From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article
|Almanzo James Wilder|
|Born||February 13, 1857|
Malone, New York, U.S.
|Died||October 23, 1949 (aged 92)|
Mansfield, Missouri, U.S.
|Spouse(s)||Laura Ingalls Wilder (1885-1949) (his death)|
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (July 2007)|
|Almanzo James Wilder|
|Born||February 13, 1857|
Malone, New York, U.S.
|Died||October 23, 1949 (aged 92)|
Mansfield, Missouri, U.S.
|Spouse(s)||Laura Ingalls Wilder (1885-1949) (his death)|
Almanzo was born the fifth of six children to successful farmers James (1813–1899) and Angeline Day Wilder (1821–1905) on their farm near Malone, New York. His siblings include Laura Ann (1844–1899), Royal Gould (1847–1925), Eliza Jane (1850–1930), Alice M. (1853–1892), and Perley Day (1869–1934). As part of her Little House series of autobiographical novels, Laura Ingalls Wilder wrote a book titled Farmer Boy about Almanzo's childhood in upstate New York.
Almanzo is a well-known character in the Little House books, and Laura writes about him, their courtship, and subsequent marriage in The Long Winter, Little Town on the Prairie, These Happy Golden Years, and The First Four Years. Almanzo was characterized as a quietly courageous, hardworking man who loved horses and farming. He was also an accomplished carpenter and woodworker.
Farmer Boy recounts events of Almanzo's childhood starting when Almanzo was eight years old, in 1866. Among other things, he goes to school (when not needed at home for the farm work), learns to drive a team of oxen, attends a county fair, and enjoys a mid-19th century Fourth of July celebration in town. He also learns how to deal with being bossed around by his older siblings, particularly his strong-willed sister Eliza Jane, who would later become a teacher of Laura Ingalls Wilder.
Farmer Boy, by publication date, was the second book written in the Little House series (this is verified by both of Laura's biographers, John E. Miller, in his book Becoming Laura Ingalls Wilder (pp. 194–202), and William Anderson in his work Laura Ingalls Wilder - A Biography, (p. 199)). Published in 1933, it was followed by Little House on the Prairie in 1935. The original order of publication was changed by the publisher Harper with the release of the newly illustrated 1953 edition.
The Wilders left Malone in 1875 due to crop failures, and settled in Spring Valley, Minnesota, where they farmed. The Minnesota State Census from 1875 records the family as living in Spring Valley, Filmore county, Minnesota. On the census, the household is listed as having four members; James M. Wilder, male, age 61, (birthplace:Vermont, census I.D. 5559077), A. H. Wilder, female, age 55, (birthplace: New York, census I.D. 5558783), A. J. Wilder, male, age 14, (birthplace: New York, census I.D. 5558785), P. D. Wilder, male, age 6, (birthplace: New York, census I.D. 5559205) (Minnesota state census, 1875). These names and initials correspond to Almanzo's family: James, Angeline, Almanzo James, and Perley Day. It seems likely that the other children, given their ages at the time, would not have been living with their birth family. Almanzo's age is clearly stated as 14 on the census record, making his birth year 1861. In 1879, at the age of 18 Almanzo and his brother Royal and sister Eliza Jane moved to the Dakota Territory, taking claims near what would later become the town of De Smet, South Dakota. According to law a homesteader must be 21, so when Almanzo filed for his claim he said to the land agent "You can put me down as 21." In order for him to keep his land, he would have had to maintain the falsehood, even when marrying Laura. Almanzo settled on his homestead with the intent of planting acres of seed wheat which he had cultivated on rented shares in Marshall, Minnesota the previous summer. It was in De Smet that he first met Laura Ingalls. The Ingalls family had been the first settlers in the area, before the town was formally organized, moving to the Dakota Territory from Walnut Grove, Minnesota, when Laura's father took a brief job with the railroad.
Laura wrote of Almanzo's admirable character in The Long Winter. Along with Laura's fellow school chum, Ed "Cap" Garland, (born Edmund Oscarl Garland) Almanzo risked his life to save the pioneers of De Smet (including Laura's family) from starvation during the hard winter of 1881. Almanzo was 20 and Garland a mere teen when, in between one of the horrific blizzards that shook the region during the 1880–1881 winter, they went 12 miles (19 km) in search of wheat a farmer had supposedly harvested to the southwest of De Smet in the summer of 1880. They managed to find the farmer and purchase, after difficult negotiation (according to the book) 60 bushels of wheat, hauling it back on sleds that continually broke through the snow into slough grass, barely making it back to De Smet before a four-day blizzard hit the area.
When Laura was just 15, and Almanzo was 25, he began courting her, driving her back and forth between De Smet and a new settlement 12 miles (19 km) outside town where she was teaching school and boarding. Three years later, on August 25, 1885, he and Laura were married in De Smet by the Reverend Edward Brown. They settled on Almanzo's claim and began their own little farming operations. The Wilders' daughter, Rose, was born December 5, 1886. Rose later became the author Rose Wilder Lane, a noted political writer and philosopher, whose writings helped influence Leonard Read's formation of the Foundation for Economic Education (FEE) in the 1940s, promoting individual liberty, economic education, and property rights. Even today, Rose Wilder Lane is considered a seminal founding force in the American Libertarian Party.
During their first years of marriage, described in The First Four Years, the Wilders were plagued by bad weather, illness, and large debts. In spring of 1888, when Rose was still a baby, Almanzo and Laura were stricken with diphtheria. Although they both survived, Almanzo suffered from one of the less common, late complications of the illness, neuritis. Parts of his lower limbs were temporarily paralyzed, and even after the paralysis had resolved, he needed a cane to walk. Almanzo's inability to perform the hard physical labor associated with wheat farming in South Dakota, combined with a lengthy drought in the late 1880s and early 1890s, further contributed to the Wilders' downward spiral into debt and poverty.
The year 1889 proved the breaking point for the Wilders. In early August, Laura gave birth to a son. The son remained unnamed when, two weeks later, he suddenly died of "convulsions." She never spoke of his death and had no more children. Laura's own mother, Caroline, also lost her only son, Charles Frederick, when he died on August 27, 1876, at the age of nine months, when Laura was 9 years old. Almanzo's only child, Rose, also lost a son, her only child, in 1909 or 1910 due to a possible stillbirth or an early death. Like Laura, Rose never had any more children. That same month Laura and Almanzo lost their home to a fire and their crops to drought. In the words of Almanzo's daughter, Rose, "It took seven successive years of complete crop failure, with work, weather and sickness that wrecked his health permanently, and interest rates of 36 per cent on money borrowed to buy food, to dislodge us from that land."
In 1890, Almanzo moved his family to Spring Valley, Minnesota, to stay with his parents on their prosperous farm. It was a time of rest and recovery for the weary family. Between 1891 and 1892, the Wilders moved to Westville, Florida, in hopes that the warmer climate would help Almanzo regain his strength. To a limited extent it did, but Laura did not like the humid climate or the customs of the backwoods locals, so they returned to De Smet in 1892, and rented a small house in town. Between 1892 and 1894, Laura and Almanzo lived in De Smet, with Laura's family nearby. Rose was given special permission to start school early, and she soon proved to be an outstanding scholar. Laura worked as a seamstress in a dressmaker's shop, and Almanzo found work as a carpenter and day laborer. Together, they practiced extreme frugality and carefully saved money.
On July 17, 1894, Almanzo, Laura, and Rose left for The Ozarks of Missouri by covered wagon, attracted by brochures of "The Land of the Big Red Apple" and stories of a local man who had traveled to Missouri to see for himself. On August 31, they arrived near Mansfield, Missouri, and placed a $100 down payment on 40 acres (162,000 m²) of hilly, rocky undeveloped land that Laura aptly named "Rocky Ridge Farm." This farm was Almanzo and Laura's final home. In Missouri, Almanzo and Laura's luck finally changed, and they lived the rest of their life happily and successfully. Over the 20 years, Almanzo built Laura her dream house: a unique 10-room home in which he custom-built kitchen cabinets to accommodate her small, five-foot (1.52 m) frame.
Rocky Ridge Farm was eventually expanded to about 200 acres (809,000 m²) and was a productive poultry, dairy, and fruit farm. Almanzo's lifetime love of Morgan horses was indulged, and he also kept a large herd of cows and goats. Having learned a hard lesson by focusing on wheat farming in South Dakota, the Wilders chose a more diversified approach to farming suited to the climate of the Ozarks. Almanzo lived out the rest of his life on his farm, and both he and Laura were active in various community and church pursuits during their time in Missouri.
Although royalties from the Little House books helped provide for Laura and Almanzo, Rose helped support her parents until the mid-1930s. Eventually their efforts at Rocky Ridge during the 30s and 40s, along with the royalties from Laura's books finally provided a secure enough income to allow them to attain a financial stability not known earlier in their marriage. Earlier in their marriage, Laura had also contributed to their income by taking in occasional boarders, writing columns for a rural newspaper, and serving as Treasurer/Loan Officer for a Farm Loan Association.
In the 1920s and 1930s, Rose lived on the farm for long periods of time, bringing electricity and other modern updates to the place, even building an English-style stone cottage for her parents, while taking over the farm house herself for about ten years. Almanzo learned to drive an automobile, which greatly improved the Wilders' mobility. They eventually took several long auto trips, including to California and the Pacific Northwest, and went several times to visit Laura's remaining family in South Dakota. When Rose moved permanently to Connecticut in about 1937, her parents quickly returned to their beloved farm house, later selling off the eastern land with the stone cottage.
Almanzo spent his last years happily tending small vegetable and flower gardens, indulging his lifetime love of woodworking and carpentry and tending his goats. He aided his wife in greeting the carloads of Little House fans who regularly found their way to Rocky Ridge Farm. Almanzo Wilder died at the age of 92 on October 23, 1949 after suffering two heart attacks. Laura died eight years later, on February 10, 1957. Rose lived until 1968. All three of them are buried in Mansfield, and many of Almanzo's possessions and handiwork can be seen at Rocky Ridge Farm, now the Laura Ingalls Wilder/Rose Wilder Lane Museum, as well as the Malone, New York and Spring Valley, Minnesota sites.
Almanzo Wilder appears to have been a quiet, stoic man, representative of the time and culture in which he lived. His love of farming, horses, and rural living are well documented. Most of what is known of his personality and inner character must be gleaned from his wife's and daughter's literary portrayals (the lead character of Rose's homesteading novel Free Land was based on Almanzo) and the remaining evidence left among his family and friends' written recollections.
|Daniel Wilder (1764-1851)|
Mary Polly Gould (1765-1828)
Sarah Stewart Mason
|Justin Day, I|
|Abel Wilder (1784-1849)||Hannah Payne (1790-1842)||Justin Day, II|
|Diadema Bateman (1794-1868)|
|James Mason Wilder (1813-1899)||Angeline Albina Day (1821-1905)|
|Laura Ann Wilder (1844-1899)||Royal Gould Wilder (1847-1925)||Eliza Jane Wilder (1850-1930)||Alice M. Wilder (1852-1892)||Almanzo James Wilder (1857-1949)||Perley Day Wilder (1869-1934)|
In one of her books, Little Town on the Prairie, Laura Ingalls Wilder attributed to Almanzo Wilder the following explanation for his rather unusual first name: "It was wished on me. My folks have got a notion there always has to be an Almanzo in the family, because 'way back in the time of the Crusades there was a Wilder went to them, and an Arab or somebody saved his life. El Manzoor, the name was. They changed it after a while in England..."
Wilder was portrayed in the television adaptations of Little House on the Prairie by :
The character of Almanzo Wilder was added to the television series at the start of the 1979-1980 season. As in real life, Almanzo grew up with his siblings in New York state, and his traits as a hard-working farmer and carpenter and horse lover were integral parts of the television character. Unlike the books, however, his move out West (with his sister, Eliza Jane) ended in Walnut Grove, not the Dakota Territory. In the television series, the Ingalls family remained for several years in Walnut Grove, and – unlike their real-life first encounter in DeSmet, South Dakota – it is in Walnut Grove where 15-year-old Laura Ingalls and Almanzo Wilder, 25, meet for the first time.
Laura and her television rival, Nellie Olesen, both are immediately smitten by the handsome, young Almanzo. Both Laura and Nellie begin competing for Almanzo's attention and love. Nellie, also 10 years younger than Almanzo and a recent graduate of Walnut Grove School, had just been given a restaurant and hotel to manage, and the only reason Nellie decided to go along with this scheme was so she could cook dinner for Almanzo and impress him. Since Nellie can't cook, her mother gets Laura to agree to cook Almanzo's favorite meal, cinnamon chicken ... but as a joke substitutes Cajun pepper for the cinnamon, giving Almanzo quite a surprise and driving him away from the heartbroken, clueless Nellie. Nellie later learns about Laura's trick and gets revenge by giving her inaccurate material for a test to allow her to obtain her teaching certificate, leading to the two getting into a memorable mud fight; afterward, Almanzo breaks up the fight and takes Laura to his house to get cleaned up. Laura's father, Charles, hears Harriet Olesen's account of the fight and – letting fatherly instincts take over – rushes over to Almanzo's house to get Laura; when he sees her dressed in his robe, Charles assumes the worst and beats him up ... but then Laura explains that the situation was platonic and nothing else had occurred.
Almanzo tries courting several other women, but his mind is set on Laura. Finally, in the late sixth-season episode "Sweet Sixteen," Almanzo sees Laura as more than a "little friend." When Laura gets her teaching certificate, Almanzo drives her to and from her job; at her 16th birthday party, Laura – called "Beth" for the first time – and Almanzo share their first romantic kiss and she receives a special gift of a scarf from him, a traditional courting gift of the 1800s. Charles is initially uncomfortable with Almanzo, sensing that he is preying on a teen-age girl, but several key events – nursing a horse back to health after Almanzo's troublemaking brother, Perley Day, had made it ill; his taking several jobs to buy a building for the School for the Blind, potentially sacrificing his health – makes Charles realize that Almanzo is a hard-working, God-fearing, responsible young man who will take care of his little "Half-Pint." After initially telling him he has to wait until Laura's 18th birthday to marry her, Charles eventually relents and allows the two to marry. In the seventh-season opener, Almanzo and Laura are wed at the School for the Blind in Sleepy Eye, Minnesota. The wedding takes place after Almanzo's struggle to purchase a farm from a stubborn landowner who refuses him access to a creek, and Almanzo's own stubbornness over what Laura's role should be: that of a housewife, or as a teacher (Eliza Jane gets him to relent).
The young marriage of Almanzo and Laura has its typical struggles, but is seriously tested for the first time in the Season 8 episode "Days of Sunshine, Days of Sorrow." Almanzo, recovering from diphtheria and already worried about the condition of his crops and the effects of an economic downturn, panics when a strong hailstorm strikes the Walnut Grove area. He runs outside to try to do something, but falls numb. It is revealed he had suffered a mild stroke, and the good prognosis is nullified by Almanzo's bitter attitude and refusal to go to therapy. Eliza Jane learns of Almanzo's illness and rushes to Walnut Grove to coddle her brother; she even tries to get him a "less stressful job" in Minneapolis; Laura eventually stands up for her husband and tells Eliza Jane to back off. In the meantime, Laura gives birth to the couple's daughter, Rose, but this does little to perk up Almanzo's spirits. Then, a devastating tornado ravages the Walnut Grove area, destroying the Wilders' homestead; Laura is injured while trying to retreat to the basement, but recovers. Then, while returning to the homestead to clean up what she thinks is slight damage, she discovers that everything is in rubble and has an emotional breakdown. Almanzo sees her anger and finally realizes his own bitter, resentful attitude has rubbed off on others; he swallows his own pride and decides to rebuild the farmstead. (It is also implied he decides to commit to therapy, as he is able to walk again, although his recovery is not depicted in this episode.) Also during Season 8, Almanzo meets Laura's childhood friend, Isaiah Edwards, for the first time; the two become close friends, and Almanzo assists Edwards in recovering from alcoholism.
During the series final season – by now, the show is called Little House: A New Beginning – Almanzo and Laura take in their niece, Jenny Wilder, when Almanzo's brother and her father, Royal, begins to suffer from a terminal heart condition, which ultimately kills him. As in real life, the two also have a second child, a boy who is unnamed before he dies suddenly; the story is played out in "A Child With No Name." Near the end of the season, Laura and Almanzo take over a boarding house.
Almanzo and Laura remain in Walnut Grove through the remainder of the series, and are last seen as central characters in "Bless All the Dear Children," a Christmas movie centered on a young woman kidnapping Rose, and the efforts to find her. The two also appear in the final sequel movie, "The Last Farewell".
Dean Butler, the actor who portrayed Almanzo Wilder in Little House on the Prairie (TV series) produced a documentary video on Wilder entitled "Almanzo Wilder: Life Before Laura" that was released through his company Legacy Documentaries.
Minnesota Historical Society: Minnesota State Census Index 1875 http://people.mnhs.org/census/viewimage.cfm?order_no=109591&datalinkid=5558785