List of Presidents of the United States

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The White House, the president's official residence and center of the administration

Under the United States Constitution, the President of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States. As chief of the executive branch and head of the federal government as a whole, the presidency is the highest political office in the United States by influence and recognition. The president is also the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. The president is indirectly elected to a four-year term by an Electoral College (or by the House of Representatives should the Electoral College fail to award an absolute majority of votes to any person). Since the ratification of the Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1951, no person may be elected President more than twice, and no one who has served more than two years of a term to which someone else was elected may be elected more than once.[1] Upon the death, resignation, or removal from office of an incumbent President, the Vice President assumes the office. The President must be at least 35 years of age and a "natural born" citizen of the United States.

This list includes only those persons who were sworn into office as president following the ratification of the United States Constitution, which took effect on March 4, 1789. For American leaders before this ratification, see President of the Continental Congress.[2] The list does not include any Acting Presidents under the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution.

There have been 43 people sworn into office, and 44 presidencies, as Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms and is counted chronologically as both the 22nd and 24th president. Of the individuals elected as president, four died in office of natural causes (William Henry Harrison,[3] Zachary Taylor,[4] Warren G. Harding,[5] and Franklin D. Roosevelt), four were assassinated (Abraham Lincoln,[6] James A. Garfield,[6][7] William McKinley,[8] and John F. Kennedy) and one resigned (Richard Nixon).[9]

George Washington, the first president, was inaugurated in 1789 after a unanimous vote of the Electoral College. William Henry Harrison spent the shortest time in office with 32 days in 1841, and Franklin D. Roosevelt spent the longest with over twelve years, but died shortly into his fourth term in 1945. He is the only president to serve more than two terms and a constitutional amendment was passed to prevent that from reoccurring. Andrew Jackson, the seventh president, was the first to be elected by men of all classes in 1828 after most laws barring non-land-owners from voting were repealed. Warren Harding was the first elected after women gained voting rights in 1920. Lyndon Johnson, in 1964, was elected after the Civil Rights Era reforms eliminated laws that suppressed minority votes. History records four presidents - John Q Adams, Rutherford B. Hayes, Benjamin Harrison and George W Bush - who lost the popular vote but won in the electoral college and assumed office. John F. Kennedy has been the only president of Roman Catholic faith, and the current president, Barack Obama, is the first president who is an African American.[10]

Contents

List of presidents

Parties

      No party       Federalist       Democratic-Republican       Democratic       Whig       Republican

No.
[n 1]
PresidentTook officeLeft officePartyTerm
[n 1]
Vice President
1Gilbert Stuart, George Washington (Lansdowne portrait, 1796).jpgGeorge Washington
(1732–1799)
[11][12][13]
April 30, 1789March 4, 1797no party1 (1789) John Adams
2 (1792)
2Adamstrumbull.jpgJohn Adams
(1735–1826)
[14][15][16]
March 4, 1797March 4, 1801Federalist3 (1796)Thomas Jefferson
3Thomas Jefferson by Rembrandt Peale, 1800.jpgThomas Jefferson
(1743–1826)
[17][18][19]
March 4, 1801March 4, 1809Democratic-
Republican
4 (1800)Aaron Burr
5 (1804)George Clinton
4James Madison.jpgJames Madison
(1751–1836)
[20][21][22]
March 4, 1809March 4, 1817Democratic-
Republican
6 (1808)George Clinton[n 2]
March 4, 1809 – April 20, 1812
vacant[n 3]
April 20, 1812 – March 4, 1813
7 (1812)Elbridge Gerry[n 2]
March 4, 1813 – November 23, 1814
vacant[n 3]
November 23, 1814 – March 4, 1817
5Jm5.gifJames Monroe
(1758–1831)
[23][24][25]
March 4, 1817March 4, 1825Democratic-
Republican
8 (1816)Daniel D. Tompkins
9 (1820)
6John Quincy Adams by GPA Healy, 1858.jpgJohn Quincy Adams
(1767–1848)
[26][27][28]
March 4, 1825March 4, 1829Democratic-
Republican
10 (1824)John C. Calhoun
7Andrew jackson head.jpgAndrew Jackson
(1767–1845)
[29][30][31]
March 4, 1829March 4, 1837Democratic11 (1828)John C. Calhoun[n 4]
March 4, 1829 – December 28, 1832
vacant[n 3]
December 28, 1832 – March 4, 1833
12 (1832)Martin Van Buren
8Mb8.gifMartin Van Buren
(1782–1862)
[32][33][34]
March 4, 1837March 4, 1841Democratic13 (1836)Richard Mentor Johnson
9William Henry Harrison by James Reid Lambdin, 1835.jpgWilliam Henry Harrison
(1773–1841)
[35][36][37]
March 4, 1841April 4, 1841
[n 2]
Whig14 (1840)John Tyler
10
[n 5]
WHOportTyler.jpgJohn Tyler
(1790–1862)
[38][39][40]
April 4, 1841March 4, 1845Whig
April 4, 1841 – September 13, 1841
vacant[n 3]
no party[n 6]
September 13, 1841 – March 4, 1845
11James Knox Polk by GPA Healy, 1858.jpgJames K. Polk
(1795–1849)
[41][42][43]
March 4, 1845March 4, 1849Democratic15 (1844)George M. Dallas
12Zachary Taylor by Joseph Henry Bush, c1848.jpgZachary Taylor
(1784–1850)
[44][45][46]
March 4, 1849July 9, 1850
[n 2]
Whig16 (1848)Millard Fillmore
13Millard Fillmore by George PA Healy, 1857.jpgMillard Fillmore
(1800–1874)
[47][48][49]
July 9, 1850March 4, 1853Whigvacant[n 3]
14Franklin Pierce by GPA Healy, 1858.jpgFranklin Pierce
(1804–1869)
[50][51][52]
March 4, 1853March 4, 1857Democratic17 (1852)William R. King[n 2]
March 4, 1853 – April 18, 1853
vacant[n 3]
April 18, 1853 – March 4, 1857
15JamesBuchanan crop.jpgJames Buchanan
(1791–1868)
[53][54][55]
March 4, 1857March 4, 1861Democratic18 (1856)John C. Breckinridge
16Lincoln by George H Story c1915.jpgAbraham Lincoln
(1809–1865)
[56][57][58]
March 4, 1861April 15, 1865
[n 7]
Republican19 (1860)Hannibal Hamlin
Republican
National Union[n 8]
20 (1864)Andrew Johnson
17Aj17.gifAndrew Johnson
(1808–1875)
[59][60][61]
April 15, 1865March 4, 1869Democratic
National Union;[n 8]
no party[n 9]
vacant
[n 3]
18Ug18.gifUlysses S. Grant
(1822–1885)
[62][63][64]
March 4, 1869March 4, 1877Republican21 (1868)Schuyler Colfax
22 (1872)Henry Wilson[n 2]
March 4, 1873 – November 22, 1875
vacant[n 3]
November 22, 1875 – March 4, 1877
19Rhayes.pngRutherford B. Hayes
(1822–1893)
[65][66][67]
March 4, 1877March 4, 1881Republican23 (1876)William A. Wheeler
20James Garfield portrait.jpgJames A. Garfield
(1831–1881)
[68][69][70]
March 4, 1881September 19, 1881
[n 7]
Republican24 (1880)Chester A. Arthur
21Chester A Arthur by Daniel Huntington crop.jpegChester A. Arthur
(1829–1886)
[71][72][73]
September 19, 1881March 4, 1885Republicanvacant[n 3]
22Grover Cleveland portrait2.jpgGrover Cleveland
(1837–1908)
[74][75]
March 4, 1885March 4, 1889Democratic25 (1884)Thomas A. Hendricks[n 2]
March 4, 1885 – November 25, 1885
vacant[n 3]
November 25, 1885 – March 4, 1889
23Benjamin Harrison by Eastman Johnson (1895).jpgBenjamin Harrison
(1833–1901)
[76][77][78]
March 4, 1889March 4, 1893Republican26 (1888)Levi P. Morton
24Grover Cleveland portrait2.jpgGrover Cleveland
(1837–1908)
[74][75]
March 4, 1893March 4, 1897Democratic27 (1892)Adlai Stevenson I
25Official White House portrait of William McKinley.jpgWilliam McKinley
(1843–1901)
[79][80][81]
March 4, 1897September 14, 1901
[n 7]
Republican28 (1896)Garret Hobart[n 2]
March 4, 1897 – November 21, 1899
vacant[n 3]
November 21, 1899 – March 4, 1901
29 (1900)Theodore Roosevelt
26TRSargent.jpgTheodore Roosevelt
(1858–1919)
[82][83][84]
September 14, 1901March 4, 1909Republicanvacant[n 3]
30 (1904)Charles W. Fairbanks
27TaftOfficial Portrait.jpgWilliam Howard Taft
(1857–1930)
[85][86][87]
March 4, 1909March 4, 1913Republican31 (1908)James S. Sherman[n 2]
March 4, 1909 – October 30, 1912
vacant[n 3]
October 30, 1912 – March 4, 1913
28Ww28.gifWoodrow Wilson
(1856–1924)
[88][89][90]
March 4, 1913March 4, 1921Democratic32 (1912)Thomas R. Marshall
33 (1916)
29Wh29.gifWarren G. Harding
(1865–1923)
[91][92][93]
March 4, 1921August 2, 1923
[n 2]
Republican34 (1920)Calvin Coolidge
30Calvin Coolidge.jpgCalvin Coolidge
(1872–1933)
[94][95][96]
August 2, 1923March 4, 1929Republicanvacant[n 3]
35 (1924)Charles G. Dawes
31Herbert Clark Hoover by Greene, 1956.jpgHerbert Hoover
(1874–1964)
[97][98][99]
March 4, 1929March 4, 1933Republican36 (1928)Charles Curtis
32Franklin Roosevelt - Presidential portrait.jpgFranklin D. Roosevelt
(1882–1945)
[100][101][102]
March 4, 1933 (1933-03-04)April 12, 1945 (1945-04-12)
[n 2]
Democratic37 (1932)
[n 10]
John Nance Garner
38 (1936)
39 (1940)Henry A. Wallace
40 (1944)Harry S. Truman
33HarryTruman.jpgHarry S. Truman
(1884–1972)
[103][104][105]
April 12, 1945January 20, 1953Democraticvacant[n 3]
41 (1948)Alben W. Barkley

1949 - 1953

34Dwight D. Eisenhower, official Presidential portrait.jpgDwight D. Eisenhower
(1890–1969)
[106][107][108]
January 20, 1953January 20, 1961
[n 11]
Republican42 (1952)Richard Nixon
43 (1956)
35John F Kennedy Official Portrait.jpgJohn F. Kennedy
(1917–1963)
[109][110][111]
January 20, 1961November 22, 1963
[n 7]
Democratic44 (1960)Lyndon B. Johnson
36Lyndon B. Johnson - portrait.pngLyndon B. Johnson
(1908–1973)
[112][113]
November 22, 1963January 20, 1969Democraticvacant[n 3]
45 (1964)Hubert Humphrey
January 20, 1965 – January 20, 1969
37Richard Nixon - Presidential portrait.jpgRichard Nixon
(1913–1994)
[114][115][116]
January 20, 1969August 9, 1974
[n 4]
Republican46 (1968)Spiro Agnew[n 4]
January 20, 1969 – October 10, 1973
47 (1972)
vacant[n 3]
October 10, 1973 – December 6, 1973
Gerald Ford
December 6, 1973 – August 9, 1974
38Gerald Ford - Presidential portrait.jpgGerald Ford
(1913–2006)
[117][118][119]
August 9, 1974January 20, 1977Republicanvacant[n 3]
August 9, 1974 – December 19, 1974
Nelson Rockefeller
December 19, 1974 – January 20, 1977
39James E. Carter - portrait.gifJimmy Carter
(1924– )
[120][121][122]
January 20, 1977January 20, 1981Democratic48 (1976)Walter Mondale
40Ronald Reagan - Presidential portrait.jpgRonald Reagan
(1911–2004)
[123][124][125]
January 20, 1981January 20, 1989Republican49 (1980)George H. W. Bush
50 (1984)
41George H. W. Bush - portrait by Herbert Abrams (1994).jpgGeorge H. W. Bush
(1924– )
[126][127][128]
January 20, 1989January 20, 1993Republican51 (1988)Dan Quayle
42Clinton.jpgBill Clinton
(1946– )
[129][130][131]
January 20, 1993January 20, 2001Democratic52 (1992)Al Gore
53 (1996)
43President George W Bush portrait.jpgGeorge W. Bush
(1946– )
[132][133][134]
January 20, 2001January 20, 2009Republican54 (2000)Dick Cheney
55 (2004)
44Official portrait of Barack Obama.jpgBarack Obama
(1961– )
[135][136][137]
January 20, 2009IncumbentDemocratic56 (2008)Joe Biden

Living former presidents

As of October 2012, there are four living former presidents:

PresidentTerm of officeDate of birth
Jimmy Carter1977–1981(1924-10-01) October 1, 1924 (age 88)
George H. W. Bush1989–1993(1924-06-12) June 12, 1924 (age 88)
Bill Clinton1993–2001(1946-08-19) August 19, 1946 (age 66)
George W. Bush2001–2009(1946-07-06) July 6, 1946 (age 66)

The most recent death of a former president was that of Gerald Ford (1974–1977) on December 26, 2006.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b For the purposes of numbering, a presidency is defined as an uninterupted period of time in office served by one person. For example, George Washington served two consecutive terms and is counted as the first president (not the first and second). Upon the resignation of 37th president Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford became the 38th president even though he simply served out the remainder of Nixon's second term and was never elected to the presidency in his own right. Grover Cleveland was both the 22nd president and the 24th president, his two terms having been non-consecutive. A period during which a vice-president temporarily becomes Acting President under the Twenty-fifth Amendment is not a presidency, because the president remains in office during such a period.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Died in office of natural causes.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Prior to ratification of the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1967, there was no mechanism by which a vacancy in the Vice Presidency could be filled. Richard Nixon was the first president to fill such a vacancy under the provisions of the Twenty-fifth Amendment when he appointed Gerald Ford. Ford later became the second president to fill a vice presidential vacancy when he appointed Nelson Rockefeller to succeed him.
  4. ^ a b c Resigned.
  5. ^ Being the first vice president to assume the presidency, Tyler set a precedent that a vice president who assumes the office of president becomes a fully functioning president who has his own presidency, as opposed to just a caretaker president. His political opponents attempted to refer to him as "Acting President", but he refused to allow that. The Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution put Tyler's precedent into the Constitution.
  6. ^ Former Democrat who ran for Vice President on Whig ticket. Clashed with Whig congressional leaders and was expelled from the Whig party in 1841.
  7. ^ a b c d Assassinated.
  8. ^ a b Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson were, respectively, a Republican and a Democrat who ran on the National Union ticket in 1864.
  9. ^ Andrew Johnson did not identify with the two main parties while president and tried and failed to build a party of loyalists under the National Union label. His failure to build a true National Union Party left Johnson without a party.
  10. ^ This term was shortened by 43 days due to the Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution going into effect, moving inauguration day from March 4 to January 20.
  11. ^ Dwight Eisenhower is the first president to have been legally prohibited by the Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution from seeking a third term.

References

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