Alternative cancer treatments

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

 
Jump to: navigation, search
1930s public information poster warning of "cancer quacks"[1]

Alternative cancer treatments are alternative or complementary treatments for cancer that have not been approved by the government agencies responsible for the regulation of therapeutic goods. They include diet and exercise, chemicals, herbs, devices, and manual procedures. The treatments are not supported by evidence, either because no proper testing has been conducted, or because testing did not demonstrate statistically significant efficacy. Concerns have been raised about the safety of some of them. Some treatments that have been proposed in the past have been found in clinical trials to be useless or unsafe. Some of these obsolete or disproven treatments continue to be promoted, sold, and used.

Alternative cancer treatments are typically contrasted with experimental cancer treatments – which are treatments for which experimental testing is currently underway – and with complementary treatments, which are non-invasive practices used alongside other treatment. All currently approved chemotherapeutic cancer treatments were considered experimental cancer treatments before their safety and efficacy testing was completed.

Since the 1940s, medical science has developed chemotherapy, radiation therapy, adjuvant therapy and the newer targeted therapies, as well as refining surgical techniques for removing cancer. Before the development of these modern, evidence-based treatments, 90% of cancer patients died within five years.[2] With modern mainstream treatments, only 34% of cancer patients die within five years.[3] However, while mainstream forms of cancer treatment generally prolong life or permanently cure cancer, most treatments also have side effects ranging from unpleasant to fatal, such as pain, blood clots, fatigue, and infection.[4] These side effects and the lack of a guarantee that treatment will be successful create appeal for alternative treatments for cancer, which purport to cause fewer side effects or to increase survival rates.

Alternative cancer treatments have typically not undergone properly conducted, well-designed clinical trials, or the results have not been published due to publication bias (a refusal to publish results of a treatment outside that journal's focus area, guidelines or approach). Among those that have been published, the methodology is often poor. A 2006 systematic review of 214 articles covering 198 clinical trials of alternative cancer treatments concluded that almost none conducted dose-ranging studies, which are necessary to ensure that the patients are being given a useful amount of the treatment.[5] These kinds of treatments appear and vanish frequently, and have throughout history.[6]

Terminology[edit]

Complementary and alternative cancer treatments are often grouped together, in part because of the adoption of the phrase "complementary and alternative medicine" by the United States Congress.[7] However, according to Barrie R. Cassileth, in cancer treatment the distinction between complementary and alternative therapies is "crucial".[6]

Complementary treatments are used in conjunction with proven mainstream treatments. They tend to be pleasant for the patient, not involve substances with any pharmacological effects, inexpensive, and intended to treat side effects rather than to kill cancer cells.[8] Medical massage and self-hypnosis to treat pain are examples of complementary treatments.

Alternative treatments, by contrast, are used in place of mainstream treatments. The most popular alternative cancer therapies include restrictive diets, mind-body interventions, bioelectromagnetics, nutritional supplements, and herbs.[6] The popularity and prevalence of different treatments varies widely by region.[9]

Extent of their usage[edit]

Survey data about how many cancer patients use alternative or complimentary therapies vary from nation to nation as well from region to region. A 2000 study published by the European Journal of Cancer evaluated a sample of 1023 women from a British cancer registry suffering from breast cancer and found that 22.4% had consulted with a practitioner of complementary therapies in the previous twelve months. The study concluded that the patients had spent many thousands of pounds on such measures and that use "of practitioners of complementary therapies following diagnosis is a significant and possibly growing phenomenon".[10]

In terms of Australia, one study reported that 46% of children suffering from cancer have utilized at least one non-traditional therapy. As well, 40% of those of any age receiving palliative care had tried at least one such therapy. Some of the most popular alternative cancer treatments were found to be dietary therapies, antioxidants, high dose vitamins, and herbal therapies.[11]

Usage of unconventional cancer treatments in the United States have been influenced by the U.S. federal government's National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), initially known as the Office of Alternative Medicine (OAM), which was established in 1992 as a National Institutes of Health (NIH) adjunct by the U.S. Congress. Over thirty American medical schools have offered general courses on alternative medicine. That includes the Georgetown, Columbia, and Harvard university systems among others.[6]

People who choose alternative treatments[edit]

People who choose alternative treatments tend to believe that evidence-based medicine is extremely invasive or ineffective, while still believing that their own health could be improved.[12] They are loyal to their alternative healthcare providers and believe that "treatment should concentrate on the whole person".[12]

Cancer patients who choose complementary or alternative treatments in addition to conventional treatments believe themselves less likely to die than patients who choose only conventional treatments.[13] They feel a greater sense of control over their destinies, and report less anxiety and depression.[13] They are more likely to engage in benefit finding, which is the psychological process of adapting to a traumatic situation and deciding that the trauma was valuable, usually because of perceived personal and spiritual growth during the crisis.[14]

However, patients who use alternative treatments have a poorer survival time, even after controlling for type and stage of disease.[15] The reason that patients using alternative treatments die sooner may be because patients who accurately perceive that they are likely to survive do not attempt unproven remedies, and patients who accurately perceive that they are unlikely to survive are attracted to unproven remedies.[15] Among patients who believe their condition to be untreatable by evidence-based medicine, "desperation drives them into the hands of anyone with a promise and a smile."[16] Con artists have long exploited fear, ignorance, and desperation to strip dying people of their money, comfort, and dignity.

About half the practitioners who dispense complementary or alternative treatments are physicians, although they tend to be generalists rather than oncologists. As many as 60% of American physicians have referred their patients to a complementary or alternative practitioner for some purpose.[6]

Ineffective treatments[edit]

This section contains a list of therapies that have been recommended to treat or prevent cancer in humans but which lack good scientific and medical evidence of effectiveness. In many cases, there is good scientific evidence that the alleged treatments do not work. Unlike accepted cancer treatments, unproven and disproven treatments are generally ignored or avoided by the medical community, and are often pseudoscientific.[17]

Despite this, many of these therapies have continued to be promoted as effective, particularly by practitioners of alternative medicine. Scientists consider this practice quackery,[18][19] and some of those engaged in it have been investigated and prosecuted by public health regulators such as the US Federal Trade Commission,[20] the Mexican Secretariat of Health[21] and the Canadian Competition Bureau.[22] In the United Kingdom, the Cancer Act makes the unauthorised advertising of cancer treatments a criminal offense.[23][24]

Alternative health systems[edit]

Homeopathic medicine bottle and box, marked 'RHUS TOX'
Homeopathic remedies – ineffective for treating cancer

Diet-based[edit]

photo portrait of Johanna Budwig, an elderly lady with gray hair and a floral dress
Johanna Budwig – inventor of a flaxseed-based diet

Electromagnetic and energy-based[edit]

An orgone accumulator – a subject sitting in one is meant to experience the effects of orgone, an energy force proposed by William Reich

Hybrid[edit]

human teeth filled with shiny dental amalgam
In Issels treatment all metal fillings are removed from the teeth

Plant- and fungus-based[edit]

Kombucha – a fermented tea promoted as a "cure all"

A cayenne pepper – products based on peppers are promoted as cancer treatments
an unpeeled ginger root beside a small knife
Ginger – promoted for halting tumor growth; evidence says otherwise
Purple-colored Concord grapes on the vine with abundant foliage
Grapes – there is very little evidence that eating them can help prevent or treat cancer.
Mistletoe growing on a tree, showing white berries in medium close-up
Mistletoe – Anthroposophical medicine holds that harvesting it when the planets are aligned will yield a cancer treatment
soursop fruit, whole and in section. It is green with scales has white flesh and black seeds
Soursop (or graviola) – an ineffective treatment heavily promoted on the internet
Venus flytrap plant
Venus flytrap – its extract has been promoted as a cure for skin cancer

Physical procedures[edit]

A rectal bulb syringe – enemas feature in a number of ineffective cancer treatments such as Gerson therapy and colon cleansing

Spiritual and mental healing[edit]

Old ink oriental drawing of a man performing qigong, kneeling cross-legged with an arm extended in the air
Qigong – a kind of meditation accompanied by gentle movements

Synthetic chemicals and other substances[edit]

A shark swimming underwater in a bright blue sea
Shark cartilage might be thought of as a cancer treatment because of a mistaken belief that sharks do not get cancer.
A syringe being held upright; the plunger is being depressed and liqud droplets debouching from the needle tip
Injecting insulin to try and boost cancer drug effectiveness – unproven and dangerous
sample of human urine in plastic vessel with white screw-top
In urine therapy patients attempt to treat cancer by taking their own urine.

Areas of research[edit]

Not to be confused with Experimental cancer treatment.

Due to the poor quality of most studies of complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of cancer pain, it is not possible to recommend them for the management of cancer pain. There is weak evidence for a modest benefit from hypnosis, supportive psychotherapy and cognitive therapy; studies of massage therapy produced mixed results and none found pain relief after 4 weeks; Reiki, and touch therapy results were inconclusive; acupuncture, the most studied such treatment, has demonstrated no benefit as an adjunct analgesic in cancer pain; the evidence for music therapy is equivocal; and some herbal interventions such as PC-SPES, mistletoe, and saw palmetto are known to be toxic to some cancer patients. The most promising evidence, though still weak, is for mind-body interventions such as biofeedback and relaxation techniques.[158]

Examples of complementary therapy[edit]

As stated in the scientific literature, the measures listed below are defined as 'complementary' because they are applied in conjunction with mainstream anti-cancer measures such as chemotherapy, in contrast to the ineffective therapies viewed as 'alternative' since they are offered as substitutes for mainstream measures.[6]

Alternative theories of cancer[edit]

Some alternative cancer treatments are based on unproven or disproven theories of how cancer begins or is sustained in the body. Some common concepts are:

Regulatory action[edit]

Government agencies around the world routinely investigate purported alternative cancer treatments in an effort to protect their citizens from fraud and abuse.

In 2008, the United States Federal Trade Commission acted against companies that made unsupported claims that their products, some of which included highly toxic chemicals, could cure cancer.[165] Targets included Omega Supply, Native Essence Herb Company, Daniel Chapter One, Gemtronics, Inc., Herbs for Cancer, Nu-Gen Nutrition, Inc., Westberry Enterprises, Inc., Jim Clark's All Natural Cancer Therapy, Bioque Technologies, Inc., Cleansing Time Pro, and Premium-essiac-tea-4less.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Beware the cancer quack A reputable physician does not promise a cure, demand advance payment, advertise". Library of Congress. Retrieved August 2013. 
  2. ^ Schattner, Elaine (5 October 2010). "Who's a Survivor?". Slate Magazine. 
  3. ^ "Cancer of All Sites - SEER Stat Fact Sheets". Archived from the original on 26 September 2010. Retrieved 6 October 2010. 
  4. ^ McMillen, Matt. "8 Common Surgery Complications". WebMD Feature. WebMD. Retrieved 2013-03-31. 
  5. ^ Vickers AJ, Kuo J, Cassileth BR (January 2006). "Unconventional anticancer agents: a systematic review of clinical trials". Journal of Clinical Oncology 24 (1): 136–40. doi:10.1200/JCO.2005.03.8406. PMC 1472241. PMID 16382123. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f Cassileth BR (1996). "Alternative and Complementary Cancer Treatments". The Oncologist 1 (3): 173–179. PMID 10387984. 
  7. ^ "Overview of CAM in the United States: Recent History, Current Status, And Prospects for the Future". White House Commission on Complementary and Alternative Medicine Policy. March 2002. 
  8. ^ Wesa KM, Cassileth BR (September 2009). "Is there a role for complementary therapy in the management of leukemia?". Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 9 (9): 1241–9. doi:10.1586/era.09.100. PMC 2792198. PMID 19761428. 
  9. ^ Cassileth BR, Schraub S, Robinson E, Vickers A (April 2001). "Alternative medicine use worldwide: the International Union Against Cancer survey". Cancer 91 (7): 1390–3. doi:10.1002/1097-0142(20010401)91:7<1390::AID-CNCR1143>3.0.CO;2-C. PMID 11283941. 
  10. ^ http://www.ejcancer.com/article/S0959-8049(00)00099-X/abstract?cc=y?cc=y
  11. ^ https://www.mja.com.au/journal/2000/172/3/australian-oncologists-self-reported-knowledge-and-attitudes-about-non
  12. ^ a b Furnham A, Forey J (May 1994). "The attitudes, behaviors and beliefs of patients of conventional vs. complementary (alternative) medicine". J Clin Psychol 50 (3): 458–69. doi:10.1002/1097-4679(199405)50:3<458::AID-JCLP2270500318>3.0.CO;2-V. PMID 8071452. 
  13. ^ a b Helyer LK, Chin S, Chui BK, et al. (2006). "The use of complementary and alternative medicines among patients with locally advanced breast cancer--a descriptive study". BMC Cancer 6: 39. doi:10.1186/1471-2407-6-39. PMC 1475605. PMID 16504038. 
  14. ^ Garland SN, Valentine D, Desai K, et al. (November 2013). "Complementary and alternative medicine use and benefit finding among cancer patients". J Altern Complement Med 19 (11): 876–81. doi:10.1089/acm.2012.0964. PMID 23777242. 
  15. ^ a b c d e Vickers, A. (2004). "Alternative Cancer Cures: 'Unproven' or 'Disproven'?". CA 54 (2): 110–8. doi:10.3322/canjclin.54.2.110. PMID 15061600. 
  16. ^ Olson, James Stuart (2002). Bathsheba's breast: women, cancer & history. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 146. ISBN 0-8018-6936-6. 
  17. ^ Green S (1997). "Pseudoscience in Alternative Medicine: Chelation Therapy, Antineoplastons, The Gerson Diet and Coffee Enemas". Skeptical Inquirer 21 (5): 39. 
  18. ^ Cassileth BR, Yarett IR (August 2012). "Cancer quackery: the persistent popularity of useless, irrational 'alternative' treatments". Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.) 26 (8): 754–8. PMID 22957409. 
  19. ^ Lerner IJ (February 1984). "The whys of cancer quackery". Cancer 53 (3 Suppl): 815–9. PMID 6362828. 
  20. ^ a b "Court orders Seasilver defendants to pay $120 million". Nutraceuticals World 11 (6): 14. 2008. 
  21. ^ a b Stephen Barrett, M.D. (1 March 2004). "Zoetron Therapy (Cell Specific Cancer Therapy)". Quackwatch. Retrieved September 2013. 
  22. ^ a b "Zoetron Cell Specific Cancer Therapy". BBB Busines Review. Retrieved 14 September 2013. 
  23. ^ "Harley Street practitioner claimed he could cure cancer and HIV with lifestyle changes and herbs, court hears". Daily Telegraph. 11 December 2013. 
  24. ^ Cancer Act 1939 section 4, 7 May 2014 
  25. ^ "Aromatherapy". American Cancer Society. November 2008. Retrieved September 2013. 
  26. ^ "Ayurvedic medicine". Cancer Research UK. Retrieved August 2013. 
  27. ^ Cassileth, BR; Yarett, IR (2012). "Cancer quackery: The persistent popularity of useless, irrational 'alternative' treatments". Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.) 26 (8): 754–8. PMID 22957409. 
  28. ^ a b "Herbal medicine". Cancer Research UK. Retrieved August 2013. 
  29. ^ "Holistic Medicine". American Cancer Society. January 2013. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  30. ^ "Homeopathy". American Cancer Society. 12 February 2013. Retrieved August 2013. 
  31. ^ a b "Native American healing". American Cancer Society. November 2008. Retrieved 22 September 2013. 
  32. ^ "Naturopathic Medicine". American Cancer Society. November 2008. Retrieved August 2013. 
  33. ^ "An alkaline diet and cancer". Canadian Cancer Society. Retrieved August 2013. 
  34. ^ Hübner, J; Marienfeld, S; Abbenhardt, C; Ulrich, CM; Löser, C (2012). "How useful are diets against cancer?". Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946) 137 (47): 2417–22. doi:10.1055/s-0032-1327276. PMID 23152069. 
  35. ^ "What is the Budwig diet?". Cancer Research UK. Retrieved August 2013. 
  36. ^ "Fasting". American Cancer Society. February 2012. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  37. ^ Stephen Barrett, M.D. (29 May 2003). "Rev. George M. Malkmus and his Hallelujah Diet". Retrieved August 2013. 
  38. ^ Jean-Marie Abgrall (1 January 2000). Healing Or Stealing?: Medical Charlatans in the New Age. Algora Publishing. pp. 82–83. ISBN 978-1-892941-28-2. 
  39. ^ Esko, Edward; Kushi, Michio (1991). The macrobiotic approach to cancer: towards preventing and controlling cancer with diet and lifestyle. Wayne, N.J: Avery Pub. Group. ISBN 0-89529-486-9. 
  40. ^ "Macrobiotic diet". Cancer Research UK. Retrieved August 2013. 
  41. ^ Stephen Barrett, M.D. (11 December 2001). "The Moerman Diet". Quackwatch. Retrieved May 2013. 
  42. ^ "'Superfoods' and cancer". Cancer Research UK. Retrieved August 2013. 
  43. ^ "BioResonance Therapy". Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. 29 May 2012. Retrieved August 2013. 
  44. ^ Kempf, EJ (1906). "European Medicine: A Résumé of Medical Progress During the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries". Journal of the Medical Library Association 4 (1): 238. PMC 1692368. "The electrohomeopathic system is an invention of Count Mattei who prates of 'red,' 'blue,' and 'green' electricity, a theory that, in spite of its utter idiocy, has attracted a considerable following and earned a large fortune for its chief promoter." 
  45. ^ Barrett, Stephen (July 2009). "Some Notes on the Quantum Xrroid (QXCI) and William C. Nelson". Quackwatch. Retrieved September 2013. 
  46. ^ "Light Therapy". American Cancer Society. 14 April 2011. Retrieved September 2013. 
  47. ^ "Magnetic Therapy". American Cancer Society. December 2012. Retrieved September 2013. 
  48. ^ Stephen Barrett, M.D. (15 February 2002). "Some Notes on Wilhelm Reich, M.D". Quackwatch. Retrieved September 2013. 
  49. ^ "Polarity Therapy". American Cancer Society. November 2008. Retrieved 22 September 2013. 
  50. ^ "Rife machines and cancer". Cancer Research UK. Retrieved August 2013. 
  51. ^ "Therapeutic Touch". American Cancer Society. April 2011. Retrieved September 2013. 
  52. ^ Stephen Barrett, M.D. (23 October 2009). "The Bizarre Claims of Hulda Clark". Quackwatch. 
  53. ^ "Metabolic Therapies". Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. 14 February 2013. Retrieved September 2013. 
  54. ^ "What Gerson therapy is". Cancer Research UK. Retrieved August 2013. 
  55. ^ a b c "Metabolic Therapies". Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. 14 February 2013. Retrieved September 2013. 
  56. ^ "Hoxsey Therapy". Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. 29 October 2012. Retrieved August 2013. 
  57. ^ "Issels Treatment". Cancer Research UK. Retrieved August 2013. 
  58. ^ Mendick, Robert (30 March 2014). "Duped by the 'blood analyst' who says he can cure cancer". Daily Telegraph. 
  59. ^ "Livingston-Wheeler Therapy". American Cancer Society. 1 November 2008. Retrieved August 2013. 
  60. ^ "Stay Away from Dr. Lorraine Day". Quackwatch. 16 March 2013. Retrieved September 2013. 
  61. ^ "Black Cohosh". Cancer Research UK. Retrieved August 2013. 
  62. ^ "Aloe". Cancer Research UK. Retrieved August 2013. 
  63. ^ Lerner, I. J. (1981). "Laetrile: A Lesson in Cancer Quackery". CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 31 (2): 91–5. doi:10.3322/canjclin.31.2.91. PMID 6781723. 
  64. ^ "Andrographis". Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. 13 February 2013. Retrieved August 2013. 
  65. ^ "Aveloz". American Cancer Society. 
  66. ^ "Flower remedies". Cancer Research UK. Retrieved September 2013. 
  67. ^ Arney, Kat (25 July 2012). "Cannabis, cannabinoids and cancer – the evidence so far". Cancer Research UK. Retrieved December 2013. 
  68. ^ "Cannabis and Cannabinoids". National Cancer Institute. Retrieved 17 March 2014. 
  69. ^ "Cancer Salves". American Cancer Society. March 2011. Retrieved September 2013. 
  70. ^ "Capsicum". American Cancer Society. November 2008. Retrieved April 2014. 
  71. ^ Ernst, Edzard (2009). "Carctol: Profit before Patients?". Breast Care 4 (1): 31–33. doi:10.1159/000193025. PMC 2942009. PMID 20877681. 
  72. ^ "Cassava". American Cancer Society. November 2008. Retrieved 22 September 2013. 
  73. ^ "Castor Oil". American Cancer Society. March 2011. Retrieved 22 September 2013. 
  74. ^ "Chaparral". Cancer Research UK. Retrieved August 2013. 
  75. ^ "Chlorella". American Cancer Society. 29 April 2011. Retrieved 13 September 2013. 
  76. ^ "Echinacea". Cancer Research UK. Retrieved September 2013. 
  77. ^ "187 Fake Cancer "Cures" Consumers Should Avoid". Guidance, Compliance & Regulatory Information. USFDA. Retrieved August 2013. 
  78. ^ "Ginger". American Cancer Society. May 2010. Retrieved 22 September 2013. 
  79. ^ "Ginseng". American Cancer Society. November 2008. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  80. ^ "Glyconutrients". Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center. 11 October 2012. Retrieved August 2013. 
  81. ^ "Goldenseal". American Cancer Society. 28 November 2008. Retrieved August 2013. 
  82. ^ "Gotu Kola". American Cancer Society. 28 November 2011. Retrieved September 2013. 
  83. ^ "Grapes". American Cancer Society. 1 November 2011. Retrieved September 2013. 
  84. ^ Youn, Myung-Ja; Kim, JK; Park, SY; Kim, Y; Kim, SJ; Lee, JS; Chai, KY; Kim, HJ; Cui, MX; So, HS; Kim, KY; Park, R (2008). "Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus ) induces G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis in human hepatoma HepG2 cells". World Journal of Gastroenterology 14 (4): 511–7. doi:10.3748/wjg.14.511. PMC 2681140. PMID 18203281. 
  85. ^ "Chaga Mushroom". Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center. 18 July 2011. Retrieved August 2013. 
  86. ^ Cassileth, B (2009). "Juice Plus". Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.) 23 (11): 987. PMID 19947351. 
  87. ^ "Juicing". American Cancer Society. November 2008. Retrieved August 2013. 
  88. ^ "Kombucha Tea". American Cancer Society. 21 October 2010. Retrieved August 2013. 
  89. ^ "Mangosteen Juice". American Cancer Society. November 2008. Retrieved August 2013. 
  90. ^ "Mistletoe". American Cancer Society. January 2013. Retrieved September 2013. 
  91. ^ "Moxibustion". American Cancer Society. 8 March 2011. Retrieved August 2013. 
  92. ^ "Mushrooms and cancer". Cancer Research UK. Retrieved August 2013. 
  93. ^ "Oleander Leaf". American Cancer Society. Retrieved August 2013. 
  94. ^ "Noni Plant". American Cancer Society. November 2008. Retrieved September 2013. 
  95. ^ "Pau d'arco". American Cancer Society. January 2013. Retrieved September 2013. 
  96. ^ "Indian Snakeroot". American Cancer Society. November 2008. Archived from the original on 8 May 2013. Retrieved August 2013. 
  97. ^ "Red Clover". American Cancer Society. November 2008. Retrieved 22 September 2013. 
  98. ^ "Saw Palmetto". American Cancer Society. 28 November 2008. Retrieved 13 September 2013. 
  99. ^ "Seasilver". Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. 29 September 2012. Retrieved August 2013. 
  100. ^ "FTC Sweep Stops Peddlers of Bogus Cancer Cures". FTC. 18 September 2008. 
  101. ^ "Celandine". American Cancer Society. August 2011. Retrieved September 2013. 
  102. ^ "Cat's Claw". American Cancer Society. 12 September 2011. Retrieved August 2013. 
  103. ^ "Venus Flytrap". American Cancer Society. November 2008. Retrieved 22 September 2013. 
  104. ^ "Black Walnut". American Cancer Society. April 2011. Retrieved September 2013. 
  105. ^ "Wheatgrass". American Cancer Society. November 2008. Retrieved August 2013. 
  106. ^ "Wild Yam". American Cancer Society. November 2008. Retrieved 21 September 2013. 
  107. ^ "Applied Kinesiology". American Cancer Society. November 2008. Retrieved August 2013. 
  108. ^ "Chiropractic". American Cancer Society. March 2011. Retrieved August 2013. 
  109. ^ "Craniosacral therapy". American Cancer Society. December 2012. Retrieved August 2013. 
  110. ^ "Colon Therapy". American Cancer Society. November 2008. Retrieved August 2013. 
  111. ^ "Cupping". American Cancer Society. November 2008. Retrieved 4 October 2013. 
  112. ^ "Dance Therapy". American Cancer Society. Retrieved 30 April 2014. 
  113. ^ Bradt, J; Goodill, SW; Dileo, C (Oct 5, 2011). "Dance/movement therapy for improving psychological and physical outcomes in cancer patients.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (10): CD007103. PMID 21975762. 
  114. ^ "Reiki". Cancer Research UK. Retrieved August 2013. 
  115. ^ "Shiatsu". Cancer Research UK. Retrieved August 2013. 
  116. ^ "Imagery". American Cancer Society. 1 November 2008. Retrieved 7 September 2013. 
  117. ^ "Faith Healing". American Cancer Society. January 2013. Retrieved August 2013. 
  118. ^ "Hypnosis". American Cancer Society. November 2008. Retrieved 22 September 2013. 
  119. ^ "Meditation". American Cancer Society. November 2008. Retrieved August 2013. 
  120. ^ Cassileth BR (July 1995). "History of psychotherapeutic intervention in cancer patients". Support Care Cancer 3 (4): 264–6. PMID 7551631. 
  121. ^ Olson, 2002. p. 161
  122. ^ Soo Lee, Myeong; Chen, Kevin W; Sancier, Kenneth M; Ernst, Edzard (2007). "Qigong for cancer treatment: A systematic review of controlled clinical trials". Acta Oncologica 46 (6): 717–22. doi:10.1080/02841860701261584. PMID 17653892. 
  123. ^ "714-X". American Cancer Society. 1 November 2008. Retrieved August 2013. 
  124. ^ "Antineoplastons". CA 33 (1): 57–9. 1983. doi:10.3322/canjclin.33.1.57. PMID 6401577. 
  125. ^ "Apitherapy". American Cancer Society. November 2008. Retrieved 21 September 2013. 
  126. ^ "Questionable methods of cancer management: Cancell/Entelev". CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 43 (1): 57–62. 1993. doi:10.3322/canjclin.43.1.57. PMID 8422607. 
  127. ^ "Cancell". Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Retrieved 2011-02-26. 
  128. ^ "Cell Therapy". American Cancer Society. 1 November 2008. Retrieved 15 September 2013. 
  129. ^ "Cesium Chloride". Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. 3 May 2012. Retrieved August 2013. 
  130. ^ "Chelation Therapy". American Cancer Society. 1 November 2008. Retrieved 14 September 2013. 
  131. ^ "Dr. Klehr nima referenc v Berlinu" [Dr. Klehr doesn't have any references in Berlin]. 24ur.com. 3 September 2008. Retrieved 14 October 2013.  (Slovene)
  132. ^ "Salzburški zdravilec zavajal paciente?" [Salzburg healer mislead patients?]. 24ur.com. 27 August 2008. Retrieved 14 October 2013.  (Slovene)
  133. ^ "Dr. Klehr – Institut für Immunologie und Zellbiologie" [Dr. Klehr - Institute for Immunology and Cell Biology]. Europe Health GmbH. Retrieved 14 October 2013.  (German)
  134. ^ "Suspicious Austrian Healer Conning Slovenes". dalje.com. 27 August 2008. Retrieved 15 October 2013. 
  135. ^ Brustkrebs, Ein Ratgeber für Betroffene, Angehörige und Interessierte (pdf) (in German), German Cancer Aid, January 2005, ISSN 0946-4816 
  136. ^ Edward McSweegan, Ph.D. "Lyme Disease: Questionable Diagnosis and Treatment". Quackwatch. Retrieved August 2013. 
  137. ^ "Di Bella Therapy". American Cancer Society. Retrieved September 2013. 
  138. ^ "DMSO". American Cancer Society. November 2008. Retrieved 5 October 2013. 
  139. ^ "What is rocket fuel treatment?". Cancer Research UK. Retrieved 8 September 2013. 
  140. ^ Baratz, Robert (10 March 2007). "Why You Should Stay Away from Insulin Potentiation". Quackwatch. Retrieved August 2013. 
  141. ^ "Krebiozen". American Cancer Society. 1 November 2008. Retrieved August 2013. 
  142. ^ "Lipoic Acid". American Cancer Society. November 2008. Retrieved 5 October 2013. 
  143. ^ "FDA Warns Consumers of Serious Harm from Drinking Miracle Mineral Solution (MMS)". Quackwatch. 1 August 2010. Retrieved August 2013. 
  144. ^ Aaronson S et al. (2003). "Cancer medicine". In Frei Emil, Kufe Donald W, Holland James F. Cancer medicine 6. Hamilton, Ontario: BC Decker. p. 76. ISBN 1-55009-213-8. "There is no evidence that megavitamin or orthomolecular therapy is effective in treating any disease." 
  145. ^ "Oxygen Therapy". American Cancer Society. 26 December 2012. Retrieved 20 September 2013. 
  146. ^ "Quercetin". American Cancer Society. November 2008. Retrieved September 2013. 
  147. ^ "Revici's Guided Chemotherapy". American Cancer Society. November 2008. Retrieved September 2013. 
  148. ^ Loprinzi, Charles L.; Levitt, Ralph; Barton, Debra L.; Sloan, Jeff A.; Atherton, Pam J.; Smith, Denise J.; Dakhil, Shaker R.; Moore Jr, Dennis F.; Krook, James E.; Rowland Jr, Kendrith M.; Mazurczak, Miroslaw A.; Berg, Alan R.; Kim, George P.; North Central Cancer Treatment Group (2005). "Evaluation of shark cartilage in patients with advanced cancer". Cancer 104 (1): 176–82. doi:10.1002/cncr.21107. PMID 15912493. 
  149. ^ "Sodium Bicarbonate". American Cancer Society. 28 November 2008. Retrieved 7 September 2013. 
  150. ^ "Urotherapy". American Cancer Society. November 2008. Retrieved August 2013. 
  151. ^ Hamburger Morgenpost, 10 October 2006, Vitamin-Arzt Rath muss 33000 Euro zahlen
  152. ^ "Vitacor". Cancer Research UK. Retrieved 14 September 2013. 
  153. ^ a b "Cannabis and Cannabinoids:Appetite Stimulation". Retrieved October 1, 2013. 
  154. ^ Vadgama JV, Wu Y, Shen D, Hsia S, Block J (2000). "Effect of selenium in combination with Adriamycin or Taxol on several different cancer cells". Anticancer Research 20 (3A): 1391–414. PMID 10928049. 
  155. ^ Nilsonne G, Sun X, Nyström C, et al. (September 2006). "Selenite induces apoptosis in sarcomatoid malignant mesothelioma cells through oxidative stress". Free Radical Biology & Medicine 41 (6): 874–85. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2006.04.031. PMID 16934670. 
  156. ^ "HuaChanSu". National Cancer Institute. Retrieved 17 November 2012. 
  157. ^ Meng, Zhigiang; Yang, P; Shen, Y; Bei, W; Zhang, Y; Ge, Y; Newman, RA; Cohen, L et al. (2009). "Pilot Study of Huachansu in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, or Pancreatic Cancer". Cancer (NIHPA) 115 (22): 5309–5318. doi:10.1002/cncr.24602. PMC 2856335. PMID 19701908. 
  158. ^ a b Induru RR, Lagman RL. Managing cancer pain: frequently asked questions. Cleve Clin J Med. 2011;78(7):449–64. doi:10.3949/ccjm.78a.10054. PMID 21724928.
  159. ^ Borrell, Brendan (2008-02-18). "Medicine / In the Lab; Germs as a Tumor Foe?; Exposure to bacteria may help ward off cancer, studies show. Scientists are milking the concept with new drugs.". 
  160. ^ Ernst E, Pittler MH, Wider B, Boddy K (2007). "Acupuncture: its evidence-base is changing". The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 35 (1): 21–5. doi:10.1142/S0192415X07004588. PMID 17265547. 
  161. ^ Arney, Kat (2012-07-25). "Cannabis, cannabinoids and cancer – the evidence so far". Cancer Research UK. Retrieved 2014-03. 
  162. ^ Vickers A, Zollman C, Payne DK (October 2001). "Hypnosis and relaxation therapies". West. J. Med. 175 (4): 269–72. PMC 1071579. PMID 11577062. "Evidence from randomized controlled trials indicates that hypnosis, relaxation, and meditation techniques can reduce anxiety, particularly that related to stressful situations, such as receiving chemotherapy." 
  163. ^ a b Thyphronitis G, Koutsilieris M (2004). "Boosting the immune response: an alternative combination therapy for cancer patients". Anticancer Res. 24 (4): 2443–53. PMID 15330197. 
  164. ^ Stix, Gary (July 2007). "A Malignant Flame". Scientific American Magazine. 
  165. ^ "FTC Sweep Stops Peddlers of Bogus Cancer Cures: Public Education Campaign Counsels Consumers, "Talk to Your Doctor"" (Press release). Federal Trade Commission. 18 September 2008. 

External links[edit]