After a confirmed test of the anxiolytic efficacy in a mouse model, haloperidol, mecamylamine, and ketanserin were applied to determine the pathways aniracetam depends on to exert its anti-anxiety effects. Haloperidol completely reversed the anxiolytic effects, and mecamylamine and ketanserin nearly completely reversed the effects. This shows that aniracetam's anxiolytic mechanism is facilitated by D2, nACh, and 5-HT2A receptors.
Aniracetam has also been shown to selectively modulate the AMPA receptor and was used as the parent compound to derive a class of drugs known as the ampakines that are being investigated as nootropics and neuroprotective drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative conditions.
^Nakamura K; Kurasawa M (May 2001). "Anxiolytic effects of aniracetam in three different mouse models of anxiety and the underlying mechanism". Eur J Pharmacol. (Kanagawa, Japan).420 (1): 33–43. doi:10.1016/S0014-2999(01)01005-6. PMID11412837.
^ abA. Kleemann, J. Engel, B. Kutscher, D. Reichert: Pharmaceutical Substances - Synthesis, Patents, Applications, 4. Auflage, Thieme 2001, ISBN 3-13-115134-X.
^Lee, CR; Benfield, P (1994). "Aniracetam. An overview of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and a review of its therapeutic potential in senile cognitive disorders". Drugs & aging4 (3): 257–73. doi:10.2165/00002512-199404030-00007. PMID8199398.