Anna Nicole Smith

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Anna Nicole Smith
Anna Nicole Smith.jpg
BornVickie Lynn Hogan
(1967-11-28)November 28, 1967
Houston, Texas
DiedFebruary 8, 2007(2007-02-08) (aged 39)
Hollywood, Florida
Cause of death
Drug overdose
NationalityAmerican
Other namesVickie Lynn Marshall
(when married to Marshall)
Vickie Lynn Smith and Vickie Smith (early Playboy career)
Nikki Hart (legalized name change)
OccupationModel, actress, television personality
Years active1991–2007
Spouse(s)Billy Smith
(m. 1985–1993, divorced)
J. Howard Marshall II
(m. 1994–1995, his death)
Howard K. Stern
(m. 2006–2007, her death)
ChildrenDaniel Wayne Smith (1986–2006)
Dannielynn Hope Birkhead (born 2006)
Website
www.annanicole.com
 
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Anna Nicole Smith
Anna Nicole Smith.jpg
BornVickie Lynn Hogan
(1967-11-28)November 28, 1967
Houston, Texas
DiedFebruary 8, 2007(2007-02-08) (aged 39)
Hollywood, Florida
Cause of death
Drug overdose
NationalityAmerican
Other namesVickie Lynn Marshall
(when married to Marshall)
Vickie Lynn Smith and Vickie Smith (early Playboy career)
Nikki Hart (legalized name change)
OccupationModel, actress, television personality
Years active1991–2007
Spouse(s)Billy Smith
(m. 1985–1993, divorced)
J. Howard Marshall II
(m. 1994–1995, his death)
Howard K. Stern
(m. 2006–2007, her death)
ChildrenDaniel Wayne Smith (1986–2006)
Dannielynn Hope Birkhead (born 2006)
Website
www.annanicole.com

Anna Nicole Smith (born Vickie Lynn Hogan; November 28, 1967 – February 8, 2007) was an American model, actress, and television personality. Smith first gained popularity in Playboy, winning the 1993 Playmate of the Year. She modeled for clothing companies, including Guess jeans and Lane Bryant.

Smith dropped out of high school at age 15 and was married three years later, in 1985. Her highly publicized second marriage to J. Howard Marshall resulted in speculation that she married the octogenarian mainly for his money, which she denied. Following Marshall's death, Smith began a lengthy legal battle over a share of his estate. Her case, Marshall v. Marshall, reached the U.S. Supreme Court on a question of federal jurisdiction, and again on a question of bankruptcy court authority (now called Stern v. Marshall). Smith died on February 8, 2007 in a Hollywood, Florida hotel room as a result of an overdose of prescription drugs. During the final six months of her life, Smith was the focus of renewed press coverage surrounding the death of her son, Daniel, and the paternity and custody battle over her newborn daughter, Dannielynn.

Early life[edit]

Born Vickie Lynn Hogan in Houston, Texas raised in Mexia, Texas,[1] Anna Nicole was the daughter of Donald Eugene Hogan (July 12, 1947 – September 19, 2009) and Virgie Mae (née Tabers; born July 12, 1951),[1] who married on February 22, 1967[2] and divorced on November 4, 1969. She had five half siblings, Donna Hogan, David Tacker, Donnie Hogan, Amy Hogan and Donald Hart. Anna Nicole was raised by her mother and aunt. Virgie subsequently married Donald R. Hart in 1971. After Virgie married Donald, Anna Nicole changed her name from Vickie Hogan to Nikki Hart.[3]

Anna Nicole attended Durkee Elementary School and Aldine Senior High School in Houston. When she was in the ninth grade, she was sent to live with her mother's younger sister, Kay Beall, in Mexia, Texas.[4] At Mexia High School, Anna Nicole failed her freshman year and dropped out of school during her sophomore year.[5]

While working at Jim's Krispy Fried Chicken in Mexia, Anna Nicole met Billy Wayne Smith, who was a cook at the restaurant; the couple married April 4, 1985[6] when she was 17 and he was 16. Anna Nicole gave birth to their son, Daniel Wayne Smith, on January 22, 1986. She and Billy separated in 1987, and she moved to Houston with one-year-old Daniel. They were officially divorced on February 3, 1993, in Houston.[7] Initially, Anna Nicole found employment at Wal-Mart, then as a waitress at Red Lobster. She then became a stripper, and in 1991, she began taking modeling and voice lessons. In October of that year she saw an ad in the newspaper to audition for Playboy magazine.[8]

Striptease and modeling career[edit]

Anna Nicole Smith
Playboy centerfold appearance
May 1992
Preceded byCady Cantrell
Succeeded byAngela Melini
Playmate of the Year
1993
Preceded byCorinna Harney
Succeeded byJenny McCarthy
Personal details
MeasurementsBust: 36DD (91DD cm)[9]
Waist: 26 in (66 cm)
Hips: 38 in (97 cm)
Height5 ft 11 in (1.80 m)[9]
Weight140 lb (64 kg; 10 st)

In 1989, she earned employment at Executive Suites in Houston, where she was billed as Vickie Smith. Initially, Smith reported that she did not know the bar required her to do topless dancing.[citation needed]

In 1992, she went to a photo session, hoping to model for Playboy magazine. Magazine creator Hugh Hefner was very fond of Smith and insisted that she be on the cover of the March 1992 issue. She was pictured in a low-cut black evening gown and listed as Vickie Smith. The centerfold was photographed by Stephen Wayda. The magazine made her an overnight modeling sensation, and she became known for wanting to be "the next Marilyn Monroe".[citation needed]

By the time the photos for the magazine were shot, she had settled on the name Anna Nicole Smith, although she originally showed interest in having a name in memory of Monroe.[citation needed]

Smith next secured a contract to replace supermodel Claudia Schiffer in a Guess jeans ad campaign featuring a series of sultry black-and-white photographs. Guess photographers noticed Smith bore a striking resemblance to bombshell Jayne Mansfield and showcased her in several Mansfield-inspired photo sessions. In 1993 before Christmas, she modeled for the Swedish clothing company Hennes & Mauritz. This led to her being pictured on large billboards in Sweden and Norway.[citation needed]

A photograph of Smith was used by New York magazine on the cover of its August 22, 1994, issue titled White Trash Nation. In the photo she appears squatting in a short skirt with cowboy boots as she eats chips. In October 1994, her lawyer initiated a $5 million lawsuit against the magazine claiming unauthorized use of her photo, and that the article damaged her reputation. Her lawyer stated Smith was under the impression that she was being photographed to embody the "all-American girl look", but they instead wanted more sexy photos. He further stated the photo the magazine used was taken during a break just for fun. The lawsuit was reported to be settled.[10]

Marriage[edit]

While performing at Gigi's, a Houston strip club (later renamed as "Pleasures") in October 1991, Smith met elderly oil tycoon J. Howard Marshall, and they began a relationship. During their two-year affair, he reportedly lavished gifts on her and asked her to marry him several times.[11] She divorced her husband Billy on February 3, 1993, in Houston.[12] On June 27, 1994, twenty-six-year-old Smith and eighty-nine-year-old Marshall were married in Houston.[6] This resulted in a great deal of gossip about her marrying him for his money.[13] She reportedly never lived with him, never made love with him, or kissed him on the mouth more than ten times.[14] Smith, however, maintained that she loved her husband, and age did not matter to her. Thirteen months after his marriage to Smith, Marshall died in Houston at age 90, on August 4, 1995.

Inheritance court cases[edit]

Main article: Marshall v. Marshall

Within weeks of J. Howard Marshall's death, one of his sons, E. Pierce Marshall, disputed her claim for half of her late husband's US$1.6 billion estate. She temporarily joined forces with J. Howard's other son, James Howard Marshall III, whom the elder Howard had disowned. Howard III claimed that J. Howard Marshall had verbally promised him a portion of the estate; like Smith, Howard III was also left out of J. Howard's will.[15] The case had gone on for more than a decade, producing a highly publicized court battle in Texas and several judicial decisions that have gone both for and against Smith in that time.[16]

In 1996, Smith filed for bankruptcy in California as a result of a $850,000 judgment against her for sexual harassment of an employee. As any money potentially due to her from the Marshall estate was part of her potential assets, the bankruptcy court involved itself in the matter.[17]

Smith claimed that J. Howard had orally promised her half of his estate if she married him. In September 2000, a Los Angeles bankruptcy judge awarded her $449,754,134. In July 2001, Houston judge Mike Wood affirmed the jury findings in the probate case by ruling that Smith was entitled to nothing. The judge ordered Smith to pay over $1 million in fees and expenses to Pierce's legal team. The conflict between the Texas probate court and California bankruptcy court judgments forced the matter into federal court.[18]

In March 2002, a federal judge vacated the California bankruptcy court's ruling and issued a new ruling but reduced the award to $88 million. In December 2004, a three-judge panel of the U.S. 9th Circuit Court of Appeals reversed the March 2002 decision, on the reasoning that the federal courts lacked jurisdiction to overrule this probate court decision.[19]

The U.S. Supreme Court decided in September 2005 to hear the appeal of that decision. The Bush administration subsequently directed the Solicitor General to intercede on Smith's behalf out of an interest to expand federal court jurisdiction over state probate disputes.[20] After months of waiting, Smith and her stepson Pierce learned of the Supreme Court's decision on May 1, 2006. The justices unanimously decided in favor of Smith; Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg wrote the majority opinion. The decision did not give Smith a portion of her husband's estate, but affirmed her right to pursue a share of it in federal court.[21] On June 20, 2006, E. Pierce Marshall died at age 67 from an "aggressive infection". Following his death, his widow, Elaine T. Marshall, pursued the case on behalf of his estate.[22] The case was remanded to the 9th Circuit to adjudicate the remaining appellate issues not previously resolved.

After Smith's death, the New York Times reported that the case over the Marshall fortune "is likely to continue in the name of Ms. Smith’s infant daughter."[23] The current situation is that Anna Nicole Smith's estate will not inherit any of her late husband's estate.[24] Following the decision by the Appeals Court for the Ninth Circuit, lawyers for the estate of Anna Nicole Smith requested the appeal be heard before the entire 9th circuit. However, on May 6, 2010 the appeal was denied.[25] On September 28, 2010, the U.S. Supreme Court again agreed to hear the case.[26]

On June 23, 2011, the U.S. Supreme Court issued a ruling against the estate of Anna Nicole Smith, holding that a bankruptcy court ruling giving her estate a sum of $475 million was decided without jurisdiction (now called Stern v. Marshall). A California bankruptcy court awarded Smith part of the estate, but the 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeal said that a bankruptcy court could not make a decision on an issue outside bankruptcy law. The U.S. Supreme Court agreed with the ruling of the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals.[27]

Film and television career[edit]

Despite her success as a model, Smith never found the same recognition or success as an actress. A twenty-six-year-old Smith debuted on the screen in the 1994 screwball comedy film, The Hudsucker Proxy. She appeared as Za-Za, a flirtatious celebrity who flirts with the lead character, played by Tim Robbins, in a barbershop scene. Smith was next given a larger role as Tanya Peters in Naked Gun 33⅓: The Final Insult (1994), which was released seven days after her initial film debut. Her role in the film, that of a pivotal contact to a crime, earned her favorable reviews and the film enjoyed box office success. Despite the publicity for her performance in both films, they each did very little to improve her acting career.

Smith wanted to be taken more seriously as an actress, but Hollywood studios were reluctant. Her persona of a ditzy dumb blonde was compressed heavily in her film roles, which sought only to market her physical assets. In an attempt to earn acting respect, Smith agreed to appear in To the Limit (1995), which would be her first starring role. In the film she played Colette Dubois, a retired spy seeking revenge on the murderer of her late husband. Although the film was highly publicized and boasted a lavish budget and script, Smith's performance drew negative reviews and it was an ultimate box office bomb. It offered Smith's first and only venture in a mainstream Hollywood leading role.

By 1996, Smith's acting career had declined considerably. After the failure of her previous motion picture, Hollywood studios began to realize her public popularity did not affect her acting abilities or ticket sales at the box office. She appeared as herself in the 1995 pilot episode of The Naked Truth. Smith attempted to revitalize her film career with a leading role in Skyscraper in 1996. The low-budget, direct-to-video film offered Smith no more than "soft-core exploitation" and her movie career again stalled.

In the late 1990s, Smith focused her acting career on television. She appeared on the variety series Sin City Spectacular in 1998. That same year, Smith appeared in the tell-all self-promoting film, Anna Nicole Smith: Exposed, which was based on several photo sessions during her Playboy career. She appeared as Donna, the friend of Veronica Chase played by Kirstie Alley, on the sitcom Veronica's Closet in 1999. Smith guest-starred as Myra Jacobs in a 1999 episode of the surreal series, Ally McBeal.

In the early 2000s, Smith had very few acting roles. As a result of her rising popularity with tabloids and gossip columnists, Smith was given her own reality show on the E! cable network. The Anna Nicole Show premiered on August 4, 2002, achieving the highest cable rating ever issued for a reality show. Coincidentally, the day the series premiered was the seventh anniversary of the death of J. Howard Marshall. The series attempted to focus on the private life of Smith, her boyfriend/attorney Howard K. Stern, her son Daniel, her assistant Kimmy, her miniature poodle Sugar Pie, her gay interior decorator Bobby Trendy, her cousin Shelly Cloud, and another short-lived boyfriend Benjy Bronk.

Despite the popularity of the show amongst college students and pop culture fanatics, the show declined considerably in viewership at the end of its first season. It was, however, renewed for a second season, before being cancelled on June 1, 2003, after two seasons and twenty-seven episodes. Interestingly, the day the final episode aired was the seventy-seventh birthday of Marilyn Monroe. E! announced to the press that the series ended because of "creative differences" between the network and Smith, although she acknowledged the series ended because the network had lost interest in both her and the show.

Smith returned to film acting in 2003 with the comedy film Wasabi Tuna. In the film she played an over-the-top version of herself, whose miniature poodle Sugar Pie is stolen from her on Halloween by a team of drag queens dressed like her. Neither the film nor her performance drew positive reviews. In 2005, she briefly appeared as a spectator at a basketball game in Be Cool, starring John Travolta. In the late 2005, she agreed to play Lucy in the self-produced independent parody film, Illegal Aliens, alongside a completely unknown cast. It attempted to parody several popular television shows from the 1970s and 1980s as well as several film franchises. It would be released direct-to-video on May 1, 2007, three months after her death.

Smith as spokeswoman[edit]

In an interview on Late Night with Conan O'Brien, Smith was asked what her "Playmate diet" consisted of. She instantly replied, "fried chicken". In October 2003, she became a spokeswoman for TrimSpa, which helped her lose a reported 69 pounds (31 kg).[28]

In November 2004, she appeared at the American Music Awards to introduce Kanye West and attracted attention because of her slurred speech and behavior. During her live appearance, she threw her arms up and exclaimed, "Like my body?"[29] Smith murmured other comments and alluded to TrimSpa. The incident became comic material for presenters throughout the rest of the program.[30]

The following day, her appearance was featured in the media. Tabloids speculated that Smith was under the influence of pills or some other controlled substance. Her representatives explained that she was in pain due to a series of grueling workouts.

In March 2005, at the first MTV Australia Video Music Awards in Sydney's Luna Park, she did Janet Jackson's wardrobe malfunction by pulling down her dress to reveal both breasts, each covered with the MTV logo.[31]

Smith was also featured in advertisements for the animal rights group PETA. Spoofing Marilyn Monroe's "Diamonds Are a Girl's Best Friend" segment in Gentlemen Prefer Blondes, a 2004 ad states "Gentlemen prefer fur-free blondes."[32] Due to her support of the anti-fur movement, in particular her criticism of Canadian seal hunting, PETA began a petition in memory of Smith to the Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper to end the annual tradition.[33] In another ad the following year, Smith posed with her dogs in a campaign against Iams dog food for their alleged cruelty to animals, as well as the manufacturer Procter and Gamble, and sister company Eukanuba.[34]

Anna Nicole Smith was also a spokesmodel for Guess, Lane Bryant, Live, and TrimSpa.

Personal life[edit]

Smith was addicted to prescription medications. Psychiatrist Dr. Natalie Maullin said she met Smith in April 2006 in Cedars-Sinai Medical Center. Maullin said Smith had borderline personality disorder.[35]

Birth of daughter[edit]

Smith in May 2003

Smith announced on June 1, 2006, in a video clip posted on her official website that she was pregnant. "Let me stop all the rumors," she said, while floating on an inflatable raft in a swimming pool. "Yes, I am pregnant. I'm happy, I'm very, very happy about it. Everything's goin' really, really good and I'll be checking in and out periodically on the web, and I'll let you see me as I'm growing."[36]

Though her announcement did not provide any details, in an interview with Larry King on CNN's Larry King Live after her daughter's birth and her son's death, Smith's longtime personal attorney Howard K. Stern said that he and Smith had been in a secret relationship for "a very long time" and that, due to the timing of the pregnancy, he was confident that he was the father of the baby.[37] Entertainment photographer Larry Birkhead, steadfastly maintained that he was the baby's father and filed a lawsuit to establish paternity.[38] Smith's daughter, Dannielynn Hope Marshall Stern, was born September 7, 2006, at Doctors Hospital in Nassau, Bahamas. The Bahamian birth certificate recorded the father as Howard K. Stern.[39]

A judge in the United States ordered that DNA tests be performed to determine the biological father of Dannielynn. Following Smith's death, Debra Opri, the lawyer for Larry Birkhead, asked for an emergency DNA sample to be taken from her body. Smith's lawyer, Ron Rale objected strongly to this request.[40] The request was denied by a judge, who instead ordered Smith's body preserved until February 20.[41]

According to a story published in the New York Daily News, Donna Hogan, Smith's younger half-sister, has said that the model froze the sperm of her second husband, Marshall, prior to his death. The newspaper said that Hogan wrote in her unpublished manuscript about her sister, entitled Train Wreck, that "To her family, she hinted that she had used the old man's frozen sperm, and would be giving birth to Howard Marshall's child".[42] However, the publisher of Hogan's book described the newspaper's claims as a hoax.[43] On February 9, 2007, Zsa Zsa Gabor's husband Frédéric Prinz von Anhalt said that he had had a decade-long affair with Smith and could potentially be the father of her infant girl, Dannielynn.[44] Alexander Denk, a former bodyguard for Anna Nicole Smith, reportedly told the tabloid television program Extra that he had had an affair with his former employer, and that it was possible he could be Dannielynn's father.[45]

After Smith's death, TMZ.com reported that Smith had been given a prescription for methadone under a false name while she was in her eighth month of pregnancy.[46] The Medical Board of California launched a review into the matter; the prescribing doctor, Sandeep Kapoor, said his treatment was "sound and appropriate."[47]

On April 10, 2007, a Bahamian judge ruled Larry Birkhead, photographer, as the father of Dannielynn.[48] DNA tests had established Birkhead as the father, with 99.99% certainty. Commenting on the revelation, Birkhead stated, "I hate to be the one to tell you this but, I told you so. I'm the father...My baby's going to be coming home pretty soon."[49] Birkhead subsequently applied for an amended birth certificate listing him as the father, which paved the way for him to obtain a passport for the baby to leave with him for the United States. Howard K. Stern did not contest the DNA results or the ruling.[50] Subsequent to the ruling, Birkhead returned to the United States with the baby.[51] Smith's mother, Virgie Arthur, appealed the ruling but it was later denied and she was ordered to pay costs.[52]

Death of son[edit]

Main article: Daniel Wayne Smith

Smith's 20-year-old son Daniel Smith, died on September 10, 2006, in his mother's hospital room while visiting her and his half sister.[53] After the coroner labeled the death "reserved", Smith hired forensic pathologist Cyril Wecht to perform a second autopsy.[54]

His death certificate was issued on September 21, 2006, so that he could be buried.[55] While Smith remained in the Bahamas with Dannielynn and Stern, Daniel's family in the United States, including his father, Billy Smith, gathered with friends on October 7, 2006, in Mexia, Texas, for a memorial service. Daniel was buried at Lake View Cemetery on New Providence, Bahamas, on October 19, 2006, almost six weeks after his death.[56] According to Howard K. Stern, Smith's longtime boyfriend, she was devastated over her son's death. "Anna and Daniel were inseparable. Daniel was without question the most important person in Anna’s life," Stern told Florida Circuit Judge Larry Seidlin during his testimony in Smith's body custody trial: "At Daniel’s funeral, she had them open the coffin and tried to climb inside. She said that 'if Daniel has to be buried, I want to be buried with him,'" Stern testified. "She was ready to go down with him."[57] Howard K. Stern revealed that "Anna saw herself as both mother and father to Daniel. From the time I met her, everything was for Daniel. I would say that physically, she died last week, but in a lot of ways, emotionally she died when Daniel died," he added.[58][59]

Dr. Wecht announced on Larry King Live that the autopsy he performed showed that Daniel died from a lethal combination of Zoloft, Lexapro and methadone. Although he explained that methadone is used in the treatment of heroin and morphine addiction, Wecht said he had no information to make any conclusion why Daniel was using the drug. On February 8, 2007, Wecht said on Fox News that he still had no information about how Daniel obtained methadone.

Commitment ceremony with Stern[edit]

On September 28, 2006, Smith and Howard K. Stern exchanged their vows and rings in an informal commitment ceremony aboard the 41-foot (12 m) catamaran Margaritaville off the coast of the Bahamas. She wore a white dress and carried a bouquet of red roses, while he wore a black suit with white shirt. Although they pledged their love and made a commitment to be there for one another before a Baptist minister, no marriage certificate was issued and the ceremony was not legally binding.[60]

After the ceremony, they landed on the island of Sandy Cay where they had a party and celebrated with champagne and apple cider that had been brought over for the occasion by sailboat.[14]

Regarding the questionable timing of the ceremony, Smith's attorney in Nassau, stated, "They needed a little adrenaline boost because things have been so hectic and devastating in their life recently."[61] The photos of their ceremony were sold through Getty Images to People magazine for around $1,000,000.[62]

Residency in the Bahamas[edit]

Smith and Stern were reportedly staying in the Bahamas to avoid paternity testing of her daughter in the United States.[63] In late 2006, Smith was granted permanent resident status in the Bahamas by Immigration Minister Shane Gibson. On February 11, 2007, newspaper photographs were published showing Smith lying clothed in bed in an embrace with Gibson.[64] Opposition politicians in the Bahamas accused the minister of improper behavior.[65] Gibson resigned as a result of the controversy and claimed that the photos, taken by Stern, were innocent.[66]

The basis of Smith's permanent residency status was the claim that she owned a $900,000 mansion, which she said was given to her by a former boyfriend, real estate developer Gaither Ben Thompson of South Carolina. Thompson asserted that he loaned Smith the finances to purchase the property, but that she failed to repay the loan, and was attempting to regain control of the property.[67] Thompson sued to evict Smith from the property in Bahama Court, and received a default judgment against her when she failed to respond to the eviction, or appear in court on November 28, 2006.[68] Ford Shelley, son-in-law of G. Ben Thompson, claimed that methadone was found in Anna's bedroom refrigerator while the mansion was being reclaimed.[69] A photograph provided by TMZ shows a large bottle of methadone along with vials of injectable vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) in her refrigerator and diet product Slimfast.[70]

Death and funeral[edit]

On February 8, 2007, Smith was found dead in room 607 at the Seminole Hard Rock Hotel and Casino in Hollywood, Florida. Tasma Brighthaupt, a friend of Smith who was a trained emergency nurse, performed CPR for 15 minutes until her husband, Maurice "Big Moe" Brighthaupt, Smith's friend and bodyguard,[71] took over CPR. He had driven back to the hotel after being notified by his wife of Smith's condition.[71] According to Seminole Police Chief Charlie Tiger, at 1:38 p.m. (EST) Maurice Brighthaupt, who was also a trained paramedic, called the hotel front desk from her sixth-floor room. The front desk in turn called security, who then called 911. At 1:45 p.m. (EST) the bodyguard administered CPR until paramedics arrived and Smith was rushed to Memorial Regional Hospital at 2:10 p.m. (EST) and pronounced dead on arrival at 2:49 p.m. (EST)

A phone call was released to the public on February 13, 2007, involving Seminole police and the local 911 operators, saying:

We need assistance to Room 607 at the Hard Rock. It's in reference to a white female. She's not breathing and not responsive... actually, it's Anna Nicole Smith.[72][73]

After a seven-week investigation led by Broward County Medical Examiner and Forensic Pathologist Dr. Joshua Perper in combination with the Seminole police and several independent forensic pathologists and toxicologists, Dr. Perper announced that Smith died of "combined drug intoxication" with the sleeping medication chloral hydrate as the "major component."[74] No illegal drugs were found in her system. The official report states that her death was not considered to be due to homicide, suicide, or natural causes.[75] The full investigative report has been made public and can be found online.[76] Additionally, an official copy of the autopsy report was publicly released on March 26, 2007, and can be found online.[77]

Ultimately her death was ruled a drug overdose of the sedative chloral hydrate that became increasingly lethal when combined with other prescription drugs in her system, specifically four benzodiazepines: Klonopin (Clonazepam), Ativan (Lorazepam), Serax (Oxazepam), and Valium (Diazepam). Furthermore, she had taken Benadryl (Diphenhydramine) and Topamax (Topiramate), an anticonvulsant AMPA/Kainate antagonist, which likely contributed to the sedative effect of chloral hydrate and the benzodiazepines.[78] Although the individual levels of any of the benzodiazepines in her system would not have been sufficient to cause death, their combination with a high dose of chloral hydrate led to her overdose. The autopsy report indicates that chloral hydrate was the "toxic/lethal" drug, but it is difficult to know whether chloral hydrate ingestion alone would have killed her, since Dr. Perper indicated (in the March 26 press conference) that she had built up a tolerance to the drug and took more than the average person. He indicated that she took about three tablespoons, whereas the normal dosage is between one and two teaspoons. Chloral hydrate, first synthesized in 1832, was the first depressant developed for the specific purpose of inducing sleep. The infamous “Mickey Finn” or “knockout drops” was a solution of alcohol and chloral hydrate that was popular in Victorian England and in that era’s literature. When used properly, and without the introduction of alcohol or other depressants, chloral hydrate is effective in easing sleeplessness due to pain or insomnia. But according to Avis (1990), the effective dose and lethal dose of chloral hydrate are so close that the sedative should be considered dangerous. Today, the use of chloral hydrate has declined as other agents, including barbiturates and benzodiazepines, have largely replaced them.[79] Despite rumors of methadone use due to its involvement in Smith's son's death, Dr. Perper found only methadone in her bile, indicating that it could only have been ingested 2–3 days prior to her death and was not a contributing factor.[80] The autopsy report indicates that abscesses on her buttocks (presumably from prior injections of vitamin B12 in the form of cyanocobalamin, as well as human growth hormone), and viral enteritis were contributory causes of death. Tests for influenza A and B were negative.[81]

It was reported that 8 of the 11 drugs in Smith's system, including the chloral hydrate, were prescribed to Howard K. Stern, not Smith. Additionally, two of the prescriptions were written for Alex Katz and one was written for Smith's friend and psychiatrist, Dr. Khristine Elaine Eroshevich. Dr. Perper acknowledged that all 11 prescriptions were written by Dr. Eroshevich herself.[82][83][84]

Smith's funeral took place March 2, 2007.[85] Before Smith's body was buried, it began decomposing at a faster-than-normal pace.[86] Possible factors in her more rapid decomposition were the drugs found in her body in the autopsy, the fact that the legal battles delayed her embalming until a week after her death, and the nearly month-long wait for her burial in the warm Bahama weather. This resulted in the family having a closed-casket funeral.

Smith's will in April 2001 named her son Daniel as the sole beneficiary of her estate, specifically excluded other children, and named Howard K. Stern as the executor. It indicated personal property valued at $10,000 and real property valued at $1.8 million (with a $1.1 million mortgage) at the time of death. A petition to probate Smith's will was filed in Los Angeles County Superior Court. The petition to probate lists Larry Birkhead as a party with interest to Anna's estate.[87] A six-foot-long black granite monument was installed at Smith's grave in the Bahamas in February 2009.[88][89]

Appearances[edit]

Filmography[edit]

YearTitleRoleNotes
1994The Hudsucker ProxyZa-ZaFilm debut
1994Naked Gun 33⅓: The Final InsultTanya Peters
1995To the LimitColette Dubois
1996SkyscraperCarrie Wink
1998Anna Nicole Smith: ExposedHerselfAlso credited as a director, writer and producer
2003Wasabi TunaHerself
2007Illegal AliensLucyFinal film (released posthumously)

Television[edit]

YearTitleRoleNotes
1995The Naked TruthHerselfEpisode: Wilde Again
1998Sin City Spectacular
1999Veronica's ClosetDonnaEpisode: Veronica's Wedding Bell Blues
1999Ally McBealMyra JacobsEpisode: Pyramids on the Nile
2000N.Y.U.K.Dr. Anita Hugg
2002–2004The Anna Nicole ShowHerself
2005Comedy Central Roast of Pamela AndersonHerself (in audience)
2005Comedy Central Roast of Jeff FoxworthyHerself (via satellite)
2007Larry King LiveHerselfDate: January 26, 2007

Music videos[edit]

YearSongArtistNotes
1993Will You Love Me TomorrowBryan Ferry
1997My Heart Belongs to DaddyMarilyn MonroeRemake of the Marilyn Monroe song. Music/lyrics by Cole Porter. Directed in France by Nicolaï Lo Russo.
1997You Win, I LoseSupertramp
1998Jumper (song)Third Eye Blind
2004The New Workout PlanKanye West

In popular culture[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Ancestry.com. Texas Birth Index, 1903–1997 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 2005.
  2. ^ Ancestry.com. Texas Divorce Index, 1968–2002 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 2005.
  3. ^ Ed Stoddard and Jessica Rinaldi (February 9, 2007). "High school remembers Anna Nicole – barely". Reuters. Archived from the original on February 12, 2007. Retrieved February 14, 2007. 
  4. ^ Eric Redding and D'Eva Redding, Great Big Beautiful Doll: The Anna Nicole Smith Story, New York: Barricade Books, 1996, p. 13.
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