging... and by simulating the superficial chemical properties of a young body".[37]

History of life extension and the life extension movement

In 1889 Charles-Édouard Brown-Séquard injected himself under the skin with an aqueous extract of dog and guinea pig testicles[38] and stated that "the injections have taken 30 years off my life".[39]

In 1920, Serge Voronoff started transplanting monkey testicles into humans, for the purpose of rejuvenation.[38]

In 1970, the American Aging Association was formed under the impetus of Denham Harman, originator of the free radical theory of aging. Harman wanted an organization of biogerontologists that was devoted to research and to the sharing of information among scientists interested in extending human lifespan.

In 1976, futurists Joel Kurtzman and Philip Gordon wrote No More Dying. The Conquest Of Aging And The Extension Of Human Life, (ISBN 0-440-36247-4) the first popular book on research to extend human lifespan. Subsequently, Kurtzman was invited to testify before the House Select Committee on Aging, chaired by Claude Pepper of Florida, to discuss the impact of life extension on the Social Security system.

Saul Kent published The Life Extension Revolution (ISBN 0-688-03580-9) in 1980 and created a nutraceutical firm called the Life Extension Foundation, a non-profit organization that promotes dietary supplements. The Life Extension Foundation publishes a periodical called Life Extension Magazine. The 1982 bestselling book Life Extension: A Practical Scientific Approach (ISBN 0-446-51229-X) by Durk Pearson and Sandy Shaw further popularized the phrase "life extension".

In 1983, Roy Walford, a life-extensionist and gerontologist, published a popular book called Maximum Lifespan. In 1988, Walford and his student Richard Weindruch summarized their research into the ability of calorie restriction to extend the lifespan of rodents in The Retardation of Aging and Disease by Dietary Restriction (ISBN 0-398-05496-7). It had been known since the work of Clive McCay in the 1930s that calorie restriction can extend the maximum lifespan of rodents. But it was the work of Walford and Weindruch that gave detailed scientific grounding to that knowledge.[citation needed] Walford's personal interest in life extension motivated his scientific work and he practiced calorie restriction himself. Walford died at the age of 80 from complications caused by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Money generated by the non-profit Life Extension Foundation allowed Saul Kent to finance the Alcor Life Extension Foundation, the world's largest cryonics organization. The cryonics movement had been launched in 1962 by Robert Ettinger's book, The Prospect of Immortality. In the 1960s, Saul Kent had been a co-founder of the Cryonics Society of New York. Alcor gained national prominence when baseball star Ted Williams was cryonically preserved by Alcor in 2002 and a family dispute arose as to whether Williams had really wanted to be cryopreserved.

Regulatory and legal struggles between the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Life Extension Foundation included seizure of merchandise and court action. In 1991, Saul Kent and Bill Faloon, the principals of the Foundation, were jailed. The LEF accused the FDA of perpetrating a "Holocaust" and "seeking gestapo-like power" through its regulation of drugs and marketing claims.[40]

In 1992, the American Academy of Anti-Aging Medicine (A4M) was formed to create what it considered an anti-aging medical specialty distinct from geriatrics, and to hold trade shows for physicians interested in anti-aging medicine. The American Board of Medical Specialties recognizes neither anti-aging medicine nor the A4M's professional standing.[41]

Ethics and politics of life extension

Though a lot of scientists state[42] that life extension and radical life extension are possible there are still no an international or national programs focused on radical life extension. There are political forces staying for and against life extension. In 2012 in Russia, and then in USA, Israel and Netherlands the Longevity political parties started. They aimed to provide political support to radical life extension research and technologies and ensure fastest possible and at the same time soft transition society to the next step - life without aging and with radical life extension and provide such the access to such technologies to the most of the currently living people.[43] [44]


Leon Kass (chairman of the US President's Council on Bioethics from 2001 to 2005) has questioned whether potential exacerbation of overpopulation problems would make life extension unethical.[45] He states his opposition to life extension with the words:

"simply to covet a prolonged life span for ourselves is both a sign and a cause of our failure to open ourselves to procreation and to any higher purpose ... [The] desire to prolong youthfulness is not only a childish desire to eat one's life and keep it; it is also an expression of a childish and narcissistic wish incompatible with devotion to posterity."[46]

John Harris, former editor-in-chief of the Journal of Medical Ethics, argues that as long as life is worth living, according to the person himself, we have a powerful moral imperative to save the life and thus to develop and offer life extension therapies to those who want them.[47]

Transhumanist philosopher Nick Bostrom has argued that any technological advances in life extension must be equitably distributed and not restricted to a privileged few.[48] In an extended metaphor entitled "The Fable of the Dragon-Tyrant", Bostrom envisions death as a monstrous dragon who demands human sacrifices. In the fable, after a lengthy debate between those who believe the dragon is a fact of life and those who believe the dragon can and should be destroyed, the dragon is finally killed. Bostrom argues that political inaction allowed many preventable human deaths to occur.[49]

Aging as a disease

Most mainstream medical organizations and practitioners do not consider aging to be a disease. David Sinclair says: "I don't see aging as a disease, but as a collection of quite predictable diseases caused by the deterioration of the body".[50] The two main arguments used are that aging is both inevitable and universal while diseases are not.[51] However not everyone agrees. Harry R. Moody, Director of Academic Affairs for AARP, notes that what is normal and what is disease strongly depends on a historical context.[52] David Gems, Assistant Director of the Institute of Healthy Ageing, strongly argues that aging should be viewed as a disease.[53] In response to the universality of aging, David Gems notes that it is as misleading as arguing that Basenji are not dogs because they do not bark.[54] Because of the universality of aging he calls it a 'special sort of disease'. Robert M. Perlman, coined the terms ‘aging syndrome’ and ‘disease complex’ in 1954 to describe aging.[55]

The discussion whether aging should be viewed as a disease or not has important implications. It would stimulate pharmaceutical companies to develop life extension therapies and in the United States of America, it would also increase the regulation of the anti-aging market by the FDA. Anti-aging now falls under the regulations for cosmetic medicine which are less tight than those for drugs.[54][56]

See also

References

  1. ^ "agerasia". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. 2001. http://oed.com/search?searchType=dictionary&q=agerasia. 
  2. ^ a b c Japsen, Bruce (15 June 2009). "AMA report questions science behind using hormones as anti-aging treatment". The Chicago Tribune. http://archives.chicagotribune.com/2009/jun/15/business/chi-anti-aging-15-jun15. Retrieved 17 July 2009. 
  3. ^ a b Holliday, R (April 2009). "The extreme arrogance of anti-aging medicine". Biogerontology 10 (2): 223–8. doi:10.1007/s10522-008-9170-6. PMID 18726707. 
  4. ^ a b Olshansky, SJ; Hayflick, L; Carnes, BA (1 August 2002). "Position statement on human aging". The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 57 (8): B292–7. doi:10.1093/gerona/57.8.B292. PMID 12145354. http://biomed.gerontologyjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=12145354. [dead link]
  5. ^ a b Warner, H; Anderson, J; Austad, S; et al. (November 2005). "Science fact and the SENS agenda". EMBO Reports 6 (11): 1006–8. doi:10.1038/sj.embor.7400555. PMC 1371037. PMID 16264422. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1371037/. 
  6. ^ Marziali, Carl (7 December 2010). "Reaching Toward the Fountain of Youth". USC Trojan Family Magazine. http://uscnews.usc.edu/health/reaching_toward_the_fountain_of_youth.html. Retrieved 7 December 2010. 
  7. ^ http://www.ted.com/speakers/aubrey_de_grey.html
  8. ^ Schumacher, B; van der Pluijm, I; Moorhouse, MJ; et al. (2008). Kim, Stuart K.. ed. "Delayed and Accelerated Aging Share Common Longevity Assurance Mechanisms". PLoS Genetics 4 (8): e1000161. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000161. PMC 2493043. PMID 18704162. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2493043/. 
  9. ^ Chen, J; Velalar, CN; Ruan, R (August 2008). "Identifying the changes in gene profiles regulating the amelioration of age-related oxidative damages in kidney tissue of rats by the intervention of adult-onset calorie restriction". Rejuvenation Research 11 (4): 757–63. doi:10.1089/rej.2008.0718. PMID 18710334. 
  10. ^ Mortality in Randomized Trials of Antioxidant Supplements for Primary and Secondary Prevention, a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis by Goran Bjelakovic, MD, DrMedSci; Dimitrinka Nikolova, MA; Lise Lotte Gluud, MD, DrMedSci; Rosa G. Simonetti, MD; Christian Gluud, MD, DrMedSci in JAMA. 2007;297:842-857. http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/jama;297/8/842
  11. ^ "Resveratrol Longevity Science Makes Dramatic U-Turn, But Resveratrol Supplements Remain Unchanged" (Press release). Resveratrol Partners. 10 September 2008. http://www.reuters.com/article/pressRelease/idUS86486+10-Sep-2008+PRN20080910. Retrieved 17 July 2009. 
  12. ^ Valenzano, DR; Terzibasi, E; Genade, T; Cattaneo, A; Domenici, L; Cellerino, A (February 2006). "Resveratrol prolongs lifespan and retards the onset of age-related markers in a short-lived vertebrate". Current Biology 16 (3): 296–300. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2005.12.038. PMID 16461283. 
  13. ^ Schroeder, HA; Mitchener, M (1 November 1971). "Selenium and tellurium in rats: effect on growth, survival and tumors". The Journal of Nutrition 101 (11): 1531–40. PMID 5124041. http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=5124041. 
  14. ^ Mocchegiani, E; Santarelli, L; Tibaldi, A; et al. (June 1998). "Presence of links between zinc and melatonin during the circadian cycle in old mice: effects on thymic endocrine activity and on the survival". Journal of Neuroimmunology 86 (2): 111–22. doi:10.1016/S0165-5728(97)00253-1. PMID 9663556. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0165-5728(97)00253-1. 
  15. ^ Mocchegiani, E; Santarelli, L; Muzzioli, M; Fabris, N (September 1995). "Reversibility of the thymic involution and of age-related peripheral immune dysfunctions by zinc supplementation in old mice". International Journal of Immunopharmacology 17 (9): 703–18. doi:10.1016/0192-0561(95)00059-B. PMID 8582782. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/019205619500059B. 
  16. ^ Anisimov, VN; Berstein, LM; Egormin, PA; et al. (2005). "Effect of metformin on life span and on the development of spontaneous mammary tumors in HER-2/neu transgenic mice". Experimental Gerontology 40 (8–9): 685–93. doi:10.1016/j.exger.2005.07.007. PMID 16125352. 
  17. ^ Alexopoulou O, Abs R, Maiter D (2010). "Treatment of adult growth hormone deficiency: who, why and how? A review". Acta Clinica Belgica 65 (1): 13–22. PMID 20373593. 
  18. ^ Ahmad AM, Hopkins MT, Thomas J, Ibrahim H, Fraser WD, Vora JP (June 2001). "Body composition and quality of life in adults with growth hormone deficiency; effects of low-dose growth hormone replacement". Clinical Endocrinology 54 (6): 709–17. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2265.2001.01275.x. PMID 11422104. 
  19. ^ Savine R, Sönksen P (2000). "Growth hormone - hormone replacement for the somatopause?". Hormone Research 53 (Suppl 3): 37–41. doi:10.1159/000023531. PMID 10971102. 
  20. ^ Khansari, DN; Gustad, T (January 1991). "Effects of long-term, low-dose growth hormone therapy on immune function and life expectancy of mice". Mechanisms of Ageing and Development 57 (1): 87–100. doi:10.1016/0047-6374(91)90026-V. PMID 2002700. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/0047-6374(91)90026-V. 
  21. ^ a b Bonkowski, MS; Pamenter, RW; Rocha, JS; Masternak, MM; Panici, JA; Bartke, A (1 June 2006). "Long-lived growth hormone receptor knockout mice show a delay in age-related changes of body composition and bone characteristics". The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 61 (6): 562–7. PMID 16799137. http://biomed.gerontologyjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=16799137. [dead link]
  22. ^ Sobh, Rana and Brett A. S. Martin (2011), "Feedback Information and Consumer Motivation. The Moderating Role of Positive and Negative Reference Values in Self-Regulation", European Journal of Marketing, 45 (6), 963-986.
  23. ^ Kurzweil, Ray (2005). The Singularity Is Near. New York City: Viking Press. ISBN 978-0-670-03384-3. OCLC 57201348. [page needed]
  24. ^ Melanson, Donald (April 22, 2008). "DoD establishes institute tasked with regrowing body parts". Engadget. http://www.engadget.com/2008/04/22/dod-establishes-institute-tasked-with-regrowing-body-parts/. Retrieved June 29, 2010. 
  25. ^ Khamsi, Roxanne (April 4, 2006). "Bio-engineered bladders successful in patients". New Scientist. http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn8939-bioengineered-bladders-successful-in-patients.html. Retrieved January 26, 2011. 
  26. ^ White, Christine (19 August 2005). "Umbilical stem cell breakthrough". The Australian. http://www.stemcellnews.com/articles/stem-cells-umbilical-breakthrough.htm. Retrieved 17 July 2009. 
  27. ^ Garcia, JH; Liu, KF; Ho, KL (1 April 1995). "Neuronal necrosis after middle cerebral artery occlusion in Wistar rats progresses at different time intervals in the caudoputamen and the cortex". Stroke 26 (4): 636–42; discussion 643. doi:10.1161/01.STR.26.4.636. PMID 7709411. http://stroke.ahajournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=7709411. 
  28. ^ Perk, L; Borger van de Burg, F; Berendsen, HH; van't Wout, JW (April 2002). "Full recovery after 45 min accidental submersion". Intensive Care Medicine 28 (4): 524. doi:10.1007/s00134-002-1245-2. PMID 11967613. 
  29. ^ "Comprehensive Member Standby". http://www.alcor.org/BecomeMember/standby.html. Retrieved 14 December 2010. 
  30. ^ "Scientists' Open Letter on Cryonics". http://www.imminst.org/cryonics_letter/. Retrieved 17 July 2009. 
  31. ^ "Advances in Cryonics". http://www.alcor.org/AboutCryonics/index.html. Retrieved 14 December 2010. 
  32. ^ de Grey, Aubrey; Michael Rae (2007). Ending Aging: The Rejuvenation Breakthroughs that Could Reverse Human Aging in Our Lifetime. New York City: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-36706-0. OCLC 132583222. [page needed]
  33. ^ Goya, Rodolfo G.; Federico Bolognani, Claudia B. Hereñú, Omar J. Rimoldi (2001-01-08). "Neuroendocrinology of Aging: The Potential of Gene Therapy as an Interventive Strategy". Gerontology 47 (168–173): 168. doi:10.1159/000052792. 
  34. ^ Rattan, S. I. S.; Singh, R. (2008-10-22). "Progress & Prospects: Gene therapy in aging". Gene Therapy 16 (3–9): 3–9. doi:10.1038/gt.2008.166. PMID 19005494. http://www.nature.com/gt/journal/v16/n1/abs/gt2008166a.html. Retrieved 2009-11-18. 
  35. ^ Li, D; Lai, Y; Yue, Y; Rabinovitch, PS; Hakim, C; Duan, D (2009). Lucia, Alejandro. ed. "Ectopic Catalase Expression in Mitochondria by Adeno-Associated Virus Enhances Exercise Performance in Mice". PLoS ONE 4 (8): e6673. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006673. PMC 2723912. PMID 19690612. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2723912/. Retrieved 2010-11-04. 
  36. ^ Dawkins, Richard (1976, 2006). The Selfish Gene. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 41–42. ISBN 978-0-19-929115-1. 
  37. ^ Dawkins, Richard (1976, 2006). The Selfish Gene. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 42. ISBN 978-0-19-929115-1. 
  38. ^ a b http://www.gvsu.edu/english/cummings/issue9/Gillybo9.htm
  39. ^ Miller, Nicole L.; Brant R. Fulmer (2007). "Injection, Ligation and Transplantation: The Search for the Glandular Fountain of Youth". The Journal of Urology 177 (6): 2000–2005. doi:10.1016/j.juro.2007.01.135. PMID 17509279. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B7XMT-4NRMT41-9/2/5fec42fff425839033131e403740f9d1. Retrieved 2009-09-17. 
  40. ^ Clevenger, Ty (Summer 2000). "Internet pharmacies: cyberspace versus the regulatory state". Journal of Law and Health. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb3048/is_2_15/ai_n28816595/. Retrieved 17 July 2009. 
  41. ^ Kuczynski, Alex (12 April 1998). "Anti-Aging Potion Or Poison?". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1998/04/12/style/anti-aging-potion-or-poison.html. Retrieved 17 July 2009. 
  42. ^ http://www.imminst.org/cureaging/
  43. ^ http://www.fightaging.org/archives/2012/07/a-single-issue-political-party-for-longevity-science.php
  44. ^ http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=ru&tl=en&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.minjust.ru%2Fnode%2F2162
  45. ^ Smith, Simon (3 December 2002). "Killing Immortality". Betterhumans. Archived from the original on 7 June 2004. http://web.archive.org/web/20040607195722/http://www.betterhumans.com/Features/Columns/Forward_Thinking/column.aspx?articleID=2002-12-03-4. Retrieved 17 July 2009. 
  46. ^ Kass, Leon (1985). Toward a more natural science: biology and human affairs. New York City: Free Press. p. 316. ISBN 978-0-02-918340-3. OCLC 11677465. 
  47. ^ Harris J. Enhancing Evolution: The ethical case for making better people. Princeton University Press, New Jersey, 2007.
  48. ^ Sutherland, John (9 May 2006). "The ideas interview: Nick Bostrom". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2006/may/09/academicexperts.genetics. Retrieved 17 July 2009. 
  49. ^ Bostrom, N (May 2005). "The fable of the dragon tyrant". Journal of Medical Ethics 31 (5): 273–7. doi:10.1136/jme.2004.009035. PMC 1734155. PMID 15863685. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1734155/. 
  50. ^ Hayden EC (2007). "A new angle on 'old'". Nature 450: 603–603. 
  51. ^ Hamerman D. "Geriatric Bioscience: The link between aging&disease." The Johns Hopkins University Press, Maryland, 2007.
  52. ^ Moody HR. "Who's afraid of life extension?" Generations. 2001/2; 25:33-37.
  53. ^ Gems D (2011). "Aging: To Treat, or Not to Treat? The possibility of treating aging is not just an idle fantasy". American Scientist 99 (4): 278–80. 
  54. ^ a b Gems D. "Tragedy and delight: the ethics of decelerated ageing." Phil Trans R Soc B. 2011; 366:108-112.
  55. ^ Perlman RM. "The aging syndrome." J Am Geriatr Soc. 1954; 2:123-129.
  56. ^ Mehlman MJ, Binstock RH, Juengst ET, Ponsaran RS, Whitehouse PJ. "Anti-aging medicine: can consumers be better protected? Gerontologist. 2004; 44:304-310.

Further reading

Books

  • Biological Aging Measurement. Clinical Applications. Ward Dean, MD. The Center for Bio-Gerontology. 1988. Paperback, 426 pp. ISBN 0-937777-00-5
  • The Biology of Life Span: A Quantitative Approach. Leonid A. Gavrilov & Natalia S. Gavrilova (1991), New York: Harwood Academic Publisher, ISBN 3-7186-4983-7
  • Brain Boosters. Foods And Drugs That Make You Smarter. (A quote from the book: "It's hard to distinguish between the health and anti-aging uses of the smart drugs and nutrients.") Beverly Potter & Sebastian Orfali. Ronin Publishing. 1993. Paperback, 257 pages. ISBN 0-914171-65-8
  • Brain Fitness. Anti-Aging Strategies To Fight Alzheimer's Disease, Supercharge Your Memory, Sharpen Your Intelligence, De-Stress Your Mind, Control Mood Swings, and Much More... Robert Goldman, MD, DO, PhD, With Ronald Klatz, MD, DO, and Liza Berger. Doubleday. 1995. Paperpack, 346 pp. ISBN 0-385-48869-6
  • The Directory of Life Extension Supplements. Life Extension Foundation. Published annually.
  • Fantastic Voyage: The Science Behind Radical Life Extension Raymond Kurzweil and Terry Grossman, MD. Rodale. 2004. 452 pp. ISBN 1-57954-954-3
  • 50 Simple Ways To Live A Longer Life: Everyday Techniques From The Forefront Of Science. Suzanne Bohan and Glenn Thompson. Sourcebooks. 2005. Paperback, 287 pages. ISBN 1-4022-0375-6
  • Formula for Life. The Definitive Book on Correct Nutrition, Anti-Oxidants and Vitamins, Disease Prevention, and Longevity. Eberhard Kronhausen, EdD, and Phyllis Kronhausen EdD, with Harry B. Demopoulos, MD. William Morrow and Company. 1989. Paperback, 622 pages. ISBN 0-688-09426-0
  • How To Live Longer And Feel Better. Linus Pauling. W.H. Freeman and Company. 1986. Paperback, 413 pages. ISBN 0-380-70289-4
  • Life Extension. A Practical Scientific Approach. Adding Years to Your Life and Life to Your Years. Durk Pearson and Sandy Shaw. Warner Books. 1982. Hardcover, 858 pp. ISBN 0-446-51229-X
  • The Life Extension Companion. The Latest Breakthroughs in Health Science. Durk Pearson and Sandy Shaw. Warner Books. 1984. Hardcover, 430 pages. ISBN 0-446-51277-X
  • The Life Extension Revolution: The Definitive Guide to Better Health, Longer Life, and Physical Immortality. Saul Kent. 1980. Hard Cover. ISBN 0-688-03580-9
  • The Life Extension Revolution: The New Science of Growing Older Without Aging. Philip Lee, M.D. and Monica Reinagel Miller. Bantam. 2005. Hardcover, (416 pages). ISBN 0-553-80353-0
  • The Life Extension Weight Loss Programme. Durk Pearson and Sandy Shaw.
  • LifeSpan-Plus. 900 Natural Techniques To Live Longer. Rejuvenate Your Heart; Stay Infection-Free; Prevent a Stroke; Reduce Stress; Control Your Blood Pressure; Strengthen Your Bones; Eliminate Body Toxins. By the editors of Prevention Magazine. Rodale. 1990. Hardcover, 422 pages. ISBN 0-87857-908-7
  • Live Longer Now. The First One Hundred Years Of Your Life. Jon N. Leanard, Jack L. Hofer, and Nathan Pritikin. Grosset and Dunlap. 1974 (predates the life extension movement, and therefore lacks megadosing recommendations.) Paperpack, 232 pages. ISBN 0-441-48514-6
  • The Long Tomorrow. Michael Rose. Oxford University Press. 2005. ISBN 0-19-517939-0
  • Merchants of Immortality. Chasing The Dream Of Human Life Extension. Stephen S. Hall. Houghton Mifflin Company. 2003. Paperback, 439 pp. ISBN 0-618-49221-6
  • Mind Food and Smart Pills. How To Increase Your Intelligence and Prevent Brain Aging. Ross Pelton. 1986. Paperback, 170 pp. ISBN 0-936809-00-0
  • No More Dying. The Conquest Of Aging And The Extension Of Human Life. Joel Kurtzman and Phillip Gordon. Dell. 1976. Paperpback, 252 pages. ISBN 0-440-36247-4
  • Prevention's The Sugar Solution. Edited by Sari Harrar, Prevention Health News Editor. Rodale. 2005. Hardcover, 406 pages. ISBN 1-57954-912-8
  • Secrets of Life Extension. How to halt or reverse the aging process and live a long and healthy life. You can extend the rest of your life. All the new scientific breakthroughs John A. Mann. Bantam Books. 1980. Paperback, 296 pages. ISBN 0-553-23450-1
  • Nutrition Against Disease. Dr. Roger J. Williams. Pitman Publishing Corporation. 1971 (predates megadosing). 370 pages. ISBN 0-273-31850-0
  • Smart Drugs & Nutrients. How To Improve Your Membory And Increase Your Intelligence Using The Latest Discoveries In Neuroscience. (Many of the substances in this book have life-extending or cell regenerating effects.) Ward Dean, MD and Joh Morgenthaler. B&J Publications. 1990. Paperback, 222 pp. ISBN 0-9627418-9-2
  • Smart Drugs II: The Next Generation: New Drugs and Nutrients to Improve Your Memory and Increase Your Intelligence. Ward Dean (MD), John Morgenthaler, Steven Wm Fowkes. Smart Publications. 1993. Paperback, 287 pages. ISBN 0-9627418-7-6
  • Stop Aging Now! The Ultimate Plan For Staying Young & Reversing The Aging Process. Based On Cutting-Edge Research Revealing The Amazing Anti-aging Powers Of Supplements, Herbs, & Food. Jean Carper. Harper Perennial. 1995. Paperback, 372 pp. ISBN 0-06-098500-3
  • Stop the FDA. Save Your Health Freedom. Articles by Linus Pauling, PhD; Abram Hoffer, MD; Ward Dean, MD; Senator Orrin Hatch; Durk Pearson and Sandy Shaw; and many more. (Many essays on health politics, by various leaders of the Life Extension Movement). Edited by John Morgenthaler & Steven Wm. Fowkes. Health Freedom Publications. 1992. Paperback, 186 pp. ISBN 0-9627418-8-4
  • The Wrinkle Cure. The All-Natural Formula for Stopping Time. Unlock the Power of Cosmeceuticals for Supple, Youthful Skin. Nicholas Perricone, MD. Rodale. 2000. Hardcover, 208 pages. ISBN 1-57954-237-9
  • Your Personal Life-Extension Program. A Practical Guide to the New Science That Can Make You Stronger, Smarter, Sexier, More Energetic, and More Youthful. Saul Kent. Morrow. 1985. Hardcover, 384 pages. ISBN 0-688-00629-9

Scientific journals

External links