American cockroach

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

American cockroach
Sorry, your browser either has JavaScript disabled or does not have any supported player.
You can download the clip or download a player to play the clip in your browser.
An American cockroach in action - first in real time, then slowed down to one-tenth speed
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Arthropoda
Class:Insecta
Order:Blattodea
Family:Blattidae
Genus:Periplaneta
Species:P. americana
Binomial name
Periplaneta americana
(Linnaeus, 1758)
 
Jump to: navigation, search


American cockroach
Sorry, your browser either has JavaScript disabled or does not have any supported player.
You can download the clip or download a player to play the clip in your browser.
An American cockroach in action - first in real time, then slowed down to one-tenth speed
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Arthropoda
Class:Insecta
Order:Blattodea
Family:Blattidae
Genus:Periplaneta
Species:P. americana
Binomial name
Periplaneta americana
(Linnaeus, 1758)

The American cockroach (Periplaneta americana), also known as the waterbug,[1] or misidentified as the palmetto bug (see Florida woods cockroach for the differences), is the largest species of common cockroach, and often considered a pest. None of the Periplaneta species are endemic to the Americas; despite the name, P. americana was introduced to the United States from Africa as early as 1625.[2] They are now common in tropical climates because human activity has extended the insect's range of habitation, and global shipping has transported the insects to world ports including the Southern United States, Canary Islands, southern Spain, Greece, Taiwan, India and South Africa.

Contents

History

Cockroaches date back to the Carboniferous period. Cockroaches are thought to have emerged on Pangaea, the original supercontinent, or on Gondwana, the daughter continent of Pangaea. The cockroach made many adaptations over millions of years to be able to survive the major die offs to which many species succumbed.[3]

Characteristics

American cockroach adults grow to an average length of around 4 cm (1.6 in) and about 7 mm (0.28 in) tall.[4] They are reddish brown and have a yellowish margin on the body region behind the head. Immature cockroaches resemble adults except they are wingless.

The cockroach is divided in three sections; the body is flattened and broadly oval, with a shield-like pronotum covering its head. A pronotum is a plate-like structure that covers all or part of the dorsal surface of the thorax of certain insects. They also have chewing mouth parts, long, segmented antennae, and leathery fore wings with delicate hind wings. The third section of the cockroach is the abdomen.[5]

The insect can travel quickly, often darting out of sight when someone enters a room, and can fit into small cracks and under doors despite its fairly large size. It is considered one of the fastest running insects.[6]

In an experiment carried out at the University of California, Berkeley in 1991, a Periplaneta americana registered a record speed of 5.4 km/h (3.4 mph), about 50 body lengths per second, which would be comparable to a human running at 330 km/h (210 mph).[7][8]

It has a pair of large compound eyes, each having over 2000 individual lenses, and is a very active night insect that shuns light.

Risk to humans

The odorous secretions produced by American cockroaches can alter the flavor of food. Also, if populations of cockroaches are high, there will be a strong concentration of this odorous secretion.[9] Cockroaches can pick up disease-causing bacteria,[10] such as Salmonella, on their legs and later deposit them on foods and cause food infections or poisoning. House dust containing cockroach feces and body parts can trigger allergic reactions and asthma in certain individuals.[11]

Underside of P. americana

Habitat

American cockroaches generally live in moist areas, but can survive in dry areas if they have access to water. They prefer warm temperatures around 29 °C (84 °F) and do not tolerate cold temperatures. In residential areas, these cockroaches live in basements and sewers, and may move outdoors into yards during warm weather. These cockroaches are common in basements, crawl spaces, cracks and crevices of porches, foundations, and walkways adjacent to buildings.

The American cockroach is a scavenger that feeds on decaying organic matter and a variety of other foods. It is particularly fond of fermenting foods.[12]

Life cycle

American cockroaches have three developmental stages: egg, nymph, and adult.[9] Females produce an egg case (ootheca) which protrudes from the tip of the abdomen. After about two days, the egg cases are placed on a surface in a safe location. Egg cases are about 0.9 centimetres (0.35 in) long, brown, and purse-shaped. Immature cockroaches emerge from egg cases in 6 to 8 weeks and require 6 to 12 months to mature. Adult cockroaches can live up to one year, during which females produce an average of 150 young.

Diet

American cockroaches feed upon a great variety of materials such as cheese, beer, leather, bakery products, starch in bookbindings, manuscripts, glue, hair, flakes of dried skin, dead animals, plant materials, soiled clothing, and glossy paper with starch sizing.[9]

Control

Due to their large size and slow development, large infestations of these insects are not common within houses. However, during certain times of the year, these cockroaches may move inside a house from outside. In cold weather these cockroaches may move indoors, seeking warmer temperatures and food. Cockroaches may enter houses through sewer connections, under doors, around plumbing, air ducts, or other openings in the foundation.[13] Cockroach populations may be controlled through the use of insecticides. It is also wise to cover any cracks or crevices that the cockroaches may enter in through. Also, always clean any spills or messes that have been made so that the cockroaches will not be attracted to the food source. Another way to prevent an infestation of cockroaches is to thoroughly check any material that is brought inside. Cockroaches and egg cases can be hidden inside or on furniture, in boxes, suitcases, grocery bags etc.[9]

Comparison of three common roaches

RoachGerman cockroachOriental cockroachAmerican cockroach
Size12 mm (0.47 in) to 15 mm (0.59 in)25 mm (0.98 in) to 30 mm (1.2 in)28 mm (1.1 in) to 43 mm (1.7 in)
HabitatHeated buildings, optimum 32 °C (90 °F)20 °C (68 °F) to 29 °C (84 °F)Same as German
Nymphal development time6 to 12 weeks6 to 12 months6 to 12 months
Life Span6 to 9 months1 to 1.5 years1 to 2 years
Able to fly?NoNoYes

See also

References

  1. ^ Cassidy, Frederic Gomes; Hall, Joan Houston (2002). Dictionary of American Regional English (illustrated ed.). Harvard University Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-674-00884-7. http://books.google.com/?id=i33BWgxbvXgC.
  2. ^ Bell, W.J.; Adiyodi, K.G. (1981). The American Cockroach. London: Chapman and Hall. ISBN 978-0412161407.
  3. ^ Copeland, Marion (2003). Cockroach. London: Reaktion Books LTD. ISBN 186189192.
  4. ^ Barbara, Kathryn A. (2008). "American cockroach - Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus)". http://entomology.ifas.ufl.edu/creatures/urban/roaches/american_cockroach.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-10.
  5. ^ Bell, William (2007). Cockroaches. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
  6. ^ Merritt, Thomas M. (July 31, 1999). "Chapter 39 — Fastest Runner". Book of Insect Records. University of Florida. http://entomology.ifas.ufl.edu/walker/ufbir/chapters/chapter_39.shtml.
  7. ^ Shukolyukov, S.A. (September 27, 2001). "Discovering the Achievements of the American Cockroach". University Science News. http://www.unisci.com/stories/20013/0927016.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-10.
  8. ^ "Fastest Land Insect". http://www.4to40.com/recordbook/index.asp?id=41&category=animal.
  9. ^ a b c d Jacobs, Steve. "American Cockroaches". The Pennsylvania State University. http://ento.psu.edu/extension/factsheets/american-cockroaches. Retrieved 18 October 2012.
  10. ^ "Evaluation of the common cockroach Periplaneta americana (L.) as carrier of medically important bacteria". pubmed.gov. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=1344954&dopt=Abstract.
  11. ^ "New York City Environmental Health Services". http://www.nyc.gov/html/doh/html/ehs/ehscroach.shtml. Retrieved 2012-07-11.
  12. ^ Jones, Susan C. (2008). "Agricultural and Natural Resources Fact Sheet: American Cockroach (HYG-2096-08)" (PDF). Ohio State University. http://ohioline.osu.edu/hyg-fact/2000/pdf/2096.pdf.
  13. ^ "American Cockroach". Amalgamated Pest Control. http://www.amalpest.com.au/LearningCentre/PestFacts/Cockroaches/AmericanCockroach/.

External links