Andover, Massachusetts

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Andover, Massachusetts
Town
Andover's Old Town Hall
Andover's Old Town Hall
Official seal of Andover, Massachusetts
Seal
Motto: "Home of America"[1]
Location in Essex County in Massachusetts
Location in Essex County in Massachusetts
Coordinates: 42°39′30″N 71°08′15″W / 42.65833°N 71.13750°W / 42.65833; -71.13750Coordinates: 42°39′30″N 71°08′15″W / 42.65833°N 71.13750°W / 42.65833; -71.13750
CountryUnited States
StateMassachusetts
CountyEssex
Settled1642
Incorporated1646
Government
 • TypeOpen town meeting
 • Town ManagerReginald "Buzz" Stapczynski
 • Board of
   Selectmen
Alex Vispoli, Chairman (2016)
Dan Kowalski, Vice Chairman (2015)
Brian Major, Secretary (2015)
Paul Salafia (2016)
Mary O'Donoghue (2017)
Area
 • Total32.1 sq mi (83.2 km2)
 • Land31.0 sq mi (80.3 km2)
 • Water1.1 sq mi (2.9 km2)
Elevation180 ft (55 m)
Population (2010)
 • Total33,201
 • Density1,007.8/sq mi (389.1/km2)
Time zoneEastern (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST)Eastern (UTC-4)
ZIP code01810
Area code(s)351 / 978
FIPS code25-01465
GNIS feature ID0619444
WebsiteThe Official Website of Andover, Massachusetts
 
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This article is about the Massachusetts town. For other uses, see Andover (disambiguation).
Andover, Massachusetts
Town
Andover's Old Town Hall
Andover's Old Town Hall
Official seal of Andover, Massachusetts
Seal
Motto: "Home of America"[1]
Location in Essex County in Massachusetts
Location in Essex County in Massachusetts
Coordinates: 42°39′30″N 71°08′15″W / 42.65833°N 71.13750°W / 42.65833; -71.13750Coordinates: 42°39′30″N 71°08′15″W / 42.65833°N 71.13750°W / 42.65833; -71.13750
CountryUnited States
StateMassachusetts
CountyEssex
Settled1642
Incorporated1646
Government
 • TypeOpen town meeting
 • Town ManagerReginald "Buzz" Stapczynski
 • Board of
   Selectmen
Alex Vispoli, Chairman (2016)
Dan Kowalski, Vice Chairman (2015)
Brian Major, Secretary (2015)
Paul Salafia (2016)
Mary O'Donoghue (2017)
Area
 • Total32.1 sq mi (83.2 km2)
 • Land31.0 sq mi (80.3 km2)
 • Water1.1 sq mi (2.9 km2)
Elevation180 ft (55 m)
Population (2010)
 • Total33,201
 • Density1,007.8/sq mi (389.1/km2)
Time zoneEastern (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST)Eastern (UTC-4)
ZIP code01810
Area code(s)351 / 978
FIPS code25-01465
GNIS feature ID0619444
WebsiteThe Official Website of Andover, Massachusetts

Andover is a town in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States. It was settled in 1642 and incorporated in 1646.[2] As of the 2010 census, the population was 33,201[citation needed]. It is part of the Boston-Cambridge-Quincy, Massachusetts-New Hampshire metropolitan statistical area.

Part of the town comprises the census-designated place of Andover.

History[edit]

Establishment and incorporation[edit]

In 1634, the Great and General Court of Massachusetts set aside a portion of land in what is now Essex County for an inland plantation, including parts of what is now Andover, North Andover and South Lawrence. In order to encourage settlement, early colonists were offered three years' immunity from taxes, levies and services (except military service). The first permanent settlement in the Andover area was established in 1641 by John Woodbridge and a group of settlers from Newbury and Ipswich.

Shortly after they arrived, they purchased a piece of land from the local Pennacook tribal chief Cutshamache for the price of "six pounds of currency and a coat" and on the condition that Roger, a local Pennacook man, would still be allowed to plant his corn and take alewives from a local water source. Roger's Brook, a small stream which cuts through the eastern part of town, is named in his honor. In May 1646 the settlement was incorporated as a town and was named Andover. This name was likely chosen in honor of the town of Andover in England, which was near the original home of some of the first residents. The first recorded town meeting was held in 1656 in the home of settler John Osgood in what is now the town of North Andover.

The old burying ground in what is now North Andover marks the center of the early town. Contrary to popular belief, the towns split due to the location of the Old North Church, also located in what is now North Andover. So technically, what is now Andover was not incorporated as a township until many years after 1646. The villagers from the southwestern part of the town were tired of walking all the way to the extreme north of what was then Andover, and decided to build their own church central to what is now Andover. Early on the general populace was concentrated together around the Old Center (North Andover) for protection from feared Indian attacks, but the Indians were fairly peaceful until the outbreak of King Philip's War in 1675. King Philip was an Indian who organized a revolt against the white settlers throughout most of New England. Six Indian raids occurred between 1676 and 1698 (the last led by Chief Escumbuit) until ever-increasing numbers of white settlers established control of the land.[citation needed]

In November 1798, David Brown led a group in Dedham, Massachusetts in setting up a liberty pole with the words, "No Stamp Act, No Sedition Act, No Alien Bills, No Land Tax, downfall to the Tyrants of America; peace and retirement to the President; Love Live the Vice President," referring to then-President John Adams and Vice President Thomas Jefferson. Brown was arrested in Andover, Massachusetts but because he could not afford the $4,000 bail, he was taken to Salem for trial. Brown was tried in June 1799. Brown wanted to plead guilty but Justice Samuel Chase wanted him to name everybody who had helped him or who subscribed to his writings. Brown refused, was fined $480, and sentenced to eighteen months in prison, the most severe sentence then imposed under the Alien and Sedition Acts.[3]

Benjamin Abbott farmhouse, Andover, 1934

Witchcraft[edit]

During the Salem witch trials in 1692, Andover resident Joseph Ballard asked for help for his wife from several girls in the neighboring Salem Village who were already identifying witches there. After visiting Elizabeth Ballard, the girls claimed that several people in Andover had bewitched her: Ann Foster, her daughter Mary Lacey Sr. and her granddaughter Mary Lacey Jr. During the course of the legal proceedings, more than 40 Andover citizens, mostly women and their children, were formally accused of having made a covenant with the Devil. Three Andover residents, Martha Carrier, Mary Parker, and Samuel Wardwell, were convicted and executed. Five others either pled guilty at arraignment or were convicted at trial: Ann Foster, Mary Lacey Sr., and Abigail Faulkner Sr. (daughter of Andover's minister, Francis Dane) in 1692 and Wardwell's wife Sarah and Rev. Dane's granddaughter, Elizabeth Johnson Jr. in 1693. Those who were not executed were granted reprieves by Gov. William Phips, but the convictions remained on their records. In 1713, in response to petitions initiated in 1703 by Abigail Faulkner Sr. and Sarah Wardwell, Massachusetts Governor Joseph Dudley reversed the attainder on the names of those who were convicted in the episode.

The two parishes and the division of the town[edit]

By 1705, Andover's population had begun to move southward and the idea of a new meeting house in the south end of town was proposed. This was strongly opposed by the people living near the original meeting house in the north, but the dispute was finally settled in 1709 when the Great and General Court divided Andover into two parishes, North and South. After the division of the two parishes, South Andover established the South Parish "Burying-Yard," as it was called, with early Andover settler Robert Russell the first to be interred at age 80 in December, 1710.[4] But despite this split, the town remained politically one unit.

For many years Andover was geographically one of the largest towns in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts; in 1826 a third parish was established and West Parish Church was constructed on Reservation Road. In 1854, a measure was passed to divide the town into two separate political units according to the old parish boundaries. The name Andover was assumed by the more populous and wealthy West and South parishes, while the name North Andover was given to the North Parish.

Andover in the Revolutionary War[edit]

Records show that on the morning of April 19, 1775, approximately 350 Andover men marched toward Lexington. Although they did not arrive in time for the battle that day, they did go on to participate in the battle of Bunker Hill two months later and fought in subsequent skirmishes with the Redcoats during the war.

Among the Andover men who were representatives to the Massachusetts Constitutional Convention were Col. Samuel Osgood, Zebadiah Abbot, John Farnum and Samuel Phillips, Jr. Phillips – who would later go on to found Phillips Academy – was later appointed by John Adams to help draft the Massachusetts state constitution.

During the burning of Charlestown (June 17, 1775) Andover townspeople hiked to the top of Holt Hill to witness it. Holt Hill is the highest geographical point in Essex County and is currently part of the Charles W. Ward Reservation.

Death of President-elect Franklin Pierce's son[edit]

On January 6, 1853, Benjamin "Bennie" Pierce, the 11-year-old son of President-elect Franklin Pierce and his wife Jane, was killed in a train accident in town. The Boston & Maine noon express, traveling from Boston to Lawrence, was moving at 40 miles per hour when an axle broke. The only coach, in which Franklin Pierce was also riding, went down an embankment and broke in two. (The baggage car and locomotive had remained on the track.) Pierce's son was the only passenger killed, but it was initially reported that Pierce was also a fatality. The boy was nearly decapitated. Pierce covered him with a sheet, hoping to spare his wife, but Jane also saw their son. They both suffered severe depression afterward, which affected Pierce's performance throughout his presidency. Pierce was only badly bruised. The Pierces had previously lost two other children. The death is said to have cast a pall on the couple, especially Jane, who entertained hardly at all in the White House and spent much of her time writing letters to her dead children. She died, still grief-stricken, in 1863. After Pierce left the White House in 1857, Pierce said "All that's left, is to drink & die". Six years after the death of his wife, Pierce died in October 1869, of cirrhosis of the liver.[5]

Civil War[edit]

Memorial Hall Library, which was constructed in 1873 in memory of the 53 Andover men who lost their lives during the Civil War, was financed through private donations.

The anti-slavery movement had many supporters in Andover long before the American Civil War began. William Jenkins - an ardent abolitionist and friend of William Lloyd Garrison - and several others provided stops on the Underground Railroad for runaway slaves. It should be noted that Harriet Beecher Stowe, author of Uncle Tom's Cabin, was a longtime resident. Her home, known as Stowe House, is now owned by Phillips Academy Andover. Her body is buried in Phillips Academy's cemetery. When the Confederate Army shelled Fort Sumter in 1861, a company of 79 volunteers formed. By the time the war ended in 1865, 600 Andover men had served in the Union Army.

Shawsheen Village[edit]

In 1919, the American Woolen Company announced plans to build a million dollar mill in the already-existing mill community of Frye Village and rename the region "Shawsheen." The village was completely rebuilt as a "model industrial community" and became the site of the company's headquarters. The mill began operating in 1922 and within two years the village contained more than 200 houses, several community buildings, a few tennis courts, a swimming area, a bowling green, an athletic field and a golf course. The employees rented their homes from the company; the brick structures were reserved for upper management and the wooden buildings for those of lesser position. This industrial utopia, however, was short-lived - by the early 1940s almost all of the houses and administration buildings were in private hands. The mills became a victim of changing technology as synthetic fibers became more popular than wool. The American Woolen Company closed its mills in 1953, and the buildings today house a variety of businesses, homes, and apartments. The village left its mark nationally, however, when its soccer team, the Shawsheen Indians won the national soccer championship in 1925.

Geography[edit]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 32.1 square miles (83.2 km2), of which 31.0 square miles (80.3 km2) is land and 1.1 square miles (2.9 km2) (3.49%) is water. Significant water areas include the Shawsheen River and Haggetts Pond, located in west Andover, which serves as the town's reservoir. Haggetts Pond was originally set apart from other waters, but since the late 1990s has had waters added from the Merrimack River, which constitutes half of the town's northern border, to supplement the growing needs of the town. Andover is also home to the Harold Parker State Forest, the Charles W. Ward Reservation, the Harold R. Rafton Reservation, the Deer Jump Reservation (along the banks of the Merrimack), as well as a very small portion of Lawrence's Den Rock Park. The town also has several golf courses.

Andover's town center is located approximately four miles south of the center of Lawrence, and is 22 miles (35 km) north of Boston and 30 miles (48 km) southeast of Manchester, New Hampshire. Andover contains the westernmost point of Essex County, along the Merrimack River. It is bordered by Lawrence to the north, North Andover to the northeast, North Reading and Wilmington to the south, Tewksbury to the southwest. Andover also borders Dracut to the northeast; however, the boundary is within the Merrimack River, and as there are no crossings of the Merrimack within the boundaries of Dracut, one must go through Methuen or nearby Lowell to enter Dracut, as is the case with Dracut's border with Tewksbury.

Transportation[edit]

Andover is the location of the intersection of Interstate 93 and Interstate 495. The town is also served by Route 28, which serves as the main road from north to south through town, as well as Route 133 and Route 125.

Andover has two stops, Ballardvale and Andover along the Haverhill/Reading Line of the MBTA Commuter Rail, providing rail service from Haverhill to Boston's North Station. Andover Station is also near the Third Railroad Station, a former Boston and Maine Railroad station which is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The nearest small plane service is at Lawrence Municipal Airport in North Andover, and national service can be found at both Logan International Airport and Manchester-Boston Regional Airport, both within thirty miles of the town. Several routes of the Merrimack Valley Regional Transit Authority also enter the town, mostly in the north end of town.

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
YearPop.±%
18506,945—    
18604,765−31.4%
18704,873+2.3%
18805,149+5.7%
18906,142+19.3%
19006,813+10.9%
19107,301+7.2%
19208,268+13.2%
19309,969+20.6%
194011,122+11.6%
195012,437+11.8%
196017,134+37.8%
197023,695+38.3%
198026,370+11.3%
199029,151+10.5%
200031,247+7.2%
201033,201+6.3%

Source: United States Census records and Population Estimates Program data.[6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15]

As of the census of 2000, there were 31,247 people, 11,305 households, and 8,490 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,007.8 people per square mile (389.1/km2). There were 11,590 housing units at an average density of 144.3 persons/km2 (373.8 persons/sq mi). The racial makeup of the town was 91.60% White, 0.75% African American, 0.06% Native American, 5.73% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.84% from other races, and 0.99% from two or more races. 1.81% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There are 11,305 households out of which 40.3% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.6% were married couples living together, 7.5% have a woman whose husband does not live with her, and 24.9% were non-families. 21.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.74 and the average family size was 3.24.

In the town the population was spread out with 28.8% under the age of 18, 4.7% from 18 to 24, 27.5% from 25 to 44, 26.8% from 45 to 64, and 12.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 92.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.9 males.

According to a 2012 estimate,[16] the median income for a household in the town was $118,324, the median family income was $144,685. Males with full-time year-round jobs had a median income higher than $100,000; for females, the median was $62,532. The per capita income for the town was $53,378. 2.6% of families and 4.2% of the population, including 3.7% of people aged under 18 years and 5.8% of people aged 65 and over, were below the poverty line.

Government[edit]

County government: Essex County
Clerk of Courts:
District Attorney:Jonathan W. Blodgett(D)
Register of Deeds:Paul Iannuccillo(D)
Register of Probate:
County Sheriff:Frank Cousins(R)
State government
State Representative(s):Jim Lyons(R) 18th Essex
Frank Moran(D) 17th Essex
State Senator(s):Barry Finegold(D) Second Essex & Middlesex
Governor's Councilor(s):Eileen Duff
Federal government
U.S. Representative(s):Niki Tsongas(D) 3rd District
John Tierney(D) 6th District
U.S. Senators:Elizabeth Warren (D), Ed Markey (D)

Arts and culture[edit]

Points of interest[edit]

Education[edit]

Samuel Phillips Hall, the social science and language building of Phillips Academy

Public schools[edit]

Private schools[edit]

Higher education[edit]

Internet speed[edit]

Based on Pando networks content delivery service released on September 2011, Andover was one of the 10 cities in the world with the fastest Internet speed in 2011, and the only U.S. city to appear on the 2011 list. At 22.41 Mbit/s it is still far behind the top city in the world at 33.5 Mbit/s.[20]

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Official Website of Andover, Massachusetts". The Official Website of Andover, Massachusetts. Retrieved August 24, 2012. 
  2. ^ "Andover" in The New Encyclopaedia Britannica. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc., 15th edn., 1992, Vol. 1, p. 387.
  3. ^ This paragraph relies on the following works:
    Stone, Geoffrey R. (2004). Perilous times: free speech in wartime from the Sedition Act of 1798 to the war on terrorism. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 64. ISBN 978-0-393-05880-2. 
    Curtis, Michael Kent (2000). Free speech, "the people's darling privilege": struggles for freedom of expression in American history. Duke University Press. p. 88. ISBN 978-0-8223-2529-1. 
    Simon, James F. (2003). What Kind of Nation: Thomas Jefferson, John Marshall, and the Epic Struggle to Create a United States. Simon and Schuster. p. 55. ISBN 978-0-684-84871-6. 
  4. ^ Bailey 1880, p. 512.
  5. ^ "Jane Means Appleton Pierce". History Central.com. Retrieved 2006-09-24. 
  6. ^ "TOTAL POPULATION (P1), 2010 Census Summary File 1". American FactFinder, All County Subdivisions within Massachusetts. United States Census Bureau. 2010. 
  7. ^ "Massachusetts by Place and County Subdivision - GCT-T1. Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  8. ^ "1990 Census of Population, General Population Characteristics: Massachusetts". US Census Bureau. December 1990. Table 76: General Characteristics of Persons, Households, and Families: 1990. 1990 CP-1-23. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  9. ^ "1980 Census of the Population, Number of Inhabitants: Massachusetts". US Census Bureau. December 1981. Table 4. Populations of County Subdivisions: 1960 to 1980. PC80-1-A23. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  10. ^ "1950 Census of Population". 1: Number of Inhabitants. Bureau of the Census. 1952. Section 6, Pages 21-10 and 21-11, Massachusetts Table 6. Population of Counties by Minor Civil Divisions: 1930 to 1950. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  11. ^ "1920 Census of Population". Bureau of the Census. Number of Inhabitants, by Counties and Minor Civil Divisions. Pages 21-5 through 21-7. Massachusetts Table 2. Population of Counties by Minor Civil Divisions: 1920, 1910, and 1920. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  12. ^ "1890 Census of the Population". Department of the Interior, Census Office. Pages 179 through 182. Massachusetts Table 5. Population of States and Territories by Minor Civil Divisions: 1880 and 1890. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  13. ^ "1870 Census of the Population". Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1872. Pages 217 through 220. Table IX. Population of Minor Civil Divisions, &c. Massachusetts. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  14. ^ "1860 Census". Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1864. Pages 220 through 226. State of Massachusetts Table No. 3. Populations of Cities, Towns, &c. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  15. ^ "1850 Census". Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1854. Pages 338 through 393. Populations of Cities, Towns, &c. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  16. ^ http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/community_facts.xhtml. Retrieved 2012-07-08.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  17. ^ Messenger, Brian (February 20, 2009). "Kerry, Tsongas say keep IRS center in Andover open: Local lawmakers want layoffs put off until 2012". Eagle-Tribune. Retrieved 11 October 2012. .
  18. ^ "NTEU attempts to save jobs for 1,500 IRS employees". accountingweb. May 14, 2009. Retrieved 11 October 2012. .
  19. ^ "GSA and Columbia Construction progressing with IRS' Andover Campus modernization". New England Real Estate Journal. December 24, 2010. Retrieved 11 October 2012. .
  20. ^ "Which Country Has the World's Fastest Internet?". Retrieved September 24, 2011. 

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]