American Association of University Professors

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American Association of University Professors
MottoAcademic freedom for a free society
Formation1915
TypeNonprofit charitable organization
HeadquartersWashington D.C.
Location
Membership47,000 professors and professional university staff
Official languageEnglish
PresidentRudy Fichtenbaum
Key peopleJohn Dewey
Arthur O. Lovejoy
Albert Einstein
 
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American Association of University Professors
MottoAcademic freedom for a free society
Formation1915
TypeNonprofit charitable organization
HeadquartersWashington D.C.
Location
Membership47,000 professors and professional university staff
Official languageEnglish
PresidentRudy Fichtenbaum
Key peopleJohn Dewey
Arthur O. Lovejoy
Albert Einstein

The American Association of University Professors (AAUP) is an organization of professors and other academics in the United States. AAUP membership is about 47,000, with over 500 local campus chapters and 39 state organizations.[1]

The AAUP's stated mission is to advance academic freedom and shared governance, to define fundamental professional values and standards for higher education, and to ensure higher education's contribution to the common good. Founded in 1915 by Arthur O. Lovejoy and John Dewey, the AAUP has helped to shape American higher education by developing the standards and procedures that maintain quality in education and academic freedom in the country's colleges and universities. Rudy Fichtenbaum is the current president.

History[edit]

Among the events that led to its founding was the dismissal of eugenicist, economics professor and sociologist Edward Alsworth Ross from Stanford University. Ross' work criticizing the employment of Chinese laborers by the Southern Pacific Railroad, run by Stanford's founder Leland Stanford, led Leland's widow Jane Stanford to intervene and eventually, over the objections of the president and the faculty, succeed in getting Ross dismissed.

Statement of Principles on Academic Freedom and Tenure[edit]

AAUP

As the American Association of University Professors (AAUP) details the history of their policy on academic freedom and tenure, the association maintains that there “are still people who want to control what professors teach and write.” The AAUP's "Statement of Principles on Academic Freedom and Tenure"[2][3] is the definitive articulation of these principles and practices, and is widely accepted throughout the academic community. The association's procedures ensuring academic due process remain the model for professional employment practices on campuses throughout the country.

The association suggests that "The principles of Academic Freedom and Tenure" date back to a 1925 conference. R.M. O'Neil's history suggests that the formal origins of the statement of academic freedom in the United States begins with an earlier 1915 “declaration of principles,” when the “fledgling” AAUP first convened.[4]

While it seems common sense that academic freedom aligns with the values of democratic rights and free speech, O'Neil also notes the ideas of academic freedom at the time were not entirely well received, where even the New York Times criticized the declaration, but that today the statement remains “almost as nearly inviolate as the U.S. Constitution”,[5] The AAUP notes that following a series of conferences beginning in 1934, the association officially adopted the "1925 Statement of Principles on Academic Freedom and Tenure," which then started to become institutionalized in universities only since the 1940s.

The AAUP offers the original principles, including the 1940 interpretations of the statement and a 1970 interpretation, which codified evaluation of the principles since the time they were adopted. The statement is straightforward, based on three principles of academic freedom. Briefly summarized, the first principle states that teachers are entitled to “full freedom in research and in publication of the results," and that the issue of financial gains from research depends on the relationship with the institution. The second principle of academic freedom is that teachers should have the same freedom in the classroom. The third asserts that college and university professors are citizens and should be free to speak and write as citizens “free from institutional censorship.”[6]

Based upon five principles, the statement on academic tenure is equally simple and to the point. The first principle maintains that the terms of appointment are to be stated in writing. The second details the conditions and length of time professors are given to attain tenure. The third notes that during the probationary period before attaining tenure, the teacher "should have all the academic freedom that all other members of the faculty have." Detailing terms for appeal of the decision to deny tenure, the fourth point notes that both faculty and the institution’s governing board should judge whether tenure is to be granted or denied. The final point suggests that if the faculty member is not granted tenure appointment for reasons of financial restraint upon the university, the "financial exigency should be demonstrably bona fide."

Noting the Supreme Court Case Keyishian v. The Board of Regents (1967) which established the constitutionality and legal basis for the AAUP's principles of academic freedom, the 1970 interpretations believes that the statement is not a "static code but a fundamental document to set a framework of norms to guide adaptations to changing times and circumstances." The commentary iterates key points of the 1940 interpretations. The statement does not discourage controversy but emphasizes professionalism, believing that professors should be careful "not to introduce into their teaching controversial matter which has no relation to their subject."

The interpretive statement also maintains that while professors have the rights of citizens, both scholars and educational officers "should remember that the public may judge their profession and their institution by their utterances," noting that every effort should be made "to indicate they are not speaking for the institution." The comments provide for further insights into the evaluation for tenure appointment and direct to the "1968 Recommended Institutional Regulations on Academic Freedom and Tenure," which recommends policy based upon the 1940 statement and a later documents on standards for faculty dismissal.

Statement on Government of Colleges and Universities[edit]

The American Association of University Professors published its first "Statement on Government of Colleges and Universities" in 1920, “emphasizing the importance of faculty involvement in personnel decisions, selection of administrators, preparation of the budget, and determination of educational policies. Refinements to the statement were introduced in subsequent years, culminating in the 1966 "Statement on Government of Colleges and Universities”.[7]

This statement was jointly formulated by the American Association of University Professors, the American Council on Education (ACE), and the Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges (AGB). The statement clarifies the respective roles of governing boards, faculties, and administrations. The document does not provide for a “blueprint” to the governance of higher education.

Nor was the purpose of the statement to provide principles for relations with industry and government (though it establishes direction on “the correction of existing weaknesses”). Rather, the statement aimed to establish a shared vision for the internal governance of institutions. Student involvement is not addressed in detail. The statement concerns general education policy and internal operations with an overview of the formal roles for governing structures in the organization and management of higher education.

Conflict with Religious Institutions[edit]

Some scholars have criticized the AAUP's "antipathy toward religious colleges and universities."[8] And the AAUP has censured numerous religious institutions, including Brigham Young University and The Catholic University of America.[9] Others have criticized the AAUP's current stance regarding academic freedom in religious institutions as contradicting its 1940 statement on academic freedom, which permits religious institutions to place limits on academic freedom if those limitations are clearly stated.[8][10] In 1970, the AAUP criticized its 1940 statement, positing that most religious institutions "no longer need or desire" to place limits on academic freedom.[11]

In 1988, the AAUP offered up another interpretation, stating that the "1970 de-endorsement clause" requires a religious institution to forfeit its "right to represent itself as an 'authentic seat of higher learning.'"[11] But the AAUP's Committee A did not endorse it, thus the issue on whether a religious institution can place limits on academic freedom if those limitations are clearly stated appears to be unresolved.[11]

Contingent Faculty[edit]

In recent decades, the AAUP has added a focus on addressing the dramatic increase in faculty positions off the tenure track. An increasing percentage of faculty has become "contingent," or non-tenure track. Many are hired into part-time positions, often multiple part-time positions which together equal a full-time load or more, but with dramatically lower pay, little job security, and few or no fringe benefits. As of 2005, 48 percent of all faculty served in part-time appointments, and non-tenure-track positions of all types accounted for 68 percent of all faculty appointments in American higher education.[12]

The AAUP has released a number of reports on contingent faculty: in 2008 a report on accreditors' guidelines pertaining to part-time faculty and a report of an investigation involving alleged violations of the academic freedom and due process rights of a full-time contingent faculty member; and in 2006 an index providing data on the number of contingent faculty at various colleges. also in 2006, the AAUP adopted a new policy dealing with the job protections that should be afforded to part-time faculty members. in 2003, it released its major policy statement Contingent Appointments and the Academic Profession. The statement makes new recommendations in two areas: increasing the proportion of faculty appointments that are on the tenure line, and improving job security and due process protections for those with contingent appointments.

Collective Bargaining[edit]

In 2009 AAUP began its reorganization to formally separate the previously muddied relationship between its think tank, its lobbying in non-organized chapters (called Advocacy), and its support for Collective Bargaining Chapters. AAUP currently represents approximately 70 affiliates across the United States in such institutions as University of Connecticut, Portland State University, University of Alaska, the California State University system, Rutgers, University of Oregon, Eastern Michigan University, University of Illinois Chicago, University of Rhode Island, State University of New York, and many others in both the public and private sector, as well as a large number of affiliate organizations where affiliation is shared with other labor unions, the most common dual affiliation being with the American Federation of Teachers (AFT).

Unlike the American Federation of Teachers and other more traditional labor unions, AAUP is not a servicing parent organization; all of its affiliates (at least those that are not affiliated with any other labor union) are independent organizations that completely provide for all their own services, such as staff, attorneys, consultants and organizers. Further, the AAUP does not have the power of receivership in its constitution, so it can not take over any of its affiliates, supplant any of its elected leaders, nor dictate policy or bargaining proposals or agenda upon them.

Censure List[edit]

Investigations by the AAUP of the administrations of the institutions listed below show that, as evidenced by a past violation, they are not observing the generally recognized principles of academic freedom and tenure approved by this Association, the Association of American Colleges and Universities, and more than two hundred other professional and educational organizations which have endorsed the 1940 Statement of Principles on Academic Freedom and Tenure.[13]

Institution NameReport PublishedYear
Grove City CollegeMarch 1963, 15-241963
Frank Phillips CollegeDec. 1968, 433-381969
Concordia SeminaryApril 1975, 49-591975
Murray State UniversityDec. 1975, 322-281976
State University of New YorkAug. 1977, 237-601978
Phillips Community College of the University of ArkansasMay 1978, 93-981978
Nichols CollegeMay 1980, 207-121980
Yeshiva UniversityAug. 1981, 186-951982
American International CollegeMay–June 1983, 42-461983
Metropolitan Community College (KS)Mar.-Apr. 1984, 23a-32a1984
Talladega CollegeMay–June 1986, 6a-14a1986
Pontifical Catholic University of Puerto RicoMay–June 1987, 33-381987
Husson UniversityMay–June 1987, 45-501987
Hillsdale CollegeMay–June 1988, 29-331988
Southeastern Baptist Theological SeminaryMay–June 1989, 35-451989
The Catholic University of AmericaSept.-Oct. 1989, 27-401990
Dean CollegeMay–June 1991, 27-321992
Baltimore City Community CollegeMay–June 1992, 37-411992
Loma Linda UniversityMay–June 1992, 42-491992
Clarkson CollegeMay–June 1993, 46-531993
North Greenville CollegeMay–June 1993, 54-641993
Savannah College of Art and DesignMay–June 1993, 65-701993
University of BridgeportNov.-Dec. 1993, 37-451994
Benedict CollegeMay–June 1994, 37-461994
Supplementary ReportJan.-Feb. 2005, 51-54
Bennington CollegeMar.-Apr. 1995, 91-1031995
Supplementary ReportJan.-Feb. 1998, 70-75
Alaska Pacific UniversityMay–June 1995, 32-391995
St. Bonaventure UniversityJuly-Aug. 1995, 65-731996
National Park Community CollegeMay–June 1996, 41-461996
Saint Meinrad School of TheologyJuly-Aug. 1996, 51-601997
Minneapolis College of Art and DesignMay–June 1997, 53-581997
Brigham Young UniversitySept.-Oct 1997, 52-711998
University of the District of ColumbiaMay–June 1998, 46-551998
Lawrence Technological UniversityMay–June 1998, 56-621998
Johnson & Wales UniversityMay–June 1999, 46-501999
Albertus Magnus CollegeJan.-Feb. 2000, 54-632000
Charleston Southern UniversityJan.-Feb. 2001, 63-772001
University of DubuqueSept.-Oct. 2001, 62-732002
Meharry Medical CollegeNov.-Dec. 2004, 56-782005
University of the CumberlandsMar.-Apr. 2005 99-1132005
Virginia State UniversityMay–June, 2005, 47-622005
Our Lady of Holy Cross CollegeJan.-Feb, 07, 60-682007
Bastyr UniversityMar.-Apr. 2007, 106-1202007
Cedarville UniversityMay–June 2009, 58-842009
Nicholls State UniversityNov-Dec 2008, 60-692009
North Idaho CollegeMay–June 2009, 85-922009
Stillman CollegeMarch–April 2009, 94-1012009
Clark Atlanta UniversityFebruary 20102010
University of Texas Medical Branch at GalvestonApril 20102010
Bethune-Cookman UniversityOctober 20102011
Idaho State UniversityJuly 20112011

a. ^ Published online.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]