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Angaur or Ngeaur (アンガウル) is an island in the island nation of Palau. The island, which forms its own state, has an area of 8 km² (3 mi²). Its population is 188 (census of 2002). State capital is the village of Ngeremasch on the western side. A second village, Rois, is immediately east of Ngeremasch.
First sighting of Angaur, Babeldaob, Koror, and Peleliu recorded by Westerners was by the Spanish expedition of Ruy López de Villalobos at the end of January of 1543. They were then charted as Los Arrecifes (The Reefs in Spanish). In November and December of 1710 these three islands were again visited and explored by the Spanish missionary expedition commanded by Sargento Mayor Francisco Padilla on board of the patache Santísima Trinidad. Two years later they were explored in detail by the expedition of Spanish naval officer Bernardo de Egoy.
From 1909 until 1954 phosphate mining took place on Anguar, originally by the Germans, then the Japanese, and finally by Americans. Angaur is the site of a major World War II battle. The Battle of Angaur was part of the larger offensive campaign called Operation Forager that ran from June to Nov 1944. Many American and Japanese battle relics remain scattered throughout the island. Angaur is the only place in Micronesia that has feral monkeys; they are descended from macaques that escaped during the period of German occupation. Thus it is also called Monkey Island.
Angaur Island is located southwest of Peleliu, and it is a popular surfing location. Angaur is accessible by boats and small planes. From 1945 to 1978 the U.S. Coast Guard operated a LORAN transmitting station, LORSTA Palau, as part of the worldwide LORAN navigation system. The eastern side of the island is mostly sandy with rocky outcroppings, while the western side of the island has a small lagoon with a small fishing and transportation port. According to the CIA Factbook, the official languages here are Japanese, English, and "Angaur". It is the only place outside of Japan where Japanese is an official language.