Annona muricata is a member of the family of Custard apple trees called Annonaceae and a species of the genus Annona known mostly for its edible fruits Anona. Annona muricata produces fruits that are usually called Soursop due to its slightly acidic taste when ripe. A. muricata trees grew natively in the Caribbean and Central America but are now widely cultivated and in some areas, escaping and living on their own in tropical climates throughout the world.
- English: Brazilian pawpaw, soursop, prickly custard apple, Soursapi
- Spanish: guanábana, guanábano, anona, catche, catoche, catuche, zapote agrio
- Chamorro: laguaná, laguana, laguanaha, syasyap
- German: Sauersack, Stachelannone, anona, flashendaum, stachel anone, stachliger
- Fijian: sarifa, seremaia
- French: anone muriquee, cachiman épineux, corossol épineux,anone, cachiman épineux, caichemantier, coeur de boeuf, corossol, corossolier, epineux
- Haitian Creole: kowosol
- Indonesian: sirsak
- Malay: Durian Belanda
- Māori: kātara‘apa, kātara‘apa papa‘ā, naponapo taratara
- Dutch: zuurzak
- Portuguese: graviola, araticum-grande, araticum-manso, coração-de-rainha, jaca-de-pobre, jaca-do-Pará, anona, curassol, graviola, pinha azeda
- Samoan: sanalapa, sasalapa, sasalapa
- Swahili: mstafeli
- Tahitian: tapotapo papa‘a, tapotapo urupe
- Vietnamese: mãng cầu Xiêm, mãng cầu gai
- Filipino: guyabano
- Chinese: 刺果番荔枝
Annona muricata is a small, upright, evergreen tree that can grow to about 4 metres (13 ft) tall and cannot stand frost.
- Stems and leaves
- The young branches are hairy.
- Leaves are oblong to oval, 8 centimetres (3.1 in) to 16 centimetres (6.3 in) long and 3 centimetres (1.2 in) to 7 centimetres (2.8 in) wide. Glossy dark green with no hairs above, paler and minutely hairy to no hairs below.
- The leaf stalks are 4 millimetres (0.16 in) to 13 millimetres (0.51 in) long and without hairs.
- Flower stalks (peduncles) are 2 millimetres (0.079 in) to 5 millimetres (0.20 in) long and woody. They appear opposite from the leaves or as an extra from near the leaf stalk, each with one or two flowers, occasionally a third.
- Stalks for the individual flowers (pedicels) are stout and woody, minutely hairy to hairless and 15 millimetres (0.59 in) to 20 millimetres (0.79 in) with small bractlets nearer to the base which are densely hairy.
- Petals are thick and yellowish. Outer petals meet at the edges without overlapping and are broadly ovate, 2.8 centimetres (1.1 in) to 3.3 centimetres (1.3 in) by 2.1 centimetres (0.83 in) to 2.5 centimetres (0.98 in), tapering to a point with a heart shaped base. Evenly thick, covered with long, slender, soft hairs externally and matted finely with soft hairs within. Inner petals are oval shaped and overlap. 2.5 centimetres (0.98 in) to 2.8 centimetres (1.1 in) by 2 centimetres (0.79 in). Sharply angled and tapering at the base. Margins are comparatively thin, with fine matted soft hairs on both sides. The receptacle is conical and hairy. Stamens 4.5 millimetres (0.18 in) long and narrowly wedge-shaped. The connective-tip terminate abruptly and anther hollows are unequal. Sepals are quite thick and do not overlap. Carpels are linear and basally growing from one base. The ovaries are covered with dense reddish brown hairs, 1-ovuled, style short and stigma truncate.
- Fruits and reproduction
- Dark green, prickly (or bristled) fruits are egg-shaped and can be up to 30 centimetres (12 in) long, with a moderately firm texture. Flesh is juicy, acid, whitish and aromatic.
- Abundant seeds the average weight of 1000 fresh seeds is 470 grams (17 oz) and had an average oil content of 24%. When dried for 3 days in 60 °C (140 °F) the average seed weight was 322 grams (11.4 oz) and were tolerant of the moisture extraction; showing no problems for long-term storage under reasonable conditions.
Annona muricata is tolerant of poor soil and prefers lowland areas between the altitudes of 0 metres (0 ft) to 1,200 metres (3,900 ft).
- Caribbean: Cuba, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Puerto Rico
- Central America: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Belize
- South America: Bolivia, Peru, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador
- Africa:Republic of Congo
Subspecies which are synonyms
- Annona muricata var. borinquensis
The compound annonacin contained in the seeds of soursop is a neurotoxin and it seems to be the cause of a neurodegenerative disease. The only group of people known to be affected live on the Caribbean island of Guadeloupe and the problem presumably occurs with the consumption of plants containing annonacin. The disorder is a so-called tauopathy associated with a pathologic accumulation of tau protein in the brain. Experimental results demonstrated for the first time that the plant neurotoxin annonacin is responsible for this accumulation.
- ^ a b Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) (1997-07-11). "Taxon: Annona muricata L.". Taxonomy for Plants. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program, National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?3492. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- ^ International Organization for Plant Information (IOPI). "Plant Name Details Annonaceae Annona muricata L.". International Plant Names Index. http://www.ipni.org/ipni/idPlantNameSearch.do?id=14308-2&show_history=false&output_format=normal. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- ^ a b W3TROPICOS. "Annona muricata L.". Missouri Botanical Garden Press. http://www.tropicos.org/Name/1600001. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- ^ a b Bioversity International. "Result set for: Annonaceae Annona muricata". New World Fruits Database. http://www2.bioversityinternational.org/Information_Sources/Species_Databases/New_World_Fruits_Database/qryall3.asp?intIDSpecies=97. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- ^ a b c d e Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) (2008-01-05). "Result set for: Annonaceae Annona muricata". PIER species lists. United States Geological Survey & United States Forest Service. Archived from the original on 12 May 2008. http://www.hear.org/pier/species/annona_muricata.htm. Retrieved 2008-04-18. "Stone, Benjamin C. 1970. The flora of Guam. Micronesica 6:1-659"
- ^ efloras.org. "Annona muricata Linn.". Chinese Plant Names. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=3&taxon_id=200008507. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- ^ Porcher, Michel H. et al.. "Annona muricata L.". Sorting Annona Names. Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database - A Work in Progress. Institute of Land & Food Resources, University of Melbourne. Archived from the original on 30 April 2008. http://www.plantnames.unimelb.edu.au/Sorting/Annona.html#muricata. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- ^ EEB Greenhouse Staff, University of Connecticut (2008-04-10). "Annona muricata L.". Ecology & Evolutionary Biology Greenhouses. Ecology & Evolutionary Biology Greenhouses. http://florawww.eeb.uconn.edu/199900586.html. Retrieved 2008-04-18. "crfg"
- ^ a b c d e f g h i Flora of North America. "Annona muricata L.,". Flora of Pakistan 20. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=3&taxon_id=200008507. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- ^ Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (1984, 1994). "Seed Information Database Search Results". Seed Information Database. Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://data.kew.org/sid/SidServlet?Source=epic&ID=9304&Num=fzM. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- ^ Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (2005). "Seed Information Database Search Results". Seed Information Database. Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://data.kew.org/sid/SidServlet?Source=epic&ID=6507&Num=LMa. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- ^ Informationsdienst Wissenschaft: Tauopathie durch pflanzliches Nervengift, 4. Mai 2007