A chart showing global Android version distribution from November 2009 to December 2012
The version history of the Android mobile operating system began with the release of the Android beta in November 2007. The first commercial version, Android 1.0, was released in September 2008. Android is under ongoing development by Google and the Open Handset Alliance, and has seen a number of updates to its base operating system since its original release. These updates typically fix bugs and add new features.
Since April 2009, Android versions have been developed under a codename and released in alphabetical order: Cupcake, Donut, Eclair, Froyo, Gingerbread, Honeycomb, Ice Cream Sandwich and Jelly Bean. As of 2013, over 500 million active devices use the Android OS worldwide. The most recent major Android update was Jelly Bean 4.2, which was released on commercial devices in November 2012.
Pre-commercial release versions (2007–2008)
There were at least two internal releases inside Google/OHA before the Android beta was released in November 2007. In a temporary naming scheme, the second of these releases was code-named "R2-D2". Dan Morrill created some of the first mascot logos, but the current green Android logo was designed by Irina Blok. Ryan Gibson conceived of the confections naming scheme that has been used for the majority of the public releases, starting with Android 1.5 Cupcake in April 2009.
The Android beta was released on 5 November 2007, while the software development kit (SDK) was released on 12 November 2007. The 5 November date is popularly celebrated as Android's "birthday". Public beta versions of the SDK were released in the following order:
- 16 November 2007: m3-rc22a
- 14 December 2007: m3-rc37a
- 13 February 2008: m5-rc14
- 3 March 2008: m5-rc15
- 18 August 2008: 0.9
- 23 September 2008: 1.0-r1
Version history by API level
Android 1.0 (API level 1)
Android 1.0, the first commercial version of the software, was released on 23 September 2008. The first Android device, the HTC Dream, incorporated the following Android 1.0 features:
|1.0||23 September 2008|
- Android Market application download and updates through the Market app
- Web browser to show, zoom and pan full HTML and XHTML web pages – multiple pages show as windows ("cards")
- Camera support – however, this version lacked the option to change the camera's resolution, white balance, quality, etc.
- Folders allowing the grouping of a number of app icons into a single folder icon on the Home screen
- Access to web email servers, supporting POP3, IMAP4, and SMTP
- Gmail synchronization with the Gmail app
- Google Contacts synchronization with the People app
- Google Calendar synchronization with the Calendar app
- Google Maps with Latitude and Street View to view maps and satellite imagery, as well as find local business and obtain driving directions using GPS
- Google Sync, allowing management of over-the-air synchronization of Gmail, People, and Calendar
- Google Search, allowing users to search the Internet and phone apps, contacts, calendar, etc.
- Google Talk instant messaging
- Instant messaging, text messaging, and MMS
- Media Player, enabling management, importing, and playback of media files – however, this version lacked video and stereo Bluetooth support
- Notifications appear in the Status bar, with options to set ringtone, LED or vibration alerts
- Voice Dialer allows dialing and placing of phone calls without typing a name or number
- Wallpaper allows the user to set the background image or photo behind the Home screen icons and widgets
- YouTube video player
- Other apps include: Alarm Clock, Calculator, Dialer (Phone), Home screen (Launcher), Pictures (Gallery), and Settings
- Wi-Fi and Bluetooth support
Android 1.0 on the HTC Dream
Android 1.1 (API level 2)
On 9 February 2009, the Android 1.1 update was released, initially for the HTC Dream only. Android 1.1 was known as "Petit Four" internally, though this name was not used officially. The update resolved bugs, changed the Android API and added a number of features:
|1.1||9 February 2009|
- Details and reviews available when a user searches for businesses on Maps
- Longer in-call screen timeout default when using the speakerphone, plus ability to show/hide dialpad
- Ability to save attachments in messages
- Support added for marquee in system layouts
Android 1.5 Cupcake (API level 3)
On 30 April 2009, the Android 1.5 update was released, based on Linux kernel 2.6.27. This was the first release to officially use a codename based on a dessert item ("Cupcake"), a theme which would be used for all releases henceforth. The update included several new features and UI amendments:
|Android 1.5 Cupcake|
|1.5||30 April 2009|
- Support for third-party virtual keyboards with text prediction and user dictionary for custom words
- Support for Widgets – miniature application views that can be embedded in other applications (such as the Home screen) and receive periodic updates
- Video recording and playback in MPEG-4 and 3GP formats
- Auto-pairing and stereo support for Bluetooth added (A2DP and AVRCP profiles)
- Copy and paste features added to web browser
- User pictures shown for Favorites in Contacts
- Specific date/time stamp shown for events in call log, and one-touch access to a contact card from call log event
- Animated screen transitions
- Added auto-rotation option
- Added new stock boot animation
- Ability to upload videos to YouTube
- Ability to upload photos to Picasa
Android 1.5 on the HTC Magic
Android 1.6 Donut (API level 4)
On 15 September 2009, the Android 1.6 SDK – dubbed Donut – was released, based on Linux kernel 2.6.29. Included in the update were numerous new features:
|Android 1.6 Donut|
|1.6||15 September 2009|
- Voice and text entry search enhanced to include bookmark history, contacts, and the web
- Ability for developers to include their content in search results
- Multi-lingual speech synthesis engine to allow any Android application to "speak" a string of text
- Easier searching and ability to view app screenshots in Android Market
- Gallery, camera and camcorder more fully integrated, with faster camera access
- Ability for users to select multiple photos for deletion
- Updated technology support for CDMA/EVDO, 802.1x, VPNs, and a text-to-speech engine
- Support for WVGA screen resolutions
- Speed improvements in searching and camera applications
- Expanded Gesture framework and new GestureBuilder development tool
Android 2.0 Eclair (API level 5)
On 26 October 2009, the Android 2.0 SDK – codenamed Eclair – was released, based on Linux kernel 2.6.29. Changes included:
|Android 2.0 Eclair|
|2.0||26 October 2009|
- Expanded Account sync, allowing users to add multiple accounts to a device for email- and contact-synchronization
- Exchange email support, with combined inbox to browse email from multiple accounts in one page
- Bluetooth 2.1 support
- Ability to tap a Contacts photo and select to call, SMS, or email the person
- Ability to search all saved SMS and MMS messages, with delete oldest messages in a conversation automatically deleted when a defined limit is reached
- Numerous new camera features, including flash support, digital zoom, scene mode, white balance, color effect and macro focus
- Improved typing speed on virtual keyboard, with smarter dictionary that learns from word usage and includes contact names as suggestions
- Refreshed browser UI with bookmark thumbnails, double-tap zoom and support for HTML5
- Calendar agenda view enhanced, showing attending status for each invitee, and ability to invite new guests to events
- Optimized hardware speed and revamped UI
- Support for more screen sizes and resolutions, with better contrast ratio
- Improved Google Maps 3.1.2
- MotionEvent class enhanced to track multi-touch events
- Addition of live wallpapers, allowing the animation of home-screen background images to show movement
Android 2.0 Eclair on the Motorola Droid
Android 2.0.1 Eclair (API level 6)
|Android 2.0.1 Eclair|
|2.0.1||3 December 2009|
- Minor API changes, bug fixes and framework behavioral changes
Android 2.1 Eclair (API level 7)
|Android 2.1 Eclair|
|2.1||12 January 2010|
- Minor amendments to the API and bug fixes
Android 2.2–2.2.3 Froyo (API level 8)
On 20 May 2010, the SDK for Android 2.2 (Froyo, short for frozen yogurt) was released, based on Linux kernel 2.6.32.
|Android 2.2 Froyo|
|2.2||20 May 2010|
- Speed, memory, and performance optimizations
- Additional application speed improvements, implemented through JIT compilation
- Support for the Android Cloud to Device Messaging (C2DM) service, enabling push notifications
- Improved Microsoft Exchange support, including security policies, auto-discovery, GAL look-up, calendar synchronization and remote wipe
- Improved application launcher with shortcuts to Phone and Browser applications
- USB tethering and Wi-Fi hotspot functionality
- Added an option to disable data access over mobile network
- Updated Market application with batch and automatic update features
- Quick switching between multiple keyboard languages and their dictionaries
- Voice dialing and contact sharing over Bluetooth
- Support for Bluetooth-enabled car and desk docks
- Support for numeric and alphanumeric passwords
- Support for file upload fields in the Browser application
- Support for installing applications to the expandable memory
- Adobe Flash support
- Support for high-PPI displays (320 ppi), such as 4" 720p screens
- Gallery allows users to view picture stacks using a zoom gesture
Android 2.2 Froyo on the Nexus One
|2.2.1||18 January 2011|
- Bug fixes, security updates and performance improvements
|2.2.2||22 January 2011|
- Minor bug fixes, including SMS routing issues that affected the Nexus One
|2.2.3||21 November 2011|
Android 2.3–2.3.2 Gingerbread (API level 9)
On 6 December 2010, the Android 2.3 (Gingerbread) SDK was released, based on Linux kernel 2.6.35. Changes included:
|Android 2.3 Gingerbread|
|2.3||6 December 2010|
- Updated user interface design with increased simplicity and speed
- Support for extra-large screen sizes and resolutions (WXGA and higher)
- Native support for SIP VoIP internet telephony
- Faster, more intuitive text input in virtual keyboard, with improved accuracy, better suggested text and voice input mode
- Enhanced copy/paste functionality, allowing users to select a word by press-hold, copy, and paste
- Support for Near Field Communication (NFC), allowing the user to read an NFC tag embedded in a poster, sticker, or advertisement
- New audio effects such as reverb, equalization, headphone virtualization, and bass boost
- New Download Manager, giving users easy access to any file downloaded from the browser, email, or another application
- Support for multiple cameras on the device, including a front-facing camera, if available
- Support for WebM/VP8 video playback, and AAC audio encoding
- Improved power management with a more active role in managing apps that are keeping the device awake for too long
- Enhanced support for native code development
- Switched from YAFFS to ext4 on newer devices
- Audio, graphical, and input enhancements for game developers
- Concurrent garbage collection for increased performance
- Native support for more sensors (such as gyroscopes and barometers)
Android 2.3 on Google's Nexus S
- Improvements and bug fixes for the Google Nexus S
Android 2.3.3–2.3.7 Gingerbread (API level 10)
|Android 2.3.3 Gingerbread|
|2.3.3||9 February 2011|
- Several improvements and API fixes
|2.3.4||28 April 2011|
- Support for voice or video chat using Google Talk
- Open Accessory Library support. Open Accessory was introduced in 3.1 (Honeycomb) but the Open Accessory Library grants 2.3.4 added support when connecting to a USB peripheral with compatible software and a compatible application on the device
|2.3.5||25 July 2011|
- Improved network performance for the Nexus S 4G, among other fixes and improvements
- Fixed Bluetooth bug on Samsung Galaxy S
- Improved Gmail application
- Shadow animations for list scrolling
- Camera software enhancements
- Improved battery efficiency
|2.3.6||2 September 2011|
- Fixed a voice search bug
- (The 2.3.6 update had the side-effect of impairing the Wi-Fi hotspot functionality of many Canadian Nexus S phones. Google acknowledged this problem and fixed it in late September.)
|2.3.7||21 September 2011|
Android 3.0 Honeycomb (API level 11)
On 22 February 2011, the Android 3.0 (Honeycomb) SDK – the first tablet-only Android update – was released, based on Linux kernel 2.6.36. The first device featuring this version, the Motorola Xoom tablet, was released on 24 February 2011. The update's features included:
|Android 3.0 Honeycomb|
|3.0||22 February 2011|
- Optimized tablet support with a new virtual and “holographic” user interface
- Added System Bar, featuring quick access to notifications, status, and soft navigation buttons, available at the bottom of the screen
- Added Action Bar, giving access to contextual options, navigation, widgets, or other types of content at the top of the screen
- Simplified multitasking – tapping Recent Apps in the System Bar allows users to see snapshots of the tasks underway and quickly jump from one app to another
- Redesigned keyboard, making typing fast, efficient and accurate on larger screen sizes
- Simplified, more intuitive copy/paste interface
- Multiple browser tabs replacing browser windows, plus form auto-fill and a new “incognito” mode allowing anonymous browsing
- Quick access to camera exposure, focus, flash, zoom, front-facing camera, time-lapse, and other camera features
- Ability to view albums and other collections in full-screen mode in Gallery, with easy access to thumbnails for other photos
- New two-pane Contacts UI and Fast Scroll to let users easily organize and locate contacts
- New two-pane Email UI to make viewing and organizing messages more efficient, allowing users to select one or more messages
- Support for video chat using Google Talk
- Hardware acceleration
- Support for multi-core processors
- Ability to encrypt all user data
- HTTPS stack improved with Server Name Indication (SNI)
- Filesystem in Userspace (FUSE; kernel module)
Android 3.0 on the Motorola Xoom tablet
Android 3.1 Honeycomb (API level 12)
|Android 3.1 Honeycomb|
|3.1||10 May 2011|
- UI refinements
- Connectivity for USB accessories
- Expanded Recent Apps list
- Resizable Home screen widgets
- Support for external keyboards and pointing devices
- Support for joysticks and gamepads
- Support for FLAC audio playback
- High-performance Wi-Fi lock, maintaining high-performance Wi-Fi connections when device screen is off
- Support for HTTP proxy for each connected Wi-Fi access point
Android 3.2 Honeycomb (API level 13)
Most first -and second-generation Google TV-enabled devices utilize Honeycomb 3.2.
|Android 3.2 Honeycomb|
|3.2||15 July 2011|
- Improved hardware support, including optimizations for a wider range of tablets
- Increased ability of apps to access files on the SD card, e.g. for synchronization
- Compatibility display mode for apps that have not been optimized for tablet screen resolutions
- New display support functions, giving developers more control over display appearance on different Android devices 
|3.2.1||20 September 2011|
- Bug fixes and minor security, stability and Wi-Fi improvements
- Update to Android Market with automatic updates and easier-to-read Terms and Condition text
- Update to Google Books
- Improved Adobe Flash support in browser
- Improved Chinese handwriting prediction
|3.2.2||30 August 2011|
- Bug fixes and other minor improvements for the Motorola Xoom 4G
- Bug fixes and other minor improvements for the Motorola Xoom and Motorola Xoom 4G
- "Pay as You Go" support for 3G and 4G tablets
- Bug fixes and other minor improvements for the Motorola Xoom and Motorola Xoom 4G
- Fixed data connectivity issues when coming out of airplane mode on the US 4G Motorola Xoom
Android 4.0–4.0.2 Ice Cream Sandwich (API level 14)
The SDK for Android 4.0.1 (Ice Cream Sandwich), based on Linux kernel 3.0.1, was publicly released on 19 October 2011. Google's Gabe Cohen stated that Android 4.0 was "theoretically compatible" with any Android 2.3.x device in production at that time. The source code for Android 4.0 became available on 14 November 2011. The update introduced numerous new features, including:
|Android 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich|
|4.0||19 October 2011|
- Soft buttons from Android 3.x are now available for use on phones
- Separation of widgets in a new tab, listed in a similar manner to apps
- Easier-to-create folders, with a drag-and-drop style
- A customizable launcher
- Improved visual voicemail with the ability to speed up or slow down voicemail messages
- Pinch-to-zoom functionality in the calendar
- Integrated screenshot capture (accomplished by holding down the Power and Volume-Down buttons)
- Improved error correction on the keyboard
- Ability to access apps directly from lock screen
- Improved copy and paste functionality
- Better voice integration and continuous, real-time speech to text dictation
- Face Unlock, a feature that allows users to unlock handsets using facial recognition software
- New tabbed web browser under Google's Chrome brand, allowing up to 16 tabs
- Automatic syncing of browser with users' Chrome bookmarks
- A new typeface family for the UI, Roboto
- Data Usage section in settings that lets users set warnings when they approach a certain usage limit, and disable data use when the limit is exceeded
- Ability to shut down apps that are using data in the background
- Improved camera app with zero shutter lag, time lapse settings, panorama mode, and the ability to zoom while recording
- Built-in photo editor
- New gallery layout, organized by location and person
- Refreshed "People" app with social network integration, status updates and hi-res images
- Android Beam, a near-field communication feature allowing the rapid short-range exchange of web bookmarks, contact info, directions, YouTube videos and other data
- Support for the WebP image format
- Hardware acceleration of the UI
- Wi-Fi Direct
- 1080p video recording for stock Android devices
- Android VPN Framework (AVF), and TUN (but not TAP) kernel module. Prior to 4.0, VPN software required rooted Android.
Android 4.0 on the Samsung Galaxy Nexus
|4.0.1||21 October 2011|
- Fixed minor bugs for the Samsung Galaxy Nexus.
|4.0.2||28 November 2011|
- Fixed minor bugs on the Verizon Galaxy Nexus, the US launch of which was later delayed until December 2011
(For Canadian consumers, 4.0.2 reportedly created a bug on the Galaxy Nexus that crashed the application market when users attempted to view details of any Android application. It also inadvertently reduced the NFC capabilities of the Nexus phone).
Android 4.0.3–4.0.4 Ice Cream Sandwich (API level 15)
|Android 4.0.3 Ice Cream Sandwich|
|4.0.3||16 December 2011|
- Numerous bug fixes and optimizations
- Improvements to graphics, databases, spell-checking and Bluetooth functionality
- New APIs for developers, including a social stream API in the Contacts provider
- Calendar provider enhancements
- New camera apps enhancing video stabilization and QVGA resolution
- Accessibility refinements such as improved content access for screen readers
|4.0.4||29 March 2012|
- Stability improvements
- Better camera performance
- Smoother screen rotation
- Improved phone number recognition
Support for Adobe Systems' Flash player ended with Ice Cream Sandwich.
Android 4.1 Jelly Bean (API level 16)
Google announced Android 4.1 (Jelly Bean) at the Google I/O conference on 27 June 2012. Based on Linux kernel 3.0.31, Jelly Bean was an incremental update with the primary aim of improving the functionality and performance of the user interface. The performance improvement involved "Project Butter", which uses touch anticipation, triple buffering, extended vsync timing and a fixed frame rate of 60 fps to create a fluid and "buttery-smooth" UI. Android 4.1 Jelly Bean was released to the Android Open Source Project on 9 July 2012, and the Nexus 7 tablet, the first device to run Jelly Bean, was released on 13 July 2012.
|Android 4.1 Jelly Bean|
|4.1||9 July 2012|
- Smoother user interface:
- Vsync timing across all drawing and animation done by the Android framework, including application rendering, touch events, screen composition and display refresh
- Triple buffering in the graphics pipeline
- Enhanced accessibility
- Bi-directional text and other language support
- User-installable keyboard maps
- Expandable notifications
- Ability to turn off notifications on an app specific basis
- Shortcuts and widgets can automatically be re-arranged or re-sized to allow new items to fit on home screens
- Bluetooth data transfer for Android Beam
- Offline voice dictation
- Tablets with smaller screens now use an expanded version of the interface layout and home screen used by phones.
- Improved voice search
- Improved camera app
- Google Wallet (for the Nexus 7)
- High-resolution Google+ contact photos
- Google Now search application
- Multichannel audio
- USB audio (for external sound DACs)
- Audio chaining (also known as gapless playback)
- Stock Android browser is replaced with the Android mobile version of Google Chrome in devices with Android 4.1 preinstalled
- Ability for other launchers to add widgets from the app drawer without requiring root access
Android 4.1 on the Asus Nexus 7 tablet
|4.1.1||23 July 2012|
- Fixed a bug on the Nexus 7 regarding the inability to change screen orientation in any application
|4.1.2||9 October 2012|
- Lock/home screen rotation support for the Nexus 7
- One-finger gestures to expand/collapse notifications
- Bug fixes and performance enhancements
Android 4.2 Jelly Bean (API level 17)
Google was expected to announce Jelly Bean 4.2 at an event in New York City on 29 October 2012, but the event was cancelled due to Hurricane Sandy. Instead of rescheduling the live event, Google announced the new version with a press release, under the slogan "A new flavor of Jelly Bean". The first devices to run Android 4.2 were LG's Nexus 4 and Samsung's Nexus 10, which were released on 13 November 2012.
|Android 4.2 Jelly Bean|
|4.2||13 November 2012|
- "Photo Sphere" panorama photos
- Keyboard with gesture typing
- Lock screen improvements, including widget support and the ability to swipe directly to camera
- Notification power controls ("Quick Settings")
- "Daydream" screensavers, showing information when idle or docked
- Multiple user accounts (tablets only)
- Support for wireless display (Miracast)
- Accessibility improvements: triple-tap to magnify the entire screen, pan and zoom with two fingers. Speech output and Gesture Mode navigation for blind users
- New clock app with built-in world clock, stop watch and timer
- All devices now use the same interface layout, previously adapted from phones on 4.1 for smaller tablets (with centered software buttons, the system bar at the top of the screen, and a home screen with a dock and centered application menu), regardless of screen size
- Increased number of extended notifications and Actionable Notifications for more apps, allowing the response to certain notifications within the notification bar and without launching the app directly
- Always-on VPN
- Premium SMS confirmation
Android 4.2 on the LG Nexus 4
|4.2.1||27 November 2012|
- Fixed a bug in the People app where December was not displayed on the date selector when adding an event to a contact
- Added Bluetooth gamepads and joysticks as supported HID devices
|4.2.2||11 February 2013|
- Fixed Bluetooth audio streaming bugs
- Long-pressing the Wi-Fi and Bluetooth icons in Quick Settings now toggles the on/off state
- New download notifications, which now shows the percentage and estimated time remaining for active app downloads
- New sounds for wireless charging and low battery
- Removed option to show all calls in the phone app's call list
- New Gallery app animation allows faster loading
- USB debug whitelist
- Bug fixes and performance enhancements
Android 5.0 Key Lime Pie (API level 18)
On 3 December 2012, it was reported that Google was working on Android 5.0, its successor to Jelly Bean, and also confirmed that the OS version will sport the name of Key Lime Pie.
- ^ "500 million". Google+. September 2012. https://plus.google.com/app/basic/stream/z12mjfgpozyie3yoj04cczrooo3uj5zi1jc. Retrieved 3 February 2013.
- ^ "Android 4.2 release date, news and features". TechRadar.com. 30 October 2012. http://www.techradar.com/news/phone-and-communications/mobile-phones/android-4-2-release-date-news-and-features-1107255. Retrieved 9 November 2012.
- ^ a b "Android 4.2 Jelly Bean lands on Nexus 7". Know Your Mobile. 14 November 2012. http://www.knowyourmobile.com/blog/1678521/android_42_jelly_bean_lands_on_nexus_7.html.
- ^ "Dan Morrill". Google+. 3 January 2013. https://plus.google.com/112413860260589530492/posts/WrBh6fsChfH. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
- ^ "Google Launches Android, an Open Mobile Platform". Google Operating System. 5 November 2007. http://googlesystem.blogspot.com/2007/11/google-launches-android-open-mobile.html.
- ^ "Live Google’s gPhone Open handset alliance conference call" (transcript). Gizmodo. 5 November 2007. http://gizmodo.com/#!318561/live-googles-gphone-open-handset-alliance-conference-call. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
- ^ "Google releases Android SDK". Macworld. 12 November 2007. http://www.macworld.com/article/61005/2007/11/androidsdk.html. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
- ^ "Android's 5th Birthday Celebration: European Best-of-Best Hackathon Series". Devfest.info. October 2012. http://www.devfest.info/vhackandroid. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
- ^ "Android: the first week". Android Developers Blog. 16 November 2007. http://android-developers.blogspot.be/2007/11/android-first-week.htm. Retrieved 24 January 2013.
- ^ "Life can be tough; here are a few SDK improvements to make it a little easier". Android Developers Blog. 14 December 2007. http://android-developers.blogspot.be/2007/12/life-can-be-tough-here-are-few-sdk.html. Retrieved 24 January 2013.
- ^ "Android SDK m5-rc14 now available". Android Developers Blog. 13 February 2008. http://android-developers.blogspot.be/2008/02/android-sdk-m5-rc14-now-available.html. Retrieved 24 January 2013.
- ^ "Android SDK update: m5-rc15 released". Android Developers Blog. 3 March 2008. http://android-developers.blogspot.be/2008/03/android-sdk-update-m5-rc15-released.html. Retrieved 24 January 2013.
- ^ "Announcing a beta release of the Android SDK". Android Developers Blog. 18 August 2008. http://android-developers.blogspot.be/2008/08/announcing-beta-release-of-android-sdk.html. Retrieved 24 January 2013.
- ^ "Announcing the Android 1.0 SDK, release 1". Android Developers Blog. 23 September 2008. http://android-developers.blogspot.be/2008/09/announcing-android-10-sdk-release-1.html. Retrieved 24 January 2013.
- ^ Morrill, Dan (23 September 2008). "Announcing the Android 1.0 SDK, release 1". Android Developers Blog. http://android-developers.blogspot.com/2008/09/announcing-android-10-sdk-release-1.html. Retrieved 12 January 2011.
- ^ "T-Mobile Unveils the T-Mobile G1 – the First Phone Powered by Android". HTC. http://www.htc.com/www/press.aspx?id=66338&lang=1033. Retrieved 19 May 2009.
- ^ a b Topolsky, Joshua (16 October 2008). "T-Mobile G1 review, part 2: software and wrap-up". Engadget. http://www.engadget.com/2008/10/16/t-mobile-g1-review-part-2-software-and-wrap-up/.
- ^ a b c d e "Release features – Android 1.0". Google. 2008. https://sites.google.com/a/android.com/opensource/release-features---android-1-0. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
- ^ a b c Segan, Sascha (16 October 2008). "T-Mobile G1 (Google Android Phone)". PC Magazine. http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,2817,2331003,00.asp. Retrieved 6 February 2013.
- ^ LaCouvee, Darcy (17 October 2008). "Folders on the Android desktop, and how to rename them". Android Authority. http://www.androidauthority.com/folders-on-the-android-desktop-and-how-to-rename-them-466/.
- ^ "Status Bar Notifications". Android Developers. Updated 24 May 2012. http://developer.android.com/guide/topics/ui/notifiers/notifications.html. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
- ^ "Android for Dummies". TechPluto. 18 September 2008. http://www.techpluto.com/what-is-android/.
- ^ "Android Platform Overview". http://source.android.com/source/overview.html. Retrieved 15 September 2012.
- ^ "Android 1.1 Version Notes". Android Developers. February 2009. http://developer.android.com/sdk/android-1.1.html. Retrieved 12 January 2011.
- ^ Ducrohet, Xavier (27 April 2009). "Android 1.5 is here!". Android Developers Blog. Archived from the original on 25 September 2009. http://android-developers.blogspot.com/2009/04/android-15-is-here.html. Retrieved 3 September 2009.
- ^ Rob, Jackson (30 April 2009). "CONFIRMED: Official Cupcake Update Underway for T-Mobile G1 USA & UK!". Android Phone Fans. http://phandroid.com/2009/04/30/official-cupcake-update-underway-for-t-mobile-g1-usa/. Retrieved 3 September 2009.
- ^ "Android 1.5 Platform Highlights". Android Developers. April 2009. http://developer.android.com/sdk/android-1.5-highlights.html. Retrieved 3 September 2009.
- ^ "App Widgets". Android Developers. Updated 2012. http://developer.android.com/guide/topics/appwidgets/index.html. Retrieved 23 October 2012.
- ^ a b "Android 1.6 Platform Highlights". Android Developers. September 2009. Archived from the original on 27 September 2009. http://developer.android.com/sdk/android-1.6-highlights.html. Retrieved 1 October 2009.
- ^ Ducrohet, Xavier (15 September 2009). "Android 1.6 SDK is here". Android Developers Blog. Archived from the original on 25 September 2009. http://android-developers.blogspot.com/2009/09/android-16-sdk-is-here.html. Retrieved 1 October 2009.
- ^ Ryan, Paul (1 October 2009). "Google releases Android 1.6; Palm unleashes WebOS 1.2". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 2 October 2009. http://arstechnica.com/gadgets/news/2009/10/google-releases-android-16-palm-releases-webos-12.ars. Retrieved 1 October 2009.
- ^ "Android 2.0, Release 1". Android Developers. Archived from the original on 28 October 2009. http://developer.android.com/sdk/android-2.0.html. Retrieved 27 October 2009.
- ^ "Android 2.0 Platform Highlights". Android Developers. Archived from the original on 29 October 2009. http://developer.android.com/sdk/android-2.0-highlights.html. Retrieved 27 October 2009.
- ^ "Android 2.0 API Changes Summary". Archived from the original on 24 January 2010. http://developer.android.com/sdk/android-2.0.html#api-changes. Retrieved 6 March 2010.
- ^ "Android 2.0.1, Release 1 SDK". Android Developers. Archived from the original on 15 January 2010. http://developer.android.com/sdk/android-2.0.1.html. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
- ^ "Android 2.1, Release 1". Android Developers. Archived from the original on 15 January 2010. http://developer.android.com/sdk/android-2.1.html. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
- ^ Ducrohet, Xavier (20 May 2010). "Android 2.2 and developers goodies". Google. http://android-developers.blogspot.com/2010/05/android-22-and-developers-goodies.html. Retrieved 20 May 2010.
- ^ a b "Unofficially Confirmed Froyo Features, Post-Day-1 Of Google I/O". Android Police. http://www.androidpolice.com/2010/05/20/exclusive-unofficially-confirmed-froyo-features-post-day-1-of-google-io-google-io-blitz-coverage-day-1/. Retrieved 20 May 2010.
- ^ "Nexus One Is Running Android 2.2 Froyo. How Fast Is It Compared To 2.1? Oh, Only About 450% Faster". Android Police. http://www.androidpolice.com/2010/05/11/exclusive-androidpolice-coms-nexus-one-is-running-android-2-2-froyo-how-fast-is-it-compared-to-2-1-oh-only-about-450-faster/. Retrieved 13 May 2010.
- ^ Sorrel, Charlie (13 May 2010). "Android 2.2 ‘Froyo’ Features USB, Wi-Fi Tethering". Wired. http://www.wired.com/gadgetlab/2010/05/android-22-froyo-features-usb-wi-fi-tethering/. Retrieved 14 February 2013.
- ^ "Browser support for file upload field is coming in Froyo". Google Code. http://code.google.com/p/android/issues/detail?id=2519#c112. Retrieved 13 May 2010.
- ^ Stone, Brad (27 April 2010). "Google's Andy Rubin on Everything Android". New York Times. Archived from the original on 30 April 2010. http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/04/27/googles-andy-rubin-on-everything-android/. Retrieved 20 May 2010.
- ^ a b "Supporting Multiple Screens: Range of screens supported". Android Developers. http://developer.android.com/guide/practices/screens_support.html#range. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
- ^ Hollister, Sean (22 January 2011). "Nexus One gets tiny update to Android 2.2.2, fixes SMS routing issues". Engadget. http://www.engadget.com/2011/01/22/nexus-one-gets-tiny-update-to-android-2-2-2-probably-fixes-sms/. Retrieved 17 November 2011.
- ^ a b "Android 2.3 Platform Highlights". Android Developers Blog. 6 December 2010. Archived from the original on 10 December 2010. http://developer.android.com/sdk/android-2.3-highlights.html. Retrieved 7 December 2010.
- ^ Ducrohet, Xavier (6 December 2010). "Android 2.3 Platform and Updated SDK Tools". Android Developers Blog. Archived from the original on 27 December 2010. http://android-developers.blogspot.com/2010/12/android-23-platform-and-updated-sdk.html. Retrieved 7 December 2010.
- ^ Ts'o, Theodore (12 December 2010). "Android will be using ext4 starting with Gingerbread". Linux Foundation. Archived from the original on 28 May 2011. http://www.linuxfoundation.org/news-media/blogs/browse/2010/12/android-will-be-using-ext4-starting-gingerbread. Retrieved 11 June 2011.
- ^ Tim Bray (19 December 2010). "Saving Data Safely". Android Developers Blog. http://android-developers.blogspot.com/2010/12/saving-data-safely.html. Retrieved 11 June 2011.
- ^ "Android 2.3.3 Platform". Android Developers. http://developer.android.com/sdk/android-2.3.3.html. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
- ^ "Video Chat on Your Android Phone". Google Mobile Blog. 28 April 2011. http://googlemobile.blogspot.com/2011/04/video-chat-on-your-android-phone.html.
- ^ "Open Accessory Library 2.3.4". Android Developers. http://developer.android.com/about/versions/android-2.3.4.html. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- ^ Arghire, Ionut. "Android 2.3.5 Arrives on Galaxy S in the UK". Softpedia.com. http://news.softpedia.com/news/Android-2-3-5-Arrives-on-Galaxy-S-in-the-UK-235644.shtml. Retrieved 1 December 2011.
- ^ Ali Waqas (28 September 2011). "Android 2.3.6 Gingerbread Update For Nexus S Available (Wi-Fi And Tethering Fix)". Addictive Tips. http://www.addictivetips.com/mobile/android-2-3-6-gingerbread-update-for-nexus-s-available-wi-fi-and-tethering-fix/. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- ^ Anton D. Nagy (27 September 2011). "Google Samsung Nexus S Gets Android 2.3.6 Update". PocketNow. http://pocketnow.com/android/google-samsung-nexus-s-gets-android-236-update. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- ^ a b "Android 3.0 Platform Highlights". Android Developers. Archived from the original on 16 February 2011. http://developer.android.com/sdk/android-3.0-highlights.html. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
- ^ Rubin, Andy (5 January 2011). "A Sneak Peek of Android 3.0, Honeycomb". Google Mobile Blog. Archived from the original on 8 January 2011. http://googlemobile.blogspot.com/2011/01/sneak-peak-of-android-30-honeycomb.html. Retrieved 5 January 2011.
- ^ Xavier Ducrohet (22 February 2011). "Final Android 3.0 Platform and Updated SDK Tools". Android Developers Blog. Archived from the original on 5 March 2011. http://android-developers.blogspot.com/2011/02/final-android-30-platform-and-updated.html. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
- ^ Mithun Chandrasekhar (2 February 2011). "Google's Android Event Analysis". AnandTech. http://www.anandtech.com/show/4150/googles-android-event-analysis/2. Retrieved 5 February 2011. "I confirmed this with Google; Honeycomb, at least in the current form, will not be coming to non-tablet devices."
- ^ Nilay Patel (26 January 2011). "Motorola Atrix 4G and Xoom tablet launching at the end of February, Droid Bionic and LTE Xoom in Q2". Engadget. http://www.engadget.com/2011/01/26/motorola-atrix-4g-and-xoom-tablet-launching-at-the-end-of-februa/. Retrieved 5 February 2011.
- ^ Ducrohet, Xavier (10 May 2011). "Android 3.1 Platform, New SDK tools". Android Developers Blog. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. http://android-developers.blogspot.com/2011/05/android-31-platform-new-sdk-tools.html. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
- ^ a b "Android Supported Media Formats". Android Developers. http://developer.android.com/guide/appendix/media-formats.html. Retrieved 30 March 2012.
- ^ "Issue 1461 – Android – FLAC file support enhancement request.". code.google.com. http://code.google.com/p/android/issues/detail?id=1461. Retrieved 5 August 2011.
- ^ "Google TV goes Android 3.2, next up Ice Cream Sandwich". GigaOM. 2 February 2012. http://gigaom.com/2012/02/02/google-tv-honeycomb-32/. Retrieved 6 February 2013.
- ^ Ducrohet, Xavier (15 July 2011). "Android 3.2 Platform and Updated SDK tools". Android Developers Blog. http://android-developers.blogspot.com/2011/07/android-32-platform-and-updated-sdk.html. Retrieved 16 July 2011.
- ^ "Declaring Tablet Layouts for Android 3.2". Supporting Multiple Screens. Android Developers. 2012. http://developer.android.com/guide/practices/screens_support.html#DeclaringTabletLayouts. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
- ^ Maroger. "Ice Cream Sandwich Runs on Linux Kernel 3.0.1". Blogspot – Fine Oils. http://fineoils.blogspot.com/2011/10/ice-cream-sandwich-runs-on-linux-kernel.html#!/2011/10/ice-cream-sandwich-runs-on-linux-kernel.html. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
- ^ Rey, Francis (19 October 2011). "Android 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich SDK Now Available". Social Barrel. http://socialbarrel.com/android-4-0-ice-cream-sandwich-sdk-now-available/24093/.
- ^ Stevens, Tim (19 October 2011). "Google confirms Nexus S will get Ice Cream Sandwich – for real this time (Gingerbread devices, too)". Engadget. http://www.engadget.com/2011/10/19/google-confirms-nexus-s-will-get-ice-cream-sandwich-for-real/.
- ^ Messina, Vincent (15 November 2011). "Ice Cream Sandwich source code released, custom ROMs inevitable". AndroidGuys. http://www.androidguys.com/2011/11/15/ice-cream-sandwich-source-code-released-custom-roms-inevitable/.
- ^ Molen, Brad (19 October 2011). "Android 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich now official, includes revamped design, enhancements galore". Engadget. http://www.engadget.com/2011/10/18/android-4-0-ice-cream-sandwich-now-official/. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
- ^ German, Kent (18 October 2011). "Ice Cream Sandwich adds tons of new features". CNET. http://reviews.cnet.com/8301-19736_7-20122331-251/ice-cream-sandwich-adds-tons-of-new-features/?tag=mncol;txt.
- ^ Velazco, Chris (18 October 2011). "A Quick Android 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich Feature Rundown". Tech Crunch. http://techcrunch.com/2011/10/18/a-quick-ice-cream-sandwich-feature-rundown/.
- ^ Kennemer, Quentyn (19 October 2011). "Android 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich has Hardware Acceleration". Phandroid. http://phandroid.com/2011/10/19/android-4-0-ice-cream-sandwich-has-hardware-acceleration/. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
- ^ Lia, Sindre (21 October 2011). "Android 4 Breaks New Ground (Part 6)". infoSync. http://www.infosyncworld.com/reviews/cell-phones/android-4-breaks-new-ground-(part-6)/12199.html.
- ^ "Verizon’s 4G LTE Galaxy Nexus Gets Pictured, Receives Android 4.0.2 Update". DroidLife. 28 November 2011. http://www.droid-life.com/2011/11/28/verizons-4g-lte-galaxy-nexus-still-in-testing-receives-android-4-0-2-update/. Retrieved 8 December 2011.
- ^ "Within 2 Hours of Activation, Your Galaxy Nexus Will Receive an Update". DroidLife. 15 December 2011. http://www.droid-life.com/2011/12/15/within-2-hours-of-activation-your-galaxy-nexus-will-receive-an-update-here-are-the-details/. Retrieved 15 December 2011.
- ^ "Android 4.0.3 Platform and Updated SDK tools". Android Developers Blog. 16 December 2011. Retrieved 4 January 2012.
- ^ "Android 4.0.3 announced, bringing 'variety of optimizations and bug fixes' to phones and tablets". Engadget. 16 December 2011. http://www.engadget.com/2011/12/16/android-4-0-3-announced-brings-variety-of-optimizations-and-bu/. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
- ^ "Google announces Android 4.0.4". The Inquirer. 29 March 2012. Retrieved 31 March 2012.
- ^ Google announces 4.0.4 on Google+. 28 March 2012. Retrieved 31 March 2012.
- ^ "Today Is The Last Day To Get Flash For Android". WebProNews. 14 August 2012. http://www.webpronews.com/today-is-the-last-day-to-get-flash-for-android-2012-08. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
- ^ a b c d "Android 4.1 for Developers". Android Developers. http://developer.android.com/about/versions/jelly-bean.html#media. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- ^ Queru, Jean-Baptiste. "Android 4.1 in AOSP". https://groups.google.com/forum/#!topic/android-building/XBYeD-bhk1o. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
- ^ "Android 4.1.1 Nexus 7 Update". http://blog.gsmarena.com/nexus-7-gets-android-4-1-1-update-adds-support-for-google-wallet/. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
- ^ "Confirmed: Android 4.1 uses different layouts for different tablet sizes". ComputerWorld. http://blogs.computerworld.com/mobile-and-wireless/20653/android-41-tablet-layout. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
- ^ "Fast & Smooth – Android 4.1, Jelly Bean". Google via YouTube.com. 27 June 2012. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V5E5revikUU. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
- ^ "Issue 3461: Implement Gapless Playback of consecutive audio files". code.google.com. http://code.google.com/p/android/issues/detail?id=3461. Retrieved 12 November 2012.
- ^ "Android 4.1 finally adds gapless music playback to stock music apps". Pocketables.com. 29 June 2012. http://www.pocketables.com/2012/06/android-4-1-finally-adds-gapless-music-playback-to-stock-music-apps.html. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
- ^ "Chrome Out Of Beta, Default Browser Of Android 4.1". Muktware.com. 28 June 2012. Retrieved 15 September 2012.
- ^ "Android 4.1.2 rolling out for Nexus 7". The Verge. 9 October 2012. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
- ^ "Android 4.1.2 brings homescreen rotation to devices". GigaOM. 9 October 2012. http://gigaom.com/mobile/android-4-1-2-brings-home-screen-rotation-to-devices/. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
- ^ "New Feature In Android 4.1.2: Expanding/Collapsing Notifications With One Finger (Video)". Android Police. 9 October 2012. http://www.androidpolice.com/2012/10/09/new-in-android-4-1-2-expandingcollapsing-notifications-with-one-finger-video/. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
- ^ "Monday's Google event in NYC canceled due to Hurricane Sandy". http://www.androidcentral.com/monday-s-google-event-nyc-cancelled-due-hurricane-sandy. Retrieved 29 October 2012.
- ^ "Google Releases Nexus 4, Nexus 10 and Android 4.2". IGN. 13 November 2012. http://uk.ign.com/articles/2012/11/14/google-releases-nexus-4-nexus-10-and-android-42. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- ^ "Android 4.2 adds gestue typing, wireless TV display, multiple user support on tablets, and more". The Verge. 29 October 2012. Retrieved 29 October 2012.
- ^ "Android 4.2 Jelly Bean brings all-new photography powers". TechRadar.com. 29 October 2012. Retrieved 12 November 2012.
- ^ "Android 4.2 Jelly Bean: the new features". PhoneArena.com. 30 October 2012. Retrieved 12 November 2012.
- ^ "Android 4.2 features".TheAndroidSoul.com. 30 October 2012. Retrieved 12 November 2012.
- ^ "Exclusive Android 4.2 Alpha Teardown, Part 2: SELinux, VPN Lockdown, And Premium SMS Confirmation". Android Police. 17 October 2012. Retrieved 12 November 2012.
- ^ "(Changelog) What's New In Android 4.2.1 (JOP40D)". Android Police. 27 November 2012. Retrieved 27 November 2012.
- ^ "Sorry, Santa – Google Cancels December In Android 4.2". Android Police. 17 November 2012. Retrieved 27 November 2012.
- ^ "Breaking: Android 4.2.2 (Build JDQ39) Update Rolling Out To GSM Galaxy Nexus, Nexus 7, Nexus 10". Android Police. 11 February 2013. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
- ^ "Android 4.2.2 brings Bluetooth audio fixes to Nexus phones and tablets". Ars Technica. 12 February 2013. http://arstechnica.com/gadgets/2013/02/android-4-2-2-brings-bluetooth-audio-fixes-to-nexus-phones-and-tablets/. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
- ^ "Key Lime Pie name confirmed for the successor of Jelly Bean". Softpedia. 3 December 2012. http://news.softpedia.com/news/Key-Lime-Pie-Name-Confirmed-by-Google-Employee-311451.shtml. Retrieved 15 February 2013.