Amman

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

Amman
عمّان ʿAmmān
City
Amman city landmarks, From right to left and above to below: Amman's skyline as seen from Sport city, Temple of Hercules at Amman Citadel, Omayyad Palace, Ottoman Hejaz Railway station, Roman theater, Abdoun Bridge, King Abdullah I Mosque and Raghadan Flagpole.
Amman city landmarks, From right to left and above to below: Amman's skyline as seen from Sport city, Temple of Hercules at Amman Citadel, Omayyad Palace, Ottoman Hejaz Railway station, Roman theater, Abdoun Bridge, King Abdullah I Mosque and Raghadan Flagpole.
Flag of Amman
Flag
Official seal of Amman
Seal
Amman is located in Jordan
Amman
Amman
Coordinates: 31°56′59″N 35°55′58″E / 31.94972°N 35.93278°E / 31.94972; 35.93278
Country Jordan
GovernorateCapital Governorate
Founded7000 BC
Municipality1909
Government
 • MayorAkel Biltaji
Area
 • City1,680 km2 (650 sq mi)
Highest elevation1,100 m (3,600 ft)
Lowest elevation700 m (2,300 ft)
Population (2010)[1][2]
 • Urban1,919,000
 • Metro2,125,000
Time zoneGMT +3
 • Summer (DST)+3 Arabic Standard Time (UTC)
Postal code11110-17198
Area code(s)+962(6)
WebsiteAmman City
 
Jump to: navigation, search
For other meanings, see Amman (disambiguation)
Amman
عمّان ʿAmmān
City
Amman city landmarks, From right to left and above to below: Amman's skyline as seen from Sport city, Temple of Hercules at Amman Citadel, Omayyad Palace, Ottoman Hejaz Railway station, Roman theater, Abdoun Bridge, King Abdullah I Mosque and Raghadan Flagpole.
Amman city landmarks, From right to left and above to below: Amman's skyline as seen from Sport city, Temple of Hercules at Amman Citadel, Omayyad Palace, Ottoman Hejaz Railway station, Roman theater, Abdoun Bridge, King Abdullah I Mosque and Raghadan Flagpole.
Flag of Amman
Flag
Official seal of Amman
Seal
Amman is located in Jordan
Amman
Amman
Coordinates: 31°56′59″N 35°55′58″E / 31.94972°N 35.93278°E / 31.94972; 35.93278
Country Jordan
GovernorateCapital Governorate
Founded7000 BC
Municipality1909
Government
 • MayorAkel Biltaji
Area
 • City1,680 km2 (650 sq mi)
Highest elevation1,100 m (3,600 ft)
Lowest elevation700 m (2,300 ft)
Population (2010)[1][2]
 • Urban1,919,000
 • Metro2,125,000
Time zoneGMT +3
 • Summer (DST)+3 Arabic Standard Time (UTC)
Postal code11110-17198
Area code(s)+962(6)
WebsiteAmman City

Amman (English pronunciation: /ɑːˈmɑːn/; Arabic: عمّانʿAmmān; Biblical Hebrew: רַבַּת עַמּוֹן Rabat Ammon) is the capital and most populous city of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. It is the country's political, cultural and commercial centre and one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. The Greater Amman area has a population of 2,842,629 as of 2010.[2] The recent economic growth experienced in Amman is unmatched by any other Arab city except those located in the Persian Gulf area. Amman is also the administrative seat of the homonymous governorate. Amman is also ranked a Beta− global city on the World city index.

Amman was named one of the MENA's best cities according to economic, labour, environmental, and socio-cultural factors. Amman is among the most popular locations for multinational corporations to set up their regional offices, alongside Doha and only behind Dubai. Furthermore, it is expected that in the next 10 years these three cities will capture the largest share of multinational corporation activity in the region.[3] It is a major tourist destination in the region and the capital is especially popular among Gulf tourists.[4]

History[edit]

Temple of Hercules, Roman Corinthian columns at Citadel Hill.
Amman in the late 1960s.

In the 13th century BC Amman was called Rabbath Ammon or Rabat Amon by the Ammonites. In the Hebrew Bible, it is referred to as Rabbat ʿAmmon (Tiberian Hebrew Rabbaṯ ʿAmmôn). It was later conquered by the Assyrians, followed by the Persians, and then the Greek Macedonians. Ptolemy II Philadelphus, the Macedonian ruler of Egypt, renamed it Philadelphia (Ancient Greek Φιλαδέλφεια). The city became part of the Nabataean kingdom until 106 AD when Philadelphia came under Roman control and joined the Decapolis.[5]

It was then destroyed by several earthquakes and natural disasters and remained a small village and a pile of ruins until the Circassian settlement in 1878.[6] The tide changed when the Ottoman Sultan decided to build the Hejaz railway, linking Damascus and Medina, facilitating both the annual hajj pilgrimage and permanent trade, putting Amman, a major station, back on the commercial map.[citation needed]

In 1921, Abdullah I chose Amman instead of As-Salt as seat of government for his newly created state, the Emirate of Transjordan, and later as the capital of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. As there was no palatial building, he started his reign from the station, with his office in a train car. Amman remained a small city until 1948, when the population expanded considerably due to an influx of Palestinian refugees from Palestine.

In 1970, Amman was the site of major clashes between the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and the Jordanian army. Everything around the Royal Palace sustained heavy damage from shelling. The city's population continues to expand at a rapid pace (fueled by refugees escaping the wartime events in the West Bank and Iraq). The city received refugees from these countries on a number of occasions. The first wave of Palestinian refugees arrived from Palestine in 1948.[citation needed]

A second wave arrived after the Six-Day War in 1967. A third wave of Palestinian and Jordanian and Southeast Asians, working as domestic workers, refugees arrived in Amman from Kuwait after the Gulf War of 1991. The first wave of Iraqi refugees settled in the city after the first Gulf War, with a second wave also arriving after the 2003 invasion of Iraq. During the last 10 years the number of new buildings within the city has increased dramatically with new districts of the city being founded at a very rapid pace (particularly so in West Amman), straining the very scarce water supplies of Jordan as a whole, and exposing Amman to the hazards of rapid expansion in the absence of careful municipal planning.[citation needed]

On November 9, 2005, coordinated explosions rocked three hotels in Amman, resulting in the death of 60 people and the injury of 115 others. Al-Qaeda claimed responsibility for the act, which was carried out despite the fact that the birthplace of since-killed Al Qaeda terrorist leader Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, is the town of Zarqa, less than 30 km (19 mi) from Amman. The sheer brutality of the attacks, which targeted, among other things, a wedding party being held at one of the hotels, caused widespread revulsion across the widest range of Jordanians. Large protests and vigils followed in the wake of the attacks.

Geography[edit]

Amman in 1940.
Spring in an affluent neighborhood in the capital.
An Orthodox church seen with snow in Amman.

Amman is situated in a hilly area of north-western Jordan. The city was originally built on seven hills, but it now spans over an area of nineteen hills (each known as a Jabal, Tál, Mount or Mountain). The main areas of Amman gain their names from the hills and mountains on whose slopes they lie. The city's elevation changes from mountain to mountain. They range from 700 to 1100 m (2300–3600 feet).

Climate[edit]

Amman's position on the mountains near the Mediterranean places it under the cold semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification: BSk) The city has warm to hot and usually dry summers, whereas the winters are quite wet and range from mild to cool.[7] Spring is brief, mild and lasts a little less than a month, from April to May, with rain during the morning and the afternoons. High temperatures are around 15 °C (59 °F) to 20 °C (68 °F) and lows are less than 10 °C (50 °F) and several times even going near 0 °C (32 °F) causing several freezes.

Amman has moderate summers starting from mid June to mid September. Summer's high temperatures range from 25 °C (77 °F) to 30 °C (86 °F), usually with low to moderate humidity and frequent cool breezes. Most summers are rain-free with cloudless skies during the noon period and a brief shower or fog during the night-time.

Winter usually starts in late November or early December and continues to late April. Temperatures are usually near or below 10 °C (50 °F), with snow usually falling a few times each year. Due to its high altitude above sea level, winter in Amman is one of the coldest in any major city in the MENA and the Mediterranean Basin;[8] winters are usually foggy with at least 120 days of heavy fog per year.[8] Snowy winter storms occur several times around the city. Due to the difference in elevation, snow may accumulate in the northern and western parts of Amman (an average altitude of 1,000 m (3,300 ft) above sea level) while at the same time it could be raining at the city center (elevation of 776 m (2,546 ft)). It can snow anywhere between November and until the end of March- more frequently in vast parts of the city which occupy higher elevations (900 to 1,100 metres (3,000 to 3,600 ft)).

It should be noted that Amman has extreme examples of microclimate, and almost every neighborhood exhibits its own weather.[9] It is known among locals that some boroughs such as the northern suburb of Abu Nsér are among the coldest in the city, and can be experiencing frost while other warmer districts such as Marka can be providing much warmer temperatures to its inhabitants at the same time.

Note: The temperatures listed below are taken from the weather station at the center of the city which is at an elevation of 767 m (2,516 ft) above sea level. At higher elevations, the temperatures will be lower. For example, in areas such as Al-Jubaiha, Sweileh, Khalda, Abu Nser which are at/higher than 1,000 m (3,300 ft) above sea level have average temperatures of 7 to 9 °C (45 to 48 °F) in the day and 1 to 3 °C (34 to 37 °F) at night in January. In August, the average high temperatures in these areas are 26 to 28 °C (79 to 82 °F) in the day and 14 to 16 °C (57 to 61 °F) at night.

Climate data for Amman
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)23.6
(74.5)
28.9
(84)
30.4
(86.7)
36.2
(97.2)
37.9
(100.2)
40.3
(104.5)
44.0
(111.2)
43.8
(110.8)
40.0
(104)
38.2
(100.8)
34.6
(94.3)
26.3
(79.3)
44
(111.2)
Average high °C (°F)12.3
(54.1)
13.7
(56.7)
17.2
(63)
22.6
(72.7)
27.8
(82)
30.8
(87.4)
32.0
(89.6)
32.4
(90.3)
30.7
(87.3)
27.1
(80.8)
20.4
(68.7)
14.4
(57.9)
23.5
(74.2)
Average low °C (°F)3.6
(38.5)
4.2
(39.6)
6.1
(43)
9.5
(49.1)
13.5
(56.3)
16.6
(61.9)
18.5
(65.3)
18.6
(65.5)
16.6
(61.9)
13.8
(56.8)
9.3
(48.7)
5.2
(41.4)
11.3
(52.3)
Record low °C (°F)−10.0
(14)
−9.5
(14.9)
−8.2
(17.2)
−2.6
(27.3)
−0.9
(30.4)
3.2
(37.8)
7.0
(44.6)
5.4
(41.7)
0.0
(32)
−1.8
(28.8)
−4.5
(23.9)
−7.8
(18)
−10
(14)
Precipitation mm (inches)63.4
(2.496)
61.7
(2.429)
43.1
(1.697)
13.7
(0.539)
3.3
(0.13)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.3
(0.012)
6.6
(0.26)
28.0
(1.102)
49.2
(1.937)
269.3
(10.602)
Avg. precipitation days11.010.98.04.01.60.1000.12.35.38.451.7
Mean monthly sunshine hours179.8182.0226.3266.6328.6369.0387.5365.8312.0275.9225.0179.83,298.3
Source #1: World Meteorological Organization[10]
Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory(sun, 1961–1990)[11]
A panoramic view of Amman's skyline in 2003, showing several landmarks including the Al-Iskan Bank Building, Raghadan Flagpole, Le Royal Hotel, Zara Towers and the King Abdullah I Mosque.

Districts[edit]

The city is administered as the Greater Amman Municipality (GAM) and covers 27 districts which include:[12]

1Âbdali4Qwésmé, Jwaydé, Abu Âlanda and Raqim7Müwaqar10Bader è Jadida13Jbeyha16Mārka19Ohod22Şhafa Badran25Tlaâ’l Âli
2Abu Nsér5Yarmuk8Mqabalayen11Basmān14Khraybet essouq17Médina20Rās ıl Êyn23Swéyleh26Vādi'l Sér
3Um-Ožayna6Jizah9Bader12Hüsbān15Marj ıl Hamām18Naûr21Sahāb24Tariq27Zahrān
Aerial photograph of Amman
View of a roundabout in Amman
The Rainbow Cinema in Jabal Amman, located on Rainbow Street

Transportation[edit]

City bus

The city's largest airport, Queen Alia International Airport, situated about 30 km (18.64 mi) south of Amman, is the major international airport in Jordan and the hub for Royal Jordanian, the flag carrier. The airport expanding was recently done and modified, including the decommissiong of the old terminals and the commission a new terminal costing $700M, to handle over 12 million passengers. Amman Civil Airport is a one-terminal airport that serves primarily domestic and nearby international routes and the military.[13]

The Abdoun Bridge spans Wadi Abdoun and connects the 4th Circle to Abdoun Circle. It is considered one of Amman's many landmarks. It is the first curved suspended bridge to be built.

Currently under construction are dedicated lanes for bus services which will operate as part of the new urban rapid transit network (bus rapid transit). The system includes high-quality stations and stops; express buses that can carry more than 120 passengers and will run on a three-minute frequency during peak hours along Amman’s busiest corridors; terminals and park-n-ride facilities, and an integrated fare collection system allowing passengers to pay the fare at stations before embarking on the bus.[14] The BRT is planned to run along three major corridors. The first corridor connects Sweileh with Mahatta via Sport City with major service to the University of Jordan. The second corridor connects Sport City with downtown at Ras El-Ain. The third corridor connects Customs Square with Mahatta.[15]

There are also plans to construct a three-line metro system in Amman. The first phase consists of two lines, the red and green lines, connecting East, Central, and West Amman with an interchange station (linking the two lines) at Amman Plaza with connections to the Northern and Southern suburbs. The second phase consists of the yellow line, connecting North and South Amman with an interchange to the red and green lines at the Abdali and City Hall stations.

There are eight circles, or roundabouts, that span and connect West Amman. However, the city lacks an operable rail or metro system which causes severe congestion, especially in old Amman. To add to the congestion, all the Kingdom's highways pass through Amman, further increasing traffic in the capital.

By land, the city has frequent bus connections to other cities in Jordan, as well as to major cities in neighboring countries; the latter are also served by service taxis. Internal transport is served by a number of bus routes and taxis. Service taxis, which most often operate on fixed routes, are readily available and inexpensive. The two main bus and taxi stations are Abdali (near the King Abdullah Mosque, the Parliament and Palace of Justice) and the newly built Rağadan Central Bus Station (near the Roman Amphitheatre in downtown). The city can suffer from considerable traffic congestion at peak hours, especially during the summer months when affluent holidaymakers from the Persian Gulf region spend the summer in Amman to take advantage of its comparatively mild weather.[citation needed]

Economy[edit]

Amman view
Rendered picture of the Abdali New Downtown which is currently under construction

Amman is positioning itself as a hub for business, and new projects are continually transforming the city's skyline. Following the 2003 Iraq War, a significant portion of business dealings with Iraq flow through Amman in some way. Its airport, Queen Alia International Airport, is the hub of the national carrier, Royal Jordanian, which is a major airline in the region.[16] The airline is headquartered in central Amman.[17]

Amman, and Jordan as a whole for that matter, is the Middle East's hub for medical tourism as the kingdom receives the most medical tourists in the region and the 5th highest in the world. Amman receives 250,000 foreign patients a year and receives over $1 billion annually.[18]

Rubicon Group Holding and Maktoob, two major regional information technology companies, are based in Amman.

Foreign Investment and Business: In a report by Dunia Frontier Consultants, Amman along with Doha and Dubai are the favored hubs for multinational corporations operating in the Middle East and North Africa region.[3] In FDI magazine, Amman was chosen as the Middle Eastern city with the most potential to be a leader in foreign direct investment in the region, beating Dubai.[19] One of the Middle East's largest banks, Arab Bank, is headquartered in Amman. Also based in Amman is Aramex, the Middle East's largest logistics and transportation company.[19][20] It is also one of the world's largest logistics and transportation companies in the world alongside DHL, FedEx, and UPS. Furthermore, several of the world's largest investment banks have offices in Amman including HSBC, Standard Chartered, Societe Generale, and Citibank.[21]

Tourism: Amman is the 8th most visited city by tourists and business travelers in the Middle East and Africa as well as the 9th highest recipient of international visitor spending. 1.8 million tourists visited the Jordanian capital in 2011 and spent over $1.3 billion in the city.[22] If the entire kingdom is taken into account, there were 8 million tourists in 2010 and $ 4.4 billion in visitor expenditure, including medical tourists.[23]

The Greater Amman Municipality's heavy investment in its infrastructure, such as the expansion of Queen Alia International Airport, the construction of a state of the art public transportation system, a national railway, and expansion of road works, will ease the arrival of millions of new visitors and tonnes of cargo through this soon to be regional hub.

New developments[edit]

New projects and proposals in and around the city include:

East Amman is the historic city centre. Eastern Amman is more traditional and older than the newer West. Small shops and single-family houses are dominant in East Amman's landscape. East Amman is the hub for the capital's historic sites and cultural activities.

West Amman is the current economic city centre, and is the modern, stylish extension of Amman. Malls, shopping centres, expensive hotels, bars and international restaurants are part of West Amman's development.

Education[edit]

In 2010, there were as many as 14 universities in Amman. University of Jordan is the largest university in Amman,[27] Applied Science University was ranked as the largest private university.

See Also: List of universities in Jordan

Archaeology[edit]

During its long history, Amman has been inhabited by several civilizations. The first culture on record is during the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B period, around 7250 BC, when archaeological discoveries in 'Ain Ghazal, located in eastern Amman, showed evidence of not only a settled life but also the growth of artistic work, which suggests that a well-developed culture inhabited the area at that time.[28] A megalithic menhir has also been found in Amman at Wadi Saqra.[29]

Culture[edit]

A historic building in Jabel Lweibdeh
A Moabite sarcophagus in Jordan Archaeological Museum

Cuisine[edit]

The New York Times praised the cuisine of Amman. "You’ll find the bright vegetables from Lebanon, crunchy falafels from Syria, juicy kebabs from Egypt and, most recently, spicy meat dishes from Jordan’s neighbor, Iraq. It’s known as the food of the Levant — an ancient word for the area bounded by the Mediterranean Sea and the Arabian peninsula. But the food here isn’t just the sum of its calories. In this politically, religiously and ethnically fraught corner of the world, it is a symbol of bloodlines and identity."[30]

Sports[edit]

Amman-based soccer (football)clubs Al-Wehdat and Al-Faisaly have won the national league championship several times.

The 2007 Asian Championships in Athletics and 2009 IAAF World Cross Country Championships were held in the city.

Amman hosts the Jordan Rally, which form part of the FIA World Rally Championship, becoming the biggest sporting event ever held in Jordan. Amman also hosts the Sama Tournament which is a part of the Trillium Championship.

Media[edit]

There are many radio stations in Jordan, mostly based in Amman. The majority of English speaking stations are targeted to suit the younger listeners playing hit music. There are many Arabic speaking stations that cover the Religious, Factual, Arabic music and other general local topics:

Most Jordanian newspapers and news stations are situated in Amman. Most Jordanian daily newspapers are published in Amman such as Alghad,[31] Ad-Dustour,[32] and the The Jordan Times.[31] In 2010, Alghad newspaper was ranked as 10th most popular newspaper in the Arab World by Forbes Middle-East magazine.[33] Al-Arab Al-Yawm is the only daily pan-Arab newspaper in Jordan.

Main sights[edit]

Umayyad Palace on the summit of Citadel Hill

Much of Amman's tourism is focused in the older downtown area, which is centred around the old souk (a colourful traditional market) and the King Hussein Mosque. The main touristic sites in the city are:

The Jordan Archaeological Museum is home to ancient findings from the whole country.

The newest of mosques is the enormous King Abdullah I Mosque, built between 1982 and 1989. It is capped by a magnificent blue mosaic dome beneath which 3,000 Muslims may offer prayer. The most unusual mosque in Amman is the Abu Darweesh Mosque atop Jabal Ashrafieh (the highest point in the city). It is covered with black and white checkered pattern and is unique to Jordan. It is visible from quite some distance. In contrast, the interior is totally free of the black and white scheme. Instead, there are light coloured walls and Persian carpets. This religious building was erected by one of Amman's Circassian minority.

Wakalat Street

Tourism and lifestyle[edit]

Amman is considered one of the most "westernized" and liberal cities in the Arab World. Amman has become one of the most popular destinations for "Western" expats and college students who seek to live, study, or work in the Middle East or the Arab World in general.[34][35] The city's culinary scene has expanded from its shwarma stands and falafel joints to embrace many popular American restaurants and fast-food outlets like McDonald's and T.G.I. Friday's,[36] Asian fusion restaurants, French bistros such as La Maison Verte and Italian trattorias. The city has become famous for its fine dining scene among Western expats and Persian Gulf tourists. Alcohol is widely available in restaurants, bars, nightclubs, and even supermarkets.[37]

There are numerous nightclubs and bars across the city especially in West Amman. As of 2011, there were 77 registered nightclubs in Jordan (excluding bars and pubs), overwhelmingly located in the capital city.[38] Modesty in dress for men and women is greatly relaxed and low-cut shirts, tank tops and short skirts are becoming commonplace.[39] Abdoun Circle (not one of the eight) is a major center of the city’s night life where the chicest clubs maintain a strict “couples only” policy, meaning no unescorted men. Sweifieh is considered to be the unofficial red-light district of Amman as it holds most of the city's nightclubs, bars, strip-clubs, massage parlors, and other adult entertainment venues. Jabal Amman and Jabal al-Weibdeh are home to many pubs and bars as well making the area popular among bar hoppers.[37]

One of Amman's new up-scale suburbs

Nightclubs, music bars and shisha lounges have sprouted across Amman, changing the city's old image as the conservative capital of the kingdom. Jordan's young population is helping shape this new burgeoning nightlife scene.[40]

As well as the wide range of drinking and dancing venues on the social circuit of the city's affluent crowd, Amman has much cultural entertainment to indulge in like the annual Amman Summer Festival and Souk Jara.[41]

Valued at more than US $5 Billion, the Abdali project is planned to create a new visible center for Amman and act as the major business district. The project includes Jordan's new high street and mall, luxury hotels and apartments as well as start-of-the-art offices. The entire project is expected to be finished by 2015.[42]

City Mall, one of Amman's mega malls

Large malls were built during the 2000s in Amman, including the Mecca Mall, Abdoun Mall, Amman Mall, City Mall, Plaza Mall, Al Baraka Mall, Istikal Mall, Taj Mall (in Abdoun), Zara Shopping Center, Sweifieh Avenue Mall, and Mukhtar Mall. Further, Abdali Mall in Al Abdali is under construction. The Wakalat Street (English: "Agencies Street") is Amman's first pedestrian-only street and carries a lot of label name clothes. The Sweifieh area in general is considered to be the main shopping district of Amman.

Twin towns — sister cities[edit]

Amman is twinned with:[43]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Amman (Jordanien) - Infos, Sehenswürdigkeiten und Klima". Frendy.de. Retrieved 2013-11-24. 
  2. ^ a b "Amman population in 2011 - Evi". Trueknowledge.com. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  3. ^ a b "Dunia Frontier Consultants » Doha, Amman Favored by MNCs as New Regional Hubs". Duniafrontier.com. 2012-01-25. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  4. ^ IANS/WAM (2010-11-26). "Abu Dhab duke City' in MENA region". sify news. 
  5. ^ "Amman". Magicjordan.net. Retrieved 2013-11-24. 
  6. ^ "Amman Centennial | From the end of the Ummayad era till 1878". Web.archive.org. 2010-02-12. Archived from the original on 2010-02-12. Retrieved 2013-03-25. 
  7. ^ "Average Weather In October For Amman, Jordan". WeatherSpark. 2012-10-26. Retrieved 2013-03-25. 
  8. ^ a b "Real Estate in Amman and Jordan for Apartments and Villas - Rent & Buy". Cityscape.jo. Retrieved 2013-11-24. 
  9. ^ ""Ever-growing Amman", Jordan: Urban expansion, social polarisation ands contemporary urban planning issues". Arlt-lectures.com. Retrieved 2013-11-24. 
  10. ^ "World Weather Information Service – Amman". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved February 22, 2013. 
  11. ^ "Climatological Information for Amman, Jordan". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved February 22, 2013. 
  12. ^ "Greater Amman Muncipality - GAM Interactive". Ammancity.gov.jo. Retrieved 2013-11-24. 
  13. ^ "Accelerating passenger growth at Jordan’s QAIA suggests confidence returning". Al Bawaba. 2011-08-01. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  14. ^ Name *. "BRT project on track – GAM | Jordan Business News | Amman Social Business Events | Press Release & opinions". English.business.jo. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  15. ^ "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". Web.archive.org. 2010-08-30. Archived from the original on 2010-08-30. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  16. ^ "Royal Jordanian". oneworld. Retrieved 2010-07-04. 
  17. ^ [1][dead link]
  18. ^ "‘Jordan remains medical tourism hub despite regional unrest’". The Jordan Times. 2012-03-18. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  19. ^ a b "Foreign Direct Investment | Iraq Business News – Part 2". Iraq Business News. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  20. ^ Hussein Hachem (2011-05-24). "Aramex MEA: the Middle East's biggest courier firm – Lead Features – Business Management Middle East | GDS Publishing". Busmanagementme.com. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  21. ^ "Courier Companies of the World". PRLog. 2009-08-18. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  22. ^ MasterCard Worldwide. "MasterCard Worldwide's Global Destination Cities Index". Slideshare.net. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  23. ^ "Periodical Islamic Chamber Of Commerce & Industry Magazine". Chambermag.com. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  24. ^ "The Abdali Boulevard". Abdali-boulevard.jo. Retrieved 2010-07-04. 
  25. ^ "Starwood Hotels & Resorts And Al Maabar Announce Plans To Debut The First St. Regis Hotel In Jordan". Zawya. 11 January 2011. Retrieved 26 October 2013. 
  26. ^ a b "$300m hotel for Jordan". The National. 10 January 2011. Retrieved 26 October 2013. 
  27. ^ [2][dead link]
  28. ^ Carlos E. Cordova (17 May 2007). Millennial Landscape Change in Jordan: Geoarchaeology and Cultural Ecology. University of Arizona Press. pp. 135–. ISBN 978-0-8165-2554-6. Retrieved 5 October 2012. 
  29. ^ BAR S2317, Maison de l’Orient Méditerranéen, "Pierres levées, stèles anthropomorphes et dolmens / Standing stones, anthropomorphic stelae and dolmens" edited by Tara Steimer-Herbet; Maison de l’Orient et de la Méditerranée Jean Pouilloux. ISBN 9781407309002, 210 pages; illustrated throughout; papers in English and French, 2011
  30. ^ Pergament, Danielle (13 January 2008). "All the Foods of the Mideast at Its Stable Center". The New York Times. 
  31. ^ a b "الرأي الأردنية | أخبار الأردن والشرق الأوسط والعالم|صحيفة يومية تصدر في عمان الأردن". Alrai.com. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  32. ^ ":: جريدة الدستور ::". Addustour.com. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  33. ^ [http:/→/alghad.com→→/?news=539101][dead link]
  34. ^ "Westernized media in Jordan breaking old taboos — RT". Rt.com. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  35. ^ [3][dead link]
  36. ^ "Jordan A to Z: F is for .... Friday!". pilgrim without a shrine. April 7, 2012. Retrieved September 16, 2012. 
  37. ^ a b Ferren, Andrew (2009-11-22). "A Newly Stylish Amman Asserts Itself". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-03-30. 
  38. ^ "3% of Nightclub women are Jordanian | Editor's Choice | Ammon News". En.ammonnews.net. 2011-01-19. Retrieved 2013-11-24. 
  39. ^ "Jordan Guide – Rough Guides travel information". Roughguides.com. Retrieved 2010-07-04. 
  40. ^ "Amman bustles with nightlife, shedding old image". The Independent. 28 February 2010. Retrieved 26 October 2013. 
  41. ^ "Jordan Guide – Rough Guides travel information". Roughguides.com. Retrieved 2010-07-04. 
  42. ^ "Abdali". Abdali.jo. Archived from the original on 16 August 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-04. 
  43. ^ "Amman’s Relations with Other Cities". Ammancity.gov.jo. Archived from the original on 2005-03-07. Retrieved 2013-12-31. 
  44. ^ "Sister Cities". Beijing Municipal Government. Retrieved 2009-06-23. 
  45. ^ "Pesquisa de Legislação Municipal - No 14471" [Research Municipal Legislation - No 14471]. Prefeitura da Cidade de São Paulo [Municipality of the City of São Paulo] (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 2011-10-18. Retrieved 2013-08-23. 
  46. ^ Lei Municipal de São Paulo 14471 de 2007 WikiSource (Portuguese)
  47. ^ "International Relations – São Paulo City Hall – Official Sister Cities". Prefeitura.sp.gov.br. Retrieved 2010-07-04. 
  48. ^ Chicago Commission on Human Relations (2010). 2010 Annual Report (PDF). p. 22. 
  49. ^ "Milano – Città Gemellate". © 2008 Municipality of Milan (Comune di Milano). Retrieved 2009-07-17. 
  50. ^ "Sarajevo Official Web Site: Sister cities". Sarajevo.ba. Archived from the original on 12 April 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-06. 
  51. ^ "Mostar Gradovi prijatelji" [Mostar Twin Towns]. Grad Mostar [Mostar Official City Website] (in Macedonian). Archived from the original on 2013-10-30. Retrieved 2013-12-19. 
  52. ^ "Mayor Newsom Signs New Sister City Agreements with City of Amman, Jordan" (Press release). San Francisco Office of the Mayor. April 23, 2010. Retrieved September 16, 2012. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 31°56′N 35°56′E / 31.933°N 35.933°E / 31.933; 35.933