Ambassadors of the United States

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Flag of ambassadors of the United States

This is a list of ambassadors of the United States to individual nations of the world, to international organizations, to past nations, and ambassadors-at-large.

Ambassadors are nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate.[1] An ambassador can be appointed during a recess of the Senate, but can serve only to the end of the next session of Congress unless subsequently confirmed by the Senate.[2] Ambassadors serve "at the pleasure of the President," which means that they can be dismissed at any time.

An ambassador may be a career foreign service officer or a political appointee. In most cases, U.S. ambassadors who are career foreign service officers serve a tour of approximately three years in a foreign post. Ambassadors who are political appointees will customarily tender their resignations upon inauguration of a new President. As embassies fall under the jurisdiction of the Department of State, ambassadors answer to the Secretary of State.

Current U.S. ambassadors[edit]

Host countryRefU.S. AmbassadorEmbassy
Website
Date Confirmed
AfghanistanRefJames B. CunninghamKabulAugust 2012
AlbaniaRefAlexander A. ArvizuTiranaDecember 2010
AlgeriaRefHenry S. EnsherAlgiersJuly 2011
Andorra[3]RefJames CostosMadridAugust 2013
AngolaRefHeather Merritt, Chargé d’Affaires a.i.Luanda
Antigua and Barbuda[4]RefLarry Leon PalmerBridgetownMarch 2012
ArgentinaRefKevin K. Sullivan, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.Buenos Aires
ArmeniaRefJohn A. HeffernYerevanAugust 2011
AustraliaRefJohn BerryCanberraAugust 2013
AustriaRefAlexa Lange WesnerViennaAugust 2013
AzerbaijanRefRichard L. MorningstarBakuJune 2012
The BahamasRefJohn Dinkelman, Chargé d'AffairesNassau
BahrainRefThomas KrajeskiManamaOctober 2011
BangladeshRefDan MozenaDhakaJune 2011
Barbados[4]RefLarry Leon PalmerBridgetownMarch 2012
BelarusRefVacant since March 12, 2008.
Ethan A. Goldrich, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.
Minsk 
BelgiumRefDenise Campbell BauerBrusselsAugust 2013
BelizeRefMargaret Hawthorne, Chargé d'Affaires, a.i.Belmopan
BeninRefMichael RaynorCotonouMay 2012
BoliviaRefVacant since September 10, 2008
Larry L. Memmott, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.
La Paz 
Bosnia and HerzegovinaRefVacant since August 24, 2013
Nicholas M. Hill, Charge d'Affaires, a.i.[5]
Sarajevo
BotswanaRefMichelle D. GavinGaboroneJune 2011
BrazilRefLiliana AyaldeBrasiliaAugust 2013
BruneiRefDaniel L. ShieldsBandar Seri BegawanMarch 2011
BulgariaRefMarcie Berman RiesSofiaAugust 2012
Burkina FasoRefTulinabo S. MushingiOuagadougouJuly 2013
Burma[6]RefDerek MitchellRangoonJune 2012
BurundiRefDawn M. LiberiBujumburaOctober 2012
CambodiaRefWilliam E. ToddPhnom PenhMarch 2012
CameroonRefGregory Thome, Chargé d'AffairesYaoundé
CanadaRefRichard M. Sanders, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.Ottawa
Cape VerdeRefAdrienne S. O’NealPraiaOctober 2011
Central African RepublicRefLaurence Wohlers
Embassy suspended operations on December 28, 2012
The French embassy is the protecting power
Bangui
ChadRefJames KnightN'DjamenaJuly 2013
ChileRefStephen M. Liston, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.Santiago
ChinaRefGary Locke (resigned)BeijingJuly 2011
ColombiaRefBenjamin Ziff, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.Bogotá
Comoros[7]RefVacant
Eric M. Wong, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.
Antananarivo
Democratic Republic of the CongoRefJames C. SwanKinshasaAugust 2013
Republic of the CongoRefStephanie Sanders SullivanBrazzavilleAugust 2013
Costa RicaRefGonzalo Gallegos, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.San José
Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast)RefTerence Patrick McCulleyAbidjanAugust 2013
CroatiaRefKenneth MertenZagrebOctober 2012
Cuba[8]RefNo diplomatic relations since 1961.
CyprusRefJohn KoenigNicosiaAugust 2012  
Northern Cyprus[9]    
Czech RepublicRefNorman L. EisenPragueJanuary 2011
DenmarkRefJohn Rufus GiffordCopenhagenAugust 2013
DjiboutiRefGeeta PasiDjiboutiJune 2011
Dominica[4]RefLarry Leon PalmerBridgetownMarch 2012
Dominican RepublicRefJames "Wally" Brewster, Jr.Santo DomingoNovember 2013
East Timor (Timor-Leste)RefScott Ticknor, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.Dili
EcuadorRefAdam E. NammQuitoApril 2012
EgyptRefDavid M. Satterfield, Chargé d'AffairesCairo
El SalvadorRefMari Carmen AponteSan SalvadorJune 2012
Equatorial GuineaRefMark L. AsquinoMalaboJune 2012
EritreaRefVacant since July 2010
Sue Bremner, Chargé d'Affaires
Asmara 
EstoniaRefJeffrey D. LevineTallinnMarch 2012
EthiopiaRefPatricia Marie HaslachAddis AbabaAugust 2013
Fiji[10]RefFrankie A. ReedSuvaAugust 2011
FinlandRefBruce J. OreckHelsinkiAugust 2009
France[11]RefVacant since November 19, 2013
Mark A. Taplin, Chargé d'Affaires
Paris
Gabon[12]RefDante Paradiso, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.Libreville
The GambiaRefEdward M. AlfordBanjulJune 2012
GeorgiaRefRichard NorlandTbilisiMarch 2012
GermanyRefJohn B. EmersonBerlinAugust 2013
GhanaRefGene CretzGhanaAugust 2012
GreeceRefDavid D. PearceAthensAugust 2013
Grenada[4]RefLarry Leon PalmerBridgetownMarch 2012
GuatemalaRefArnold A. ChaconGuatemalaAugust 2011
GuineaRefAlexander LaskarisConakryAugust 2012
Guinea-Bissau[13]RefLewis A. LukensDakarAugust 2011
GuyanaRefD. Brent HardtGeorgetownJune 2011
HaitiRefPamela A. WhitePort-au-PrinceJuly 2012
Holy SeeRefKenneth Francis HackettVaticanAugust 2013
HondurasRefLisa KubiskeTegucigalpaJuly 2011
HungaryRefM. André Goodfriend, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.Budapest
IcelandRefLuis E. ArreagaReykjavikAugust 2010
IndiaRefNancy PowellNew DelhiMarch 2012
IndonesiaRefRobert O. Blake, Jr.JakartaNovember 2013
Iran[14]RefNo diplomatic relations since the 1979 Iranian Revolution.
IraqRefRobert S. BeecroftBaghdadSeptember 2012
IrelandRefVacant since December 14, 2012
Stuart Dwyer, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.
Dublin
IsraelRefDaniel B. ShapiroTel AvivJuly 2011
Italy[15]RefJohn R. PhillipsRomeAugust 2013
JamaicaRefElizabeth Lee MartinezKingston
JapanRefCaroline KennedyTokyoOctober 2013
JordanRefStuart E. JonesAmmanMay 2011
KazakhstanRefKenneth J. FairfaxAstanaJune 2011
KenyaRefRobert F. GodecNairobiJanuary 2013
Kiribati[10]RefFrankie A. ReedSuvaAugust 2011
North Korea[16]    
South KoreaRefSung KimSeoulOctober 2011
KosovoRefTracey Ann JacobsonPristinaJuly 2012
KuwaitRefMatthew H. TuellerKuwait CitySeptember 2011
KyrgyzstanRefPamela L. SpratlenBishkekApril 2011
LaosRefDaniel A. CluneVientianeAugust 2013
LatviaRefMark A. PekalaRigaAugust 2012
LebanonRefDavid HaleBeirutAugust 2013
LesothoRefVacant since December 2012
Carl B. Fox, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.
Maseru
LiberiaRefDeborah R. MalacMonroviaJuly 2012
LibyaRefDeborah K. JonesTripoliMay 2013
Liechtenstein[17]RefJeffrey R. Cellars, Chargé d'AffairesBern
LithuaniaRefDeborah McCarthyVilniusJanuary 2013
LuxembourgRefRobert A. MandellLuxembourgOctober 2011
MacedoniaRefPaul D. WohlersSkopjeSeptember 2011
Madagascar[7]RefVacant since June 7, 2010
Eric M. Wong, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.
Antananarivo 
MalawiRefJeanine E. JacksonLilongweMay 2011
MalaysiaRefJoseph Y. YunKuala LumpurAugust 2013
Maldives[18]RefMichele J. SisonColomboJune 2012
MaliRefMary LeonardBamakoOctober 2011
MaltaRefGina Abercrombie-WinstanleyVallettaApril 2012
Marshall IslandsRefThomas Hart ArmbrusterMajuroAugust 2012
MauritaniaRefJo Ellen PowellNouakchottSeptember 2010
Mauritius[19]RefShari VillarosaPort LouisSeptember 2012
MexicoRefEarl Anthony WayneMexico CityAugust 2011
Micronesia, Federated States ofRefDorothea-Maria RosenKoloniaJune 2012
MoldovaRefWilliam H. MoserChisinauAugust 2011
Monaco[11][20]RefCharles RivkinParisJuly 2009
MongoliaRefPiper Anne Wind CampbellUlaanbaatarJune 2012
MontenegroRefSue K. BrownPodgoricaApril 2011
MoroccoRefMatthew Lussenhop, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.Rabat
MozambiqueRefDouglas M. GriffithsMaputoJune 2012
NamibiaRefMary Grace McGeehan, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.Windhoek
Nauru[10]RefFrankie A. ReedSuvaAugust 2011
NepalRefPeter W. BoddeKathmanduJune 2012
NetherlandsRefVacant since September 2011
Adam Sterling, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.
The Hague
New Zealand[21]RefDavid HuebnerWellingtonNovember 2009
NicaraguaRefPhyllis M. PowersManaguaMarch 2012
NigerRefRichard Bell, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.Niamey
NigeriaRefJames F. EntwistleAbujaAugust 2013
NorwayRefBarry B. WhiteOsloSeptember 2009
OmanRefGreta C. HoltzMuscatAugust 2012
PakistanRefRichard G. OlsenIslamabadOctober 2010
Palau[22]RefHelen Reed-RoweKororSeptember 2010
Palestine The United States does not recognize Palestine.  
PanamaRefJonathan D. FarrarPanamaMarch 2012
Papua New Guinea[23]RefWalter NorthPort MoresbyNovember 2012
ParaguayRefJames H. ThessinAsunciónSeptember 2011
PeruRefMichael J. Fitzpatrick, Chargé d'AffairesLima
Philippines[22]RefHarry K. Thomas, Jr.ManilaApril 2010
PolandRefStephen MullWarsawOctober 2012
PortugalRefJohn Olson, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.Lisbon
QatarRefSusan L. ZiadehDohaJune 2011
RomaniaRefVacant since December 14, 2012
Duane C. Butcher, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.
Bucharest
RussiaRefMichael McFaulMoscowJanuary 2012
RwandaRefDonald W. KoranKigaliAugust 2011
Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic[24]    
Saint Kitts and Nevis[4]RefLarry Leon PalmerBridgetownMarch 2012
Saint Lucia[4]RefLarry Leon PalmerBridgetownMarch 2012
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines[4]RefLarry Leon PalmerBridgetownMarch 2012
Samoa[21]RefDavid HuebnerWellingtonNovember 2009
San Marino[15]RefJohn R. PhillipsFlorence, San Marino[15]August 2013
São Tomé and Príncipe[12]RefEric D. BenjaminsonLibrevilleJuly 2010
Saudi ArabiaRefJames B. SmithRiyadhSeptember 2009
Senegal[13]RefLewis A. LukensDakarAugust 2011
SerbiaRefMichael KirbyBelgradeAugust 2012
Seychelles[19]RefMary Jo WillsPort LouisFebruary 2010
Sierra LeoneRefMichael S. OwenFreetownAugust 2010
SingaporeRefKirk W.B. WagarSingaporeAugust 2013
SlovakiaRefTheodore SedgwickBratislavaJuly 2010
SloveniaRefJoseph A. MussomeliLjubljanaOctober 2010
Solomon Islands[23]RefWalter NorthPort MoresbyNovember 2012
Somalia[25][26]RefVirtual Presence Post
Managed through the U.S. Embassy in Kenya
Somalia VPP 
South AfricaRefPatrick Hubert GaspardPretoriaAugust 2013
South Ossetia[27]
South SudanRefSusan PageJubaOctober 2011
Spain[3]RefJames CostosMadridAugust 2013
Sri Lanka[18]RefMichele J. SisonColomboJanuary 2010
Sudan[28]RefVacant since 1996
Joseph D. Stafford, Chargé d’Affaires
Khartoum 
SurinameRefJay N. AnaniaParamariboJune 2012
SwazilandRefMakila JamesMbabaneMay 2012
SwedenRefMark BrzezinskiStockholmOctober 2011
Switzerland[17]RefJeffrey R. Cellars, Chargé d'AffairesBern
Syria[29]RefRobert Stephen FordDamascusDecember 2010
Taiwan[30]   
TajikistanRefSusan Marsh ElliottDushanbeJune 2012
TanzaniaRefVirginia Blaser, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.Dar es Salaam
ThailandRefKristie KenneyBangkokJanuary 2011
TogoRefRobert E. WhiteheadLoméMay 2012
Tonga[10]RefFrankie A. ReedTongaAugust 2011
Trinidad and TobagoRefVacant
Margaret B. Diop, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.
Port of Spain
TunisiaRefJacob WallesTunisJuly 2012
TurkeyRefFrancis J. Ricciardone, Jr.AnkaraJanuary 2011
TurkmenistanRefRobert E. Patterson, Jr.AshgabatApril 2011
Tuvalu[10]RefFrankie A. ReedSuvaAugust 2011
UgandaRefScott H. DeLisiKampalaMay 2012
UkraineRefGeoffrey R. PyattKievAugust 2013
United Arab EmiratesRefMichael H. CorbinAbu DhabiJuly 2011
United Kingdom[31]RefMatthew BarzunLondonAugust 2013
UruguayRefJulissa ReynosoMontevideoMarch 2012
UzbekistanRefGeorge A. KrolTashkentJune 2011
Vanuatu[23]RefWalter NorthPort MoresbyNovember 2012
VenezuelaRefVacant since July 2010
Phil Laidlaw, Chargé d'Affaires[32]
Caracas 
VietnamRefDavid B. ShearHanoiAugust 2011
YemenRefKaren Sasahara, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.Sana’a
ZambiaRefDavid J. Young, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.Lusaka
ZimbabweRefDavid Bruce WhartonHarareAugust 2012

Ambassadors to international organizations[edit]

Current ambassadors from the United States to international organizations

Host organizationLocationAmbassador
African UnionAddis Ababa, EthiopiaReuben Earl Brigety, II
Asia Pacific Economic CooperationWashington, D.C., United StatesPatricia Haslach
Association of Southeast Asian NationsJakarta, IndonesiaDavid L. Carden
Conference on DisarmamentGeneva, SwitzerlandLaura E. Kennedy
European UnionBrussels, BelgiumWilliam Kennard
International Civil Aviation OrganizationMontreal, CanadaDuane E Woerth
North Atlantic Treaty OrganizationBrussels, BelgiumDouglas Edward Lute
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentParis, FranceJeri Guthrie-Corn, Charge d'Affaires a.i.
Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical WeaponsThe Hague, NetherlandsRobert Mikulak
Organization for Security and Co-operation in EuropeVienna, AustriaDaniel Brooks Baer
Organisation of Islamic CooperationJeddah, Saudi ArabiaRashad Hussain
Organization of American StatesWashington, D.C., United StatesCarmen Lomellin
United NationsNew York, United StatesSamantha Power
United Nations Agencies in RomeRome, ItalyDavid J. Lane
United Nations and Other International Organizations in GenevaGeneva, SwitzerlandVacant
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural OrganizationParis, FranceDavid T. Killion
United Nations Environment ProgrammeNairobi, KenyaJoseph P. Murphy
United Nations Human Rights CouncilGeneva, SwitzerlandEileen Chamberlain Donahoe
United Nations International Organizations in ViennaVienna, AustriaJoseph E. Macmanus
World Trade OrganizationGeneva, SwitzerlandMichael Punke

Ambassadors-at-large[edit]

Current ambassadors-at-large from the United States with worldwide responsibility:

TitleAmbassadorU.S. State Department
Ambassador-at-Large for CounterterrorismDaniel BenjaminOffice of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism
Ambassador-at-Large for Global Women's IssuesCatherine M. RussellOffice of Global Women’s Issues
Ambassador-at-Large for International Religious FreedomSuzan Johnson CookOffice of International Religious Freedom
Ambassador-at-Large for War Crimes IssuesStephen RappOffice of Global Criminal Justice
Ambassador-at-Large to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in PersonsLuis CdeBacaOffice to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons

Ambassadors to past countries[edit]

Other senior diplomatic representatives[edit]

Senior diplomatic representatives of the United States to posts other than embassies:

Host countryAmbassadorTitle
CuraçaoValerie BelonConsul General and Chief of Mission
Hong Kong and MacauStephen M. YoungConsul General and Chief of Mission
JerusalemDaniel RubinsteinConsul General and Chief of Mission
TaiwanChristopher J. MarutDirector of the Taipei office of the American Institute in Taiwan
CubaJohn CaulfieldChief of Mission, United States Interests Section in Havana

Selected past ambassadors[edit]

Well-known past ambassadors from the United States:

Ambassadors killed in office[edit]

Eight United States Ambassadors have been killed in office, six of them by armed attack and the other two in plane crashes.[33]

NameAmbassador toPlace of deathDate of deathKilled by
Laurence A. SteinhardtCanadaRamsayville, Ontario, CanadaMarch 28, 1950plane crash
John Gordon MeinGuatemalaGuatemala City, GuatemalaAugust 28, 1968attack by Fuerzas Armadas Rebeldes
Cleo A. Noel, Jr.SudanKhartoum, SudanMarch 2, 1973attack by Black September
Rodger DaviesCyprusNicosia, CyprusAugust 19, 1974attack during Greek Cypriot demonstration
Francis E. Meloy, Jr.LebanonBeirut, LebanonJune 16, 1976attack by Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine
Adolph DubsAfghanistanKabul, AfghanistanFebruary 14, 1979attack by Setami Milli
Arnold L. RaphelPakistanBahawalpur, PakistanAugust 17, 1988plane crash
J. Christopher StevensLibyaBenghazi, LibyaSeptember 12, 2012attack on a U.S. diplomatic mission

Nations without exchange of ambassadors[edit]

Bhutan: According to the United States Department of State, "The United States and the Kingdom of Bhutan have not established formal diplomatic relations; however, the two governments have informal and cordial relations."[34] Informal contact with the nation of Bhutan is maintained through the U.S. Embassy in New Delhi.[34]

Cuba: Although the island country of Cuba is a close neighbor to the United States, the U.S. interacts with Cuba only via a U.S. Interests office at the Swiss Embassy in Havana and Washington, D.C.[35] The U.S. broke diplomatic relations with Cuba on January 3, 1961.</ref>

Iran: On April 7, 1980, the United States broke diplomatic relations with theocratic Iran.[36] On April 24, 1981, the Swiss government assumed representation of U.S. interests in Tehran, and Algeria assumed representation of Iranian interests in the U.S.[37] Currently, Iranian interests in the United States are represented by the government of Pakistan. The U.S. Department of State named Iran a "State Sponsor of Terrorism" on January 19, 1984.[38]

North Korea: The Democratic People's Republic of Korea is not on friendly terms with the U.S. and while talks between the two countries are ongoing, there is no exchange of ambassadors. Sweden functions as Protective Power for the United States including consular responsibility for U.S. citizens.[39]

Taiwan: With the normalization of relations with the People's Republic of China in 1979, the U.S. does not maintain official diplomatic relations with Taiwan. Relations between Taiwan and the United States are maintained through an unofficial instrumentality, the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office, with headquarters in Taipei and field offices in Washington, D.C., and 12 other U.S. cities. The Taipei Office of the American Institute in Taiwan functions as a de facto embassy, performing most consular functions and staffed by U.S. Foreign Service Officers formally "on leave".[citation needed]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ U.S. Senate – Powers & Procedure Senate.gov Retrieved 25 May 2012.
  2. ^ Henry B. Hogue. "Recess Appointments: Frequently Asked Questions" (PDF). Congressional Research Service, the Library of Congress. Retrieved 2012-05-25. 
  3. ^ a b The U.S. Ambassador to Spain—resident at Madrid—is also accredited to Andorra.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g The United States Ambassador to Barbados and the Eastern Caribbean, resident in Bridgetown, Barbados, is concurrently accredited to Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.
  5. ^ http://sarajevo.usembassy.gov/charge.html
  6. ^ In 1989 the military government of Burma changed the name of the nation to Myanmar, but the United States government—and other Western governments—still refer to the country as Burma in official usage. See Myanmar.
  7. ^ a b One ambassador—resident at Antananarivo—is accredited to Madagascar and Comoros.
  8. ^ The United States does not currently maintain diplomatic relations with Cuba. U.S. interests in Cuba are handled by the U.S. Interests section of the Embassy of Switzerland in Havana.
  9. ^ The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus is not recognized by the United Nations, the United States, nor any other country aside from Turkey.
  10. ^ a b c d e One ambassador—resident at Suva—is accredited to Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, Tonga, and Tuvalu. Source U.S. Embassy Suva.
  11. ^ a b As of December 2006, the U.S. ambassador to France is also accredited to Monaco.
  12. ^ a b One ambassador—resident at Libreville—is accredited to Gabon and São Tomé and Príncipe. Source: U.S. State Department
  13. ^ a b One ambassador—resident at Dakar—is accredited to Guinea-Bissau and Senegal.
  14. ^ The United States does not currently maintain diplomatic relations with Iran. U.S. interests in Iran are handled by the U.S. Interests section of the Embassy of Switzerland in Tehran.
  15. ^ a b c The U.S. Ambassador to Rome is also accredited to San Marino. The U.S. Consulate in Florence handles matters concerned with San Marino.
  16. ^ The United States does not currently maintain diplomatic relations with North Korea. American citizens who travel to North Korea do so at their own risk and in some cases in violation of U.S. and/or UN sanctions.
  17. ^ a b One ambassador—resident at Bern—is accredited to Switzerland and Liechtenstein.
  18. ^ a b One ambassador—resident at Colombo—is accredited to Maldives and Sri Lanka.
  19. ^ a b One ambassador—resident at Port Louis—is accredited to Mauritius and Seychelles.
  20. ^ Until December 2006, the United States and Monaco had no formal diplomatic relations (exchange of ambassadors). The U.S. Consul General in Marseille, France, under the authority of the U.S. Ambassador to France, managed relations with Monaco. In December 2006, the United States and Monaco upgraded from consular to full diplomatic relations and Ambassador Craig Stapleton (France) was accredited to Monaco. Source: Department of State: Background notes on Monaco, U.S. Embassy in France: U.S. Diplomatic Mission to Monaco.
  21. ^ a b One ambassador—resident at Wellington—is accredited to New Zealand and Samoa.
  22. ^ a b Until 2005 one ambassador—resident at Manila—was accredited to the Philippines and Palau. Source: CIA World Factbook. Helen Reed-Rowe is the first ambassador to Palau to be confirmed in 2010.
  23. ^ a b c One ambassador—resident at Port Moresby—is accredited to Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu.
  24. ^ The United States does not recognize the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, nor does the US recognize Moroccan claims to sovereignty over Western Sahara. Sources: Western Sahara, Foreign relations of Western Sahara, Foreign relations of Morocco.
  25. ^ The United States has no diplomatic relations with Somalia. The last ambassador to Somalia was James Keough Bishop when the embassy in Mogadishu was closed on January 5, 1991. Source: U.S State Department.
  26. ^ "Virtual Presence Post Somalia". 
  27. ^ Abkhazia and South Ossetia are not recognized by the United Nations, the United States, nor any other countries aside from Russia, Nicaragua and Venezuela.
  28. ^ The U.S. Embassy in Khartoum was closed on February 7, 1996. Timothy Michael Carney was the last ambassador to Sudan. The embassy was reopened on May 23, 2002, with Jeffrey Millington as Chargé d’Affaires ad interim. There has been no U.S. ambassador in Khartoum since then. Source U.S. Department of State.
  29. ^ Ambassador Margaret Scobey was recalled February 2005 in protest of Rafik Hariri assassination. Ref: U.S. Department of State press release, Background notes on Syria, BBC News. Ambassador Scobey has since been reassigned as the ambassador to Egypt.
  30. ^ The United States established relations with the People's Republic of China in 1979. Since then, relations between the US and Taiwan are carried out by the American Institute in Taiwan in Taipei.
  31. ^ The ambassador to the U.K. is known as the "Ambassador to the Court of St. James's."
  32. ^ President Chavez ordered the expulsion of the U.S. Ambassador, John Duddy, on September 11, 2008 in solidarity with the Bolivian government's decision to expel the U.S. Ambassador in La Paz. The U.S. Government ordered the reciprocal expulsion of the Venezuelan Ambassador in Washington. Source: U.S. Department of State Background Notes on Venezuela
  33. ^ "US Ambassadors Killed in the Line of Duty". Associated Press. 2012-09-12. Retrieved 2012-09-12. 
  34. ^ a b "Bhutan (08/04)". United States Department of State. 
  35. ^ May, Donald (January 17, 1961). "U.S. Halts Tourist Travel to Cuba; Special Permit Required for Visit". The Washington Post. p. A1. 
  36. ^ Goshko, John M.; Walsh, Edward (April 8, 1980). "U.S. Breaks Diplomatic Ties With Iran: Carter Breaks Ties, Orders Ouster of Iranian Diplomats". The Washington Post. p. A1. 
  37. ^ "Former No. 2 Iran Diplomat To Be Allowed Back in U.S.". The Washington Post. April 25, 1980. p. A27. 
  38. ^ "Chapter 3 - State Sponsors of Terrorism Overview". State.gov. Retrieved 2011-09-04. 
  39. ^ http://www.swedenabroad.com/en-GB/Embassies/Pyongyang/About-us/About-the-Embassy/

External links[edit]