Anadyr (town)

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Anadyr (English)
Анадырь (Russian)
Кагыргын (Chukchi)
-  Town[1]  -
Anadyr harbour3.jpg
View of Anadyr from the harbor
Map of Russia - Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (2008-03).svg
Location of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug in Russia
Anadyr is located in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug
Anadyr
Anadyr
Location of Anadyr in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug
Coordinates: 64°44′N 177°31′E / 64.733°N 177.517°E / 64.733; 177.517Coordinates: 64°44′N 177°31′E / 64.733°N 177.517°E / 64.733; 177.517
Coat of Arms of Anadyr (Chukotka).png
Flag of Anadyr (Chukotka).png
Coat of arms
Flag
Administrative status (as of June 2012)
CountryRussia
Federal subjectChukotka Autonomous Okrug[1]
Administratively subordinated toTown of okrug significance of Anadyr[1]
Administrative center ofChukotka Autonomous Okrug,[1] Anadyrsky District,[1] town of okrug significance of Anadyr[1]
Municipal status (as of November 2004)
Urban okrugAnadyr Urban Okrug[2]
Administrative center ofAnadyr Urban Okrug,[2] Anadyrsky Municipal District[3]
Head (Mayor)[5]Andrey Shchegolkov[4]
Representative bodyCouncil of Deputies[5]
Statistics
Area (town) (January 2012)20 km2 (7.7 sq mi)[6]
Population (2010 Census)13,045 inhabitants[7]
Population (January 2014 est.)14,029 inhabitants[8]
Density652/km2 (1,690/sq mi)[9]
Time zonePETT (UTC+12:00)[10]
Founded1889[11]
Town status since1965[11]
Previous namesNovo-Mariinsk (until 1923)[11]
Postal code(s)[12]689000, 689700
Dialing code(s)+7 42722[citation needed]
Official website
Anadyr on WikiCommons
 
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For other uses, see Anadyr.
Anadyr (English)
Анадырь (Russian)
Кагыргын (Chukchi)
-  Town[1]  -
Anadyr harbour3.jpg
View of Anadyr from the harbor
Map of Russia - Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (2008-03).svg
Location of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug in Russia
Anadyr is located in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug
Anadyr
Anadyr
Location of Anadyr in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug
Coordinates: 64°44′N 177°31′E / 64.733°N 177.517°E / 64.733; 177.517Coordinates: 64°44′N 177°31′E / 64.733°N 177.517°E / 64.733; 177.517
Coat of Arms of Anadyr (Chukotka).png
Flag of Anadyr (Chukotka).png
Coat of arms
Flag
Administrative status (as of June 2012)
CountryRussia
Federal subjectChukotka Autonomous Okrug[1]
Administratively subordinated toTown of okrug significance of Anadyr[1]
Administrative center ofChukotka Autonomous Okrug,[1] Anadyrsky District,[1] town of okrug significance of Anadyr[1]
Municipal status (as of November 2004)
Urban okrugAnadyr Urban Okrug[2]
Administrative center ofAnadyr Urban Okrug,[2] Anadyrsky Municipal District[3]
Head (Mayor)[5]Andrey Shchegolkov[4]
Representative bodyCouncil of Deputies[5]
Statistics
Area (town) (January 2012)20 km2 (7.7 sq mi)[6]
Population (2010 Census)13,045 inhabitants[7]
Population (January 2014 est.)14,029 inhabitants[8]
Density652/km2 (1,690/sq mi)[9]
Time zonePETT (UTC+12:00)[10]
Founded1889[11]
Town status since1965[11]
Previous namesNovo-Mariinsk (until 1923)[11]
Postal code(s)[12]689000, 689700
Dialing code(s)+7 42722[citation needed]
Official website
Anadyr on WikiCommons

Anadyr (Russian: Ана́дырь; Chukchi: Кагыргын, Kagyrgyn) is a port town and the administrative center of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Russia, located at the mouth of the Anadyr River, on the tip of the southern promontory that protrudes into Anadyrsky Liman. Anadyr is the easternmost town in Russia (more easterly locations, such as Provideniya and Uelen, do not have town status). Population: 13,045 (2010 Census).[7]

History[edit]

Although the town itself has only been in existence for just over a century, the origins of the name Anadyr are much older. The name initially derives from the Yukaghir word "any-an" meaning "river". When Semyon Dezhnev met Yukaghir peoples in the area and the indigenous name was corrupted to form "Onandyr", later Anadyrsk, the name of the ostrog (fort) upstream of the present-day settlement, from which the current name is derived.[13] The ostrog was the only Russian settlement east of the Kolyma River on the Chukotka Peninsula for most of the 18th century,[14] though this original settlement was situated further up the Anadyr River, nearer to Markovo than the site of the current town.[14]

Pyotr Baranov (brother of Alexander Andreyevich Baranov) established a trading post near the present town site in the early 19th century; Chukchi settlement around it formed the village of Vyon in 1830.[13]

The present settlement was founded in 1889 as Novo-Mariinsk[11] by L. F. Grinevetsky, who sailed into the Anadyrsky Liman on July 9, 1889.[13] The town's first building was completed twelve days later and as it was the name-day of Tsaritsa Maria Feodorovna the town was named Mariinsk. Since this was not the first time that a town had been named Mariinsk in Russia, the name was swiftly changed to Novo-Mariinsk.[13]

The Kamchatka Revkom sent the first Bolsheviks—Mikhail Mandrikov and Avgust Berzin—to Anadyr to set up an underground organization to undermine and eventually overthrow the resident White Army forces stationed in the town.[15] These two, along with a small group of other Russian immigrants and a handful of Chuvans, established the First Revolutionary Committee of Chukotka.[15] Their presence initially went undetected, although it did arouse suspicion. However, just before they were about to be discovered by the resident White army troops, they launched an attack against them on the night of December 16, 1916.[15] Their intentions were to free the local indigenous people from their debts to the Russian incomers and begin the dismantling of the capitalist infrastructure that had been established in the town.[15] The attempts at seizing the property of the merchant class in Anadyr was successful, but they were unable to seize control of the armory and ammunition supplies within the town.[15] The merchants used this opportunity to reassert themselves, and by January 30, 1920, they surrounded the Revkom offices and attacked. One of the leaders, Vasily Titov, was killed and a number of others were wounded. Mikhail Mandrikov himself surrendered.[15] Although the survivors were initially imprisoned, the merchants decided to eliminate them permanently. Under the pretense of transferring them to another site, they led them out of the town and executed them out on the tundra.[15] The merchants' and White Army's success had been aided by the fact that a number of the Revkom members had been out the town visiting the village of Markovo. When these people returned, they were ambushed and all survivors eventually killed.[16]

A market in Anadyr

The merchants set about reestablishing the status quo, all the while pretending to the Kamchatka Revkom that they themselves were socialists when inquiries came as to the whereabouts of their colleagues, going as far as to set up a fake Anadyr branch of the Russian Communist Party of Bolsheviks.[15] Unfortunately for the merchants in Anadyr, members of the first Revkom had already managed to establish branches in Markovo and Ust-Belaya, who were not convinced by the claims coming from Anadyr and, whilst establishing the Second Revolutionary Committee of Chukotka in Markovo[17] pressed the Kamchatka Revkom for assistance.[15] The Kamchatka Revkom responded by sending a party to investigate.[15] A number of those involved in the overthrow of the First Revolutionary Committee either ceased their political activity in the hope of blending into the background, or fled Chukotka for Alaska.[18] However, the merchants fared worse eighteen months later when the Bolsheviks returned and began to reorganize urban life.[13] Struggles continued for some time in the Russian Far East, and it took until early 1923 before communications were sent from Kamchatka by Red Army commanders indicating that all White Army forces in Chukotka had been eliminated.[19]

Monuments to those members of the First Revolutionary Committee were erected in Anadyr by 1921.[20][page needed] It was only in 1969 that an elderly man said he remembered where the bodies had been buried, having seen them being interred in a cemetery in Tavayvaam.[15] Following this tip, the remains were recovered and they were paraded solemnly through Anadyr to the monuments, where they were buried with full honors.[21]

In 1923, Novo-Mariinsk was renamed Anadyr.[11]

During World War II an airfield was built here for the Alaska-Siberian (ALSIB) air route used to ferry American Lend-Lease aircraft to the Eastern Front.[22]

Anadyr was granted town status in 1965,[11] around which time it had a population of 5,600.[23]

It is claimed that the town of Anadyr annexed the neighboring "ethnic village" of Tavayvaam in May 1994, and that this was done by then governor Alexander Nazarov with a view to saving money from the autonomous okrug budget. If the national village had indeed been absorbed into the town of Anadyr then there would have been no obligation for the autonomous okrug to allocate specific funds for the indigenous population there.[24]

Anadyr Child Creativity Palace, with the Lenin statue in front of the building

Geography[edit]

View from Anadyr harbor

The town of Anadyr is situated at the tip of a large cape, to the north of which is the mouth of the Anadyr River and to the east the estuarine part of that river, the Anadyrsky Liman, which empties into the Gulf of Anadyr.[25] The town itself is situated on a gentle slope rising up from the sea, on the other side of the Anadyr River are mountains, but to the west, beyond the town are large expanses of flat tundra.[25]

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Anadyr is the administrative center of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug and, within the framework of administrative divisions, it also serves as the administrative center of Anadyrsky District,[1] even though it is not a part of it.[26] As an administrative division, it is, together with the selo Tavayvaam, incorporated separately as the town of okrug significance of Anadyr—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the town of okrug significance of Anadyr is incorporated as Anadyr Urban Okrug.[2]

Demographics[edit]

1926[27]1939[28]1959[29]1970[30]1979[31]1989[32]2002[33]2010[7]
2243,3445,8597,70312,24117,09411,03813,045

Transportation[edit]

View from the Ugolny Airport

Anadyr is an important sea port on the Gulf of Anadyr of the Bering Sea and is connected to almost all major Russian Far Eastern seaports. Anadyr's Ugolny Airport serves major and minor cities in the Russian Far East with connections to Khabarovsk, Vladivostok, and Moscow, while Bering Air provides charter flights to Nome, Alaska in the United States. The airport is on the other side of the Anadyrsky Liman and from January to May, transportation from the airport to Anadyr is by ice road in the winter.[13] In the summer there is a ferry which transports passengers across the Anady River to the airport,[34] but during the spring and autumn when the river ice is melting and full of drifting ice floes, the only means of transportation to the airport is via helicopter.[34]

Although there is a network of roads within Anadyr and Tavayvaam, the town is not connected to any other settlement via road. Roads that appear to lead out of Anadyr in fact merely loop round and bring travelers back into the town.[35] A start of construction of a 1800-kilometer road Magadan - Anadyr has taken place in 2014.[36] It is expected to take 30 years to finish.

Climate[edit]

Anadyr experiences a subarctic climate (Köppen climate classification Dfc). Winters are long and very cold; summers are cool and short. January is the coldest month with an average temperature of −22.6 °C (−8.7 °F). July is the warmest month with an average temperature of +11.6 °C (52.9 °F). Temperatures above +25 °C (77 °F) are rare. The lowest temperature recorded in Anadyr was −46.8 °C (−52.2 °F) recorded on January 3, 1913. The highest temperature recorded in Anadyr was +30 °C (86 °F) on July 7, 1956. The weather in Anadyr changes easily, with heavy storms often being brought in from the Anadyrsky Liman and the Bering Sea. This coupled with strong southerly winds in the autumn often brings flooding to the area. May is the driest month while January is the wettest.

Climate data for Anadyr
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)5.8
(42.4)
2.7
(36.9)
3.0
(37.4)
7.1
(44.8)
19.3
(66.7)
26.5
(79.7)
30.0
(86)
26.6
(79.9)
17.7
(63.9)
15.6
(60.1)
4.6
(40.3)
4.3
(39.7)
30.0
(86)
Average high °C (°F)−18.8
(−1.8)
−18.3
(−0.9)
−15.5
(4.1)
−9
(16)
1.6
(34.9)
10.7
(51.3)
15.6
(60.1)
13.6
(56.5)
7.7
(45.9)
−2
(28)
−10.1
(13.8)
−15.6
(3.9)
−3.3
(26.1)
Daily mean °C (°F)−22.6
(−8.7)
−22.0
(−7.6)
−19.3
(−2.7)
−12.8
(9)
−1.6
(29.1)
6.3
(43.3)
11.6
(52.9)
10.1
(50.2)
4.6
(40.3)
−4.6
(23.7)
−13.3
(8.1)
−19.3
(−2.7)
−6.91
(19.58)
Average low °C (°F)−26.2
(−15.2)
−25.5
(−13.9)
−22.8
(−9)
−16.4
(2.5)
−4.4
(24.1)
3.2
(37.8)
8.6
(47.5)
7.3
(45.1)
2.0
(35.6)
−7.1
(19.2)
−16.4
(2.5)
−22.8
(−9)
−10
(14)
Record low °C (°F)−46.8
(−52.2)
−44.7
(−48.5)
−42.1
(−43.8)
−39.6
(−39.3)
−28.2
(−18.8)
−7.6
(18.3)
−1.2
(29.8)
−4.3
(24.3)
−11.8
(10.8)
−28.2
(−18.8)
−38.8
(−37.8)
−45.2
(−49.4)
−46.8
(−52.2)
Precipitation mm (inches)45
(1.77)
40
(1.57)
33
(1.3)
23
(0.91)
13
(0.51)
18
(0.71)
34
(1.34)
43
(1.69)
31
(1.22)
26
(1.02)
34
(1.34)
41
(1.61)
382
(15.04)
Avg. rainy days0.20.30.2191516181662184.7
Avg. snowy days181715161520.10.35181917142.4
 % humidity82818182847879818084848281
Mean monthly sunshine hours27.9101.7198.4249.0244.9279.0257.3186.0138.0105.448.012.41,848
Source #1: Погода и Климат[37]
Source #2: HKO[38]

Politics[edit]

Results of Russian legislative elections[edit]

Parties \ Year200320072011
Communist Party4.61%3.73%4.39%
Patriots of Russia
(including former Party of Peace and Unity)
0.57%0.53%0.60%
A Just Russia
(including former Rodina or Motherland-National Patriotic Union
Russian Party of Life
People's Party of the Russian Federation
and Russian Ecological Party "The Greens")
9.98%3.85%5.01%
Yabloko
(including former Union of People for education and research, "Партия СЛОН")
3.30%1.08%1.66%
Right Cause
(including former Citizens' Force
Democratic Party of Russia
and Union of Rightist Forces)
3.03%1.54%0.70%
United Russia
(including former Agrarian Party of Russia)
55.55%76.37%72.44%
Liberal Democratic Party11.67%12.19%12.97%
Other minor parties9.93%xx%xx%

Notable people[edit]

Sister city[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Law #33-OZ
  2. ^ a b c Law #40-OZ
  3. ^ Law #148-OZ
  4. ^ Official website of Anadyr Urban Okrug. Mayor's Autobiography (Russian)
  5. ^ a b Charter of Anadyr, Article 24
  6. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service. "Регионы России. Основные социально-экономические показатели городов. 2012". Дальневосточный федеральный округ. Города Чукотского автономного округа.
  7. ^ a b c Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  8. ^ Chukotka Autonomous Okrug Territorial Branch of the Federal State Statistics Service. Численность постоянного населения Чукотского автономного округа по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2014 года (Russian)
  9. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  10. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  11. ^ a b c d e f Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 20. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9. 
  12. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
  13. ^ a b c d e f Petit Futé, Chukotka, pp. 77ff
  14. ^ a b Armstrong, p. 53
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Gray, pp. 88–90
  16. ^ Zhikarev, pp. 60–61
  17. ^ Zhikarev, p. 63
  18. ^ Dikov, p. 148
  19. ^ Dikov, p. 156
  20. ^ Dikov
  21. ^ Krusdanov, p. 111
  22. ^ Lebedev, Igor Aviation Lend-Lease to Russia Nova Publishers (1997) pp.44-49
  23. ^ Armstrong, p. 187
  24. ^ Gray, p. 135
  25. ^ a b Gray, p. 122
  26. ^ Directive #517-rp
  27. ^ Список населённых мест Дальневосточного края. По материалам Всесоюзной переписи населения 17 декабря 1926 года и Приполярной переписи 1926—27 года. — Хабаровск; Благовещенск, 1929.
  28. ^ РГАЭ, ф. 1562, оп. 336, д. 1470, л. 20.
  29. ^ Перепись населения СССР 1959 года
  30. ^ Перепись населения СССР 1970 года
  31. ^ Перепись населения СССР 1979 года
  32. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  33. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  34. ^ a b Gray, p. 126
  35. ^ Gray, p. 118
  36. ^ Project to build road from Kolyma to Anadyr drawn up
  37. ^ Погода и Климат - климат Анадыря (in Russian). Retrieved September 17, 2014. 
  38. ^ "Climatological Information for Anadyr', Russia". Retrieved August 31, 2011. 
  39. ^ Anadyr twinned with Bethel, Bethel government website

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]