Annotated bibliography

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An annotated bibliography is a bibliography that gives a summary of each of the entries.[1] The purpose of annotations is to provide the reader with a summary and an evaluation of the source. Each summary should be a concise exposition of the source's central idea(s) and give the reader a general idea of the source's content.[2][3]

Types of annotations[edit]

Annotations may be written with different goals in mind.

Indicative annotations[edit]

This type of annotation defines the scope of the source, lists the topics and explains what the source is about. In this type of entry, there is no attempt to give actual data such as hypotheses, proofs,author etc.[4]

Informative annotations[edit]

This type of annotation is a summary of the source. An informative annotation should include the thesis of the work, arguments or hypotheses, proofs and a conclusion.[4]

Evaluative annotations[edit]

This type of annotation assesses the source's strengths and weaknesses, in terms of usefulness and quality.[4]

Combination annotations[edit]

Most annotated bibliographies contain combination annotations. This type of annotation will summarize or describe the topic, and then evaluate the source's usefulness.[4]



  1. ^ What is an Annotated Bibliography? by the University of New South Wales The Learning Centre
  2. ^ Carlson, Laurie. "Annotated Bibliographies". KU Writing Center. University of Kansas. Retrieved 15 April 2009. [dead link]
  3. ^ Geoff Stacks, Erin Karper (2001). "Annotated Bibliographies". Purdue University. Archived from the original on 26 October 2009. Retrieved 2009-10-06. 
  4. ^ a b c d "Annotated Bibliographies: Content". Writer's Handbook. University of Wisconsin at Madison: The Writing Center. Archived from the original on 4 March 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-02.