Animal breeding

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

 
Jump to: navigation, search

Animal breeding is a branch of animal science that addresses the evaluation (using best linear unbiased prediction and other methods) of the genetic value (estimated breeding value, EBV) of domestic livestock. Selecting animals for breeding with superior EBV in growth rate, egg, meat, milk, or wool production, or have other desirable traits has revolutionized agricultural livestock production throughout the world. The scientific theory of animal breeding incorporates population genetics, quantitative genetics, statistics, and recently molecular genomics and is based on the pioneering work of Sewall Wright, Jay Lush, and Charles Henderson.

Breeding stock[edit]

Breeding stock is a group of animals used for purpose of planned breeding. When individuals are looking to breed animals, they look for certain valuable traits in purebred animals, or may intend to use some type of crossbreeding to produce a new type of stock with different, and presumably superior abilities in a given area of endeavor. For example, when breeding swine the "breeding stock should be sound, fast growing, muscular, lean, and reproductively efficient."[1] The "subjective selection of breeding stock" in horses has led to many horse breeds with particular performance traits.[2]

Purebred breeding[edit]

Mating animals of the same breed for maintaining such breed is referred to as purebred breeding. Opposite to the practice of mating animals of different breeds, purebred breeding aims to establish and maintain stable traits, that animals will pass to the next generation. By "breeding the best to the best," employing a certain degree of inbreeding, considerable culling, and selection for "superior" qualities, one could develop a bloodline or "breed" superior in certain respects to the original base stock.

Such animals can be recorded with a breed registry, the organisation that maintains pedigrees and/or stud books. The observable phenomenon of hybrid vigor stands in contrast to the notion of breed purity.

Backyard breeding[edit]

In the United States, a backyard breeder is someone who breeds animals, often without registration and with a focus on profit. In some cases the animals are inbred narrowly for looks with little regard to health.[3] The term is considered derogatory. If a backyard dog breeder has a significant number of breeding animals, they become associated with puppy mills. Most puppy mills are licensed with the USDA.[4]

Honors and awards[edit]

Since 1962
1970–1978
Since 1982
Since 1999

References[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service, Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources. "Selection of Swine Breeding Stock". 
  2. ^ James Warren Evans (1992). Horse breeding and management. Elsevier Health Science. ISBN 978-0-444-88282-0. 
  3. ^ The Obama family dog saga. LA Times.
  4. ^ Rescue groups paint a sad story of Iowa’s puppy mills. The Messenger.

External links[edit]

Academic centers[edit]

Journals[edit]

Organizations[edit]