Allium tricoccum

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Wild leek or ramp
Wild Leeks.jpeg
Scientific classification e
Kingdom:Plantae
Clade:Angiosperms
Clade:Monocots
Order:Asparagales
Family:Amaryllidaceae
Subfamily:Allioideae
Genus:Allium
Species:A. tricoccum
Binomial name
Allium tricoccum
Ait.[1]
Synonyms[2]
  • Aglitheis tricoccum (Aiton) Raf.
  • Allium pictum Moldenke
  • Allium tricoccum f. pictum Moldenke
  • Allium triflorum Raf.
  • Ophioscorodon tricoccon (Aiton) Wallr.
  • Validallium tricoccum (Aiton) Small
 
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The name wild leek can also refer to Allium ampeloprasum, a species native to Europe. The name spring onion can also refer to scallions.
Wild leek or ramp
Wild Leeks.jpeg
Scientific classification e
Kingdom:Plantae
Clade:Angiosperms
Clade:Monocots
Order:Asparagales
Family:Amaryllidaceae
Subfamily:Allioideae
Genus:Allium
Species:A. tricoccum
Binomial name
Allium tricoccum
Ait.[1]
Synonyms[2]
  • Aglitheis tricoccum (Aiton) Raf.
  • Allium pictum Moldenke
  • Allium tricoccum f. pictum Moldenke
  • Allium triflorum Raf.
  • Ophioscorodon tricoccon (Aiton) Wallr.
  • Validallium tricoccum (Aiton) Small

Allium tricoccum (commonly known as ramp,[3] ramps, spring onion, ramson, wild leek,[3] wood leek,[3] and wild garlic) is an early spring vegetable, a perennial wild onion with a strong garlic-like odor and a pronounced onion flavor.[4] Ramps are found across much of the eastern United States and eastern Canada, from Alabama to Nova Scotia to Manitoba to Oklahoma. They are popular in the cuisines of the rural uplands of the American South, and also in the Canadian province of Quebec. Ramps also have a growing popularity in restaurants throughout North America.[5][6][7]

English name[edit]

According to West Virginia University botanist Earl L. Core, the widespread use in southern Appalachia of the term "ramps" (as opposed to "wild leek" which is used elsewhere in the United States) derives from Old English:

The name ramps (usually plural) is one of the many dialectical variants of the English word ramson, a common name of the European bear leek (Allium ursinum), a broad-leaved species of garlic much cultivated and eaten in salads, a plant related to our American species. The Anglo-Saxon ancestor of ramson was hramsa, and ramson was the Old English plural, the –n being retained as in oxen, children, etc. The word is cognate with rams, in German, Danish, Swedish, and Norwegian, and with the Greek kromuon, garlic [...]. Wright’s English Dialect Dictionary (1904) lists as variants rame, ramp, ramps, rams, ramsden, ramsey, ramsh, ramsies, ramsy, rommy, and roms, mostly from northern England and Scotland.[8]

Description[edit]

The ramp has broad, smooth, light green leaves, often with deep purple or burgundy tints on the lower stems, and a scallion-like stalk and bulb. Both the white lower leaf stalks and the broad green leaves are edible. The flower stalk only appears after the leaves have died back, unlike the similar Allium ursinum, in which leaves and flowers can be seen at the same time. Ramps grow in close groups strongly rooted just beneath the surface of the soil.[9]

Taxonomy[edit]

Allium tricoccum was first named in 1789 by the Scottish botanist William Aiton, in Hortus Kewensis, a catalog of plants cultivated in the Kew botanic garden. The species had been introduced to Britain in 1770. The specific epithet tricoccum refers to the possession of three seeds.[10]

Varieties[edit]

As of May 2014, the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families accepts two varieties:[11]

This treatment is followed by other sources (e.g. the Flora of North America),[12] although the two taxa are sometimes treated as two species, Allium tricoccum and Allium burdickii.[13] A. tricoccum var. burdickii was first described by Clarence Hanes in 1953; the epithet burdickii is in honor of Dr. J.H. Burdick who pointed out differences between what were then regarded as different "races" in letters to Asa Gray.[14] The variety was raised to a full species by Almut Jones in 1979.

The two are distinguished by several features:[12]

Conservation[edit]

Allium tricoccum growing in its natural woodland environment.

In Canada, ramps are considered rare delicacies. Since the growth of ramps is not as widespread as in Appalachia and because of destructive human practices, ramps are a threatened species in Quebec. Allium tricoccum is a protected species under Quebec legislation. A person may have ramps in his or her possession outside the plant's natural environment, or may harvest it for the purposes of personal consumption in an annual quantity not exceeding 200 grams of any of its parts or a maximum of 50 bulbs or 50 plants, provided those activities do not take place in a park within the meaning of the National Parks Act. The protected status also prohibits any commercial transactions of ramps; this prevents restaurants from serving ramps as is done in the United States. Failure to comply with these laws is punishable by a fine.[15] However, the law does not always stop poachers, who find a ready market across the border in Ontario (especially in the Ottawa area), where ramps may be legally harvested and sold.[16]

Ramps are considered a species of "special concern" for conservation in Maine, Rhode Island, and Tennessee.[17] They are also considered "commercially exploited" in Tennessee. Ramp festivals may encourage harvest in unsustainable quantities.

Culinary uses and festivals[edit]

Closeup of an Allium tricoccum bulb.
 photo of sign for deep fried ramps and Mason Dixon Ramp Fest in Mt. Morris, Pennsylvania
Deep fried ramps sign at Mason-Dixon Ramp Fest in Mt. Morris, Pennsylvania in 2010

The plant's flavor, a combination of onions and strong garlic,[18][19][20] or "fried green onions with a dash of funky feet" in the words of food writer Jane Snow,[21] is adaptable to numerous cooking styles. In central Appalachia, ramps are most commonly fried with potatoes in bacon fat or scrambled with eggs and served with bacon, pinto beans and cornbread. Ramps can also be pickled or used in soups and other foods in place of onions and garlic.

History and folklore[edit]

The region of the city of Chicago took its name from a dense growth of ramps near Lake Michigan in Illinois Country in the 17th century. The local river was referred to by the plant's indigenous name according to explorer Robert Cavelier, sieur de La Salle, and by his comrade, the naturalist and diarist Henri Joutel.[4] The plant, called shikaakwa (chicagou) in the language of local native tribes, was once thought to be Allium cernuum, the nodding wild onion, but research in the early 1990s showed the correct plant was the ramp.[4][28]

The ramp has strong associations with the folklore of the central Appalachian Mountains. Fascination and humor have fixated on the plant's extreme pungency. Jim Comstock, editor and co-owner of the Richwood News Leader, introduced ramp juice into the printer's ink of one issue as a practical joke,[29] invoking the ire of the U.S. Postmaster General.[30]

The mountain folk of Appalachia have long celebrated spring with the arrival of the ramp, believing it to have great power as a tonic to ward off many ailments of winter. Indeed, ramp's vitamin and mineral content did bolster the health of people who went without many green vegetables during the winter.[31]

A ramp bath was featured in the 1974 film Where the Lilies Bloom about life in North Carolina. In the 1987 John Sayles film Matewan, an Appalachian woman in a camp of West Virginia union miners gives a hare to an Italian immigrant woman, along with some ramps "to flavor the stew". The Italian woman smells the ramps and exclaims "aglio!" (garlic!).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Allium tricoccum". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2014-05-24. 
  2. ^ The Plant List
  3. ^ a b c "Allium tricoccum information from NPGS/GRIN". USDA GRIN Taxonomy. 23 January 2007. Retrieved 2 February 2012. 
  4. ^ a b c Zeldes, Leah A. (5 April 2010). "Ramping up: Chicago by any other name would smell as sweet". Dining Chicago. Chicago's Restaurant & Entertainment Guide, Inc. Retrieved 2 May 2010. 
  5. ^ How Ramps Became Spring’s Most Popular, and Divisive, Ingredient, Grubstreet
  6. ^ Cult of ramps begins worship season early, The Wire
  7. ^ Ramps: How to cook and where to find this savory spring treat, Denver Post
  8. ^ Core, Earl L. (15 April 1973). "Cult of the Ramp Eaters". Charleston Gazette-Mail.  Reprinted in the same author's book: Core, Earl L. (1975). The Wondrous Year: West Virginia Through the Seasons. Grantsville, West Virginia: Seneca Books.  pp. 46–51.
  9. ^ "Cultivation of Ramps". North Carolina State University. Retrieved 19 February 2014. 
  10. ^ Aiton, William (1789). Hortus Kewensis 1.  p. 428
  11. ^ tricoccum "Search for Allium tricoccum". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2014-05-24. 
  12. ^ a b McNeal Jr., Dale W. & Jacobsen, T.D. "Allium tricoccum". Retrieved 2014-05-25. , in Flora of North America Editorial Committee, ed. (1982 onwards), Flora of North America (online), eFloras.org 
  13. ^ ITIS Standard Report Page: Allium burdickii Retrieved 2010-03-20.
  14. ^ http://www.thismia.com/A/Allium_tricoccum.html Retrieved 2010-03-20.
  15. ^ "Regulation respecting threatened or vulnerable plant species and their habitats". Gazette officielle. Éditeur officiel du Québec. 1 May 2014. Retrieved 19 May 2014. 
  16. ^ "Garlic lovers answer the call of the wild". Globe and Mail. 21 May 2007. Retrieved 19 May 2014. 
  17. ^ "NRCS: USDA Plants Profile and map: A. tricoccum". USDA. Retrieved 19 May 2014. 
  18. ^ Block, Eric (2010). Garlic and Other Alliums: The Lore and the Science. Cambridge, UK: Royal Society of Chemistry. ISBN 978-0-85404-190-9. 
  19. ^ Davies, Dilys (1992). Alliums: The Ornamental Onions. Portland: Timber Press. 
  20. ^ Woodward, Penny (1996). Garlic and Friends: The History, Growth and Use of Edible Alliums. South Melbourne: Hyland House. 
  21. ^ Snow, Jane (21 April 2004). "Hankering For Ramps". Akron Beacon Journal.  E1, E4-E5.
  22. ^ "Ramp Festivals, Feast of the Ramson Ramps". Retrieved 17 February 2013. 
  23. ^ "Ramps & Rails Festival". West Virginia Department of Commerce. Retrieved 17 February 2013. 
  24. ^ "Cosby Ramp Festival". Tennessee Vacation. Retrieved 17 February 2013. 
  25. ^ "Flag Pond, Unicoi County, Tennessee". Retrieved 26 October 2011. 
  26. ^ "Whitetop Mountain Ramp Festival". Grayson County, VA website. Retrieved 17 February 2013. 
  27. ^ Core 1975, p. 51.
  28. ^ Swenson, John F. (Winter 1991). "Chicago: Meaning of the Name and Location of Pre-1800 European Settlements". Early Chicago. Retrieved 22 May 2010. 
  29. ^ Miller, Tom D. (5 October 2012). "Jim Comstock". West Virginia Encyclopedia. Retrieved 17 February 2013. 
  30. ^ "Ramps in the Ink". Goldenseal 20: 23. Winter 1994.  Comstock had been inspired by the scratch-and-sniff advertising for perfume and coffee in several local papers. The issue in question announced the Richwood Ramp Supper by lacing the printer's ink for the spring issue with ramp juice. According to Comstock, "We got a reprimand from the Postmaster General ... And we are probably the only paper in the United States that's under oath to the federal government not to smell bad".
  31. ^ Davis, Jeanine M.; Greenfield, Jacqulyn. "Cultivating Ramps: Wild Leeks of Appalachia". Purdue University. Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 6 May 2011. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]