Anhydrous

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A substance is anhydrous if it contains no water, for example, salts lacking their water of crystallisation.[1] The way of achieving the anhydrous form differs from one substance to another.

Solvents[edit]

In many cases, the presence of water can prevent a reaction from happening, or form undesirable products. To prevent this, anhydrous solvents must be used when performing certain reactions. Examples of reactions requiring the use of anhydrous solvents are the Grignard reaction and the Wurtz reaction.

Solvents are commonly rendered anhydrous by boiling them in the presence of a hygroscopic substance; metallic sodium is one of the most common metals used. Other methods include the addition of molecular sieves or alkali bases such as potassium hydroxide or barium oxide. Column solvent purification devices (generally referred to as Grubb's columns) recently became available, reducing the hazards (water reactive substances, heat) from the classical dehydrating methods.[2] [3]

Gases[edit]

Several substances that exist as gases at standard conditions of temperature and pressure are commonly used as concentrated aqueous solutions. To clarify that it is the gaseous form that is being referred to, the term anhydrous is prefixed to the name of the substance:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Daintith, edited by John (2008). A dictionary of chemistry (6th ed. ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 37. ISBN 9780199204632. 
  2. ^ Guidelines for solvent purification at UC Davis[dead link]
  3. ^ "Drying Solvents". UCDavis Chemwiki. Retrieved 8 April 2014.