Alfa Romeo Spider

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Alfa Romeo Spider
1967-Alfa-Romeo-Duetto-Red-Front-Angle-st.jpg
1600 Spider (Duetto)
Overview
ManufacturerAlfa Romeo
Also calledGiulia Spider
105-series Spider
"Classic" Spider
Production1966–1993
AssemblyGrugliasco, Turin, Italy[1]
San Giorgio Canavese, Italy (Pininfarina)
DesignerBattista Pininfarina
Franco Martinengo at Pininfarina[2]
Body and chassis
Body style2-door roadster
LayoutFR layout
RelatedAlfa Romeo Giulia
Chronology
PredecessorAlfa Romeo Giulietta Spider
SuccessorAlfa Romeo Spider (1995)
 
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Alfa Romeo Spider
1967-Alfa-Romeo-Duetto-Red-Front-Angle-st.jpg
1600 Spider (Duetto)
Overview
ManufacturerAlfa Romeo
Also calledGiulia Spider
105-series Spider
"Classic" Spider
Production1966–1993
AssemblyGrugliasco, Turin, Italy[1]
San Giorgio Canavese, Italy (Pininfarina)
DesignerBattista Pininfarina
Franco Martinengo at Pininfarina[2]
Body and chassis
Body style2-door roadster
LayoutFR layout
RelatedAlfa Romeo Giulia
Chronology
PredecessorAlfa Romeo Giulietta Spider
SuccessorAlfa Romeo Spider (1995)

The Alfa Romeo Spider (105/115 series) is a roadster produced by the Italian manufacturer Alfa Romeo from 1966 to 1993 (190 Spiders were badged as 1994 Commemorative Editions for the North American market).[3] Widely regarded as a design classic, it remained in production for almost three decades with only minor aesthetic and mechanical changes, with series I-III originally fitting Pirelli Cinturato 165HR14 tyres (CA67) across its lifetime. The three first series were assembled by Pininfarina in Grugliasco and the fourth series in San Giorgio Canavese. The last Spider was produced in April 1993, it was also the last rear wheel drive Alfa Romeo produced before Alfa Romeo 8C Competizione was introduced. On May 23, 2012, Fiat announced it was forging an agreement to develop a new Spider for 2015 with Mazda based on the Mazda MX-5 platform.[4] The agreement was finalized on 18 January 2013.[5]

History[edit]

Origin of the Spider name[edit]

Name originates from the English word "speeder", a two-person open horse-carriage, and has nothing to do with an eight-footed arthropod. Spider is also a name of an open top coachwork not only a name of the car, just like "barchetta". Some other brands use similar name: ex. Maserati Spyder, Ferrari 250 California Spyder. In the 1930s one version of the Alfa Romeo 8C was known as the Spider. This had a 2.3 litre engine and a single-seater racing version of the Spider was driven to victory by Tazio Nuvolari at the Targa Florio race in Sicily in 1931 and 1932.

Series 1 Spider (1966–1969)[edit]

First generation
Roundtail 1750.jpg
Spider "Duetto"
Overview
Production1966–1969
Powertrain
Engine1.3 L I4
1.6 L I4
1.8 L I4
Transmission5-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase2,250 mm (89 in) Duetto[6]
Length4,255 mm (167.5 in) Duetto
Width1,626 mm (64.0 in) Duetto
Height1,295 mm (51.0 in) Duetto
Curb weight996 kg (2,196 lb) Duetto

The first presentation of the modern car, as a prototype, was at the Turin Motor Show in 1961.[7] However, the continuing success of existing models and the economic challenges facing Italy at the time meant that the first pre-launch production Spiders began to emerge from the Pininfarina production line only at the end of 1965.[7]

Based on the Giulia 105 series chassis, the Spider was launched in the 36th Geneva Motor Show in March 1966.[8] Unnamed at launch, the name "Duetto" was chosen in a write-in competition in Italy.[9] The Italian firm of Pininfarina was responsible for the design of the body; in fact, the Duetto was the last project with which founder Battista "Pinin" Farina was personally associated.[8] Franco Martinengo was the Design Director at Pininfarina at that time.[10] Pininfarina were also responsible for the manufacture of the vehicle's monocoque construction (designed with the relatively new principles of crumple zones incorporated into the front and rear). The engine was a 1570 cc variant of the Alfa Romeo twin cam four cylinder engine, had dual Weber two-barrel side-draft carburetors, and produced 109 hp (81 kW). Sparsely fitted inside but including five speed manual transmission, disc brakes and independent front suspension, the price on launch in Italy was 2,195,000 lire. In the United States the car sold for $3,950 (compared to $3,991 for a Lotus Elan and $2,607 for an MGB.)[11] In the United Kingdom the car's price was close to a Jaguar E-Type.[12]

The original "Duetto" was in production from 1966–1967; replaced in late 1967 by the 1750 Spider Veloce, powered by a 118 hp (88 kW) 1779 cc engine. In Europe this was fitted with two twin carburettors, whereas models for the North American market (from MY 1969) had SPICA (Società Pompe Iniezione Cassani & Affini) mechanical fuel injection.[13] Modifications were also made to the suspension, brakes, electrics and wheels and tires though the car looked effectively the same. Visible differences were limited to the rear-view mirror repositioned to the door, and different badging on the tail. During the production run, the front repeater lights were moved ahead of the wheelarches. The car's official title was 1750 Spider Veloce, the name "Duetto" being dropped from this point on.

A new Spider 1300 Junior, with a 1290 cc engine producing 89 hp (66 kW), was introduced in 1968. This lacked various features of the 1750, including the plastic headlamp fairings, the brake servo, hubcaps and opening quarterlight. Junior version had black-coloured lower front bumper.

Due to its round (or long) tail, the Series 1 Spider is sometimes known by the nickname of "Osso di Seppia" - Italian for "cuttlefish bone" or "boat tail" to differentiate it from the "Kamm tail" Series 2. This particular car was the model featured in the 1967 movie The Graduate, driven by Ben, the character played by Dustin Hoffman.

6,324 of 1600 'Duetto' were made and 2,680 of 1300 Junior.

Series 2 Spider (1970–1982/83)[edit]

Second generation
Macchina.jpg
Spider Junior 1.6 (1974) "Coda Tronca"
Overview
Also calledGiulia Spider
Production1970–1982
Powertrain
Engine1.3 L I4
1.6 L I4[14]
1.8 L I4
2.0 L I4
Transmission5-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase2,250 mm (89 in)
Length4,120 mm (162.2 in)
Width1,630 mm (64.2 in)
Height1,290 mm (50.8 in)
Curb weight1,040 kg (2,290 lb)

In 1970 the first significant change to the exterior styling was introduced on the 1750 Spider Veloce, with the original's distinctive elongated round tail changed to a more conventional cut-off tail, called the "Kamm tail", as well as improving the luggage space. Numerous other small changes took place both inside and out, such as a slightly different grille, new doorhandles, a more raked windscreen, top-hinged pedals and improved interior trim.

1971 saw the Spider Veloce get a new, larger powerplant - a 1962 cc, 132 hp (98 kW) unit - and consequently the name was changed from 1750 Spider Veloce to 2000 Spider Veloce. The 1600 Spider restarted production a year later as the Spider 1600 Junior, and was visually identical to the 1300.

1974 saw the introduction of the rare, factory request, Spider-Targa. Based upon the Spider, it featured a Porsche style solid rear window and lift out roof panels, all made out of black GRP type material. Less than 2,000 models of such type were ever made and was the only part solid roof Spider until the introduction of the factory crafted hard top.

The 1300 and 2000 cars were modified in 1974 and 1975 respectively to include two small seats behind the front seats, becoming a "two plus two" four seater. The 1300 model was discontinued in 1977. Also, between 1974 and 1976, the early-style stainless-steel bumpers were discontinued and replaced with black, rubber-clad units to meet increasingly stringent North American crash requirements.

4,557 of 1300 Junior were made and 4,848 of 1600 Junior. 16,320 of 2000 Spider Veloce were made and 22,059 of 2000 Spider Veloce US version. 4,674 and 4,027 (US) 1750 Spider Veloce were made (this includes 'round tail' Spiders)

Series 3 Spider (1982/83–1989/90)[edit]

Third generation
Alfa spider 3rd frankfurt vorn.jpg
Spider "Aerodinamica"
Overview
Production1983–1989
Powertrain
Engine1.6 L I4
2.0 L I4
Transmission5-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase88.6 in (2,250 mm)
Length168.8 in (4,288 mm)
Width64.1 in (1,628 mm)
Height48.8 in (1,240 mm)

The Series 3 Spider was previewed in North America for the 1982 model year with the introduction of 2.0 liter Bosch electronic fuel injection to replace the SPICA mechanical injection.

The Spider underwent a major styling revamp in 1983, which saw the introduction of black rubber front and rear bumpers. The front bumper incorporated the grille and a small soft rubber spoiler was added to the trunk lid. The change altered the exterior appearance of the car considerably and was not universally praised by enthusiasts. Various other minor mechanical and aesthetic modifications were also made, and the 1600 car (never available in North America) dropped the "Junior" name.

The Quadrifoglio Verde (Green Fourleaf Clover) model was introduced in 1986, with many aesthetic tweaks, including sideskirts, mirrors, new front and rear spoilers, hard rubber trunk mounted spoilers with integral 3rd stoplight, unique 15" alloys and optional removable hardtop. Different interior trim included blood red carpets and gray leather seats with red stitching. QV was offered in only 3 colours: red, silver and black. It was otherwise mechanically identical to the standard Spider Veloce model, with a 1962 cc double overhead cam, four-cylinder engine (twin two-barrel carburetors in Europe; North American models retained the Bosch L-Jetronic fuel injection introduced for the 1982 model year except that the VVT mechanism was now L-Jet activated) and five-speed manual transmission.[15]

The interior was revised with a new center console, lower dash panels (to meet U.S. regulations) and a single monopod gauge cluster (with electronic gauges). For the North American market a model dubbed the Graduate was added in tribute to the car's famous appearance in the 1967 film, The Graduate, starring Dustin Hoffman.

The Graduate was intended as a less expensive "entry-level" Alfa. While it had the same engine and transmission as the Quadrifoglio and Veloce, it lacked the alloy wheels and luxury features of the other two models. The Graduate model had manual windows, basic vinyl seats, a vinyl top, and steel wheels as standard. Air conditioning and a dealer-installed radio were the only options. It first appeared in 1985 in North America and continued until 1990.

Minor changes occurred from 1986–89, including new paint colors, a center high mount stop lamp (CHMSL) midway through 1986 for North American models, a move away from the fade-prone brown carpet and new turn signal levers. Some 1988 models featured automatic seatbelts that extended from a large device between the front seats.

Series 4 Spider (1990/91–1993)[edit]

Fourth generation
Alfa romeo spider serie4 open.jpg
Spider "Type 4" in the rare "Vinaccia Red".
Overview
Production1990–1993
Powertrain
Engine1.6 L I4
2.0 L I4
Transmission5-speed manual
3-speed automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase88.6 in (2,250 mm)
Length167.7 in (4,260 mm)
Width63.9 in (1,623 mm)
Height49.7 in (1,262 mm)

The final major change to the Spider came in 1990. The primary mechanical change was that the Spider was given Bosch Motronic electronic fuel injection with an electric fan.[15] Externally, the Spider lost its front under-bumper spoiler and the rear trunk-lid spoiler and picked up 164-style rear lights stretching across the width of the car as well as plastic bumpers the same color as the car. This also marked the first generation of this car with automatic transmission.

In North America, the styling changes did not appear until the 1991 model year; 1990 models featured the Motronic fuel injection but retained the black bumpers. Power steering, larger knee bolsters and a driver-side airbag also appeared as standard for North American market Spiders, which were available in two configurations: Spider and Spider Veloce. Primary differences were in standard equipment: the Veloce substituted leather seats for the base model's vinyl; 15" alloy wheels were one size up from the standard steel wheels with hubcaps; and air conditioning and a cloth top were standard.

Production of the original Spider ended in 1993. An all-new Alfa Spider arrived one year later.

A limited edition Spider Commemorative Edition was produced for the North American market in 1993 and was badged as a 1994 model. Each of the 190 Spider CEs imported to the United States had a small plaque affixed to the dashboard that identified which of the 190 cars it was.[3] The CEs differed from previous Spiders in that they had a special badge on the nose, a "CE" script badge below the "Spider Veloce" badge on the tail, unique gold center caps on the "phonedial" 15" wheels, and burl wood interior trim. Each model came with a leather portfolio, numbered keychain, and documentation. The cars followed the VIN sequence 008276 to 008460, although there does not appear to be any systematic order numbering. It appears that all of the 1994 Spider Commemorative Editions were produced in May 1993.

In Europe this version was also sold with 1.6 L engine used in series 3, it was fitted with Weber 40DCOM4/5 carburettors.[16]

Production[edit]

1970–1993[17]

YearUnits made
19702,539
19713,735
19724,121
19734,848
19745,107
19755,189
19764,338
19774,183
19783,868
19794,129
19805,584
19811,653
19821,923
19835,365
19846,587
19855,590
19867,215
19874,339
19884,090
19893,950
19907,106
19919,073
19923,640
19931,956
Total110,128

Total production 1966–1993: 124,104 cars.

Generations[edit]

ModelEnginePowerTorqueYearsProduction
Serie 1: Duetto, Osso di Seppia or Roundtail~13,355
Duetto1,570 cc109 PS (80 kW; 108 hp)142 N·m (105 lb·ft)1966–19676,324
1750 Veloce1,779 cc118 PS (87 kW; 116 hp)168 N·m (124 lb·ft)1967–19694,674
1750 Veloce US version1,779 cc132 PS (97 kW; 130 hp)168 N·m (124 lb·ft)19694,027
1300 Junior1,290 cc89 PS (65 kW; 88 hp)-1968–19692,680
Serie 2: Fastback, Coda Tronca or Kamm tail~52,134
1750 Veloce1,779 cc124 PS (91 kW; 122 hp)168 N·m (124 lb·ft)1970–1973*
1300 Junior1,290 cc104 PS (76 kW; 103 hp)137 N·m (101 lb·ft)1970–19774,557
2000 Veloce1,962 cc133 PS (98 kW; 131 hp)-1971–198238,379
1600 Junior1,570 cc110 PS (81 kW; 108 hp)-1972–19814,848
Serie 3: Aerodinamica or Duck Tail37,208
Aerodinamica 20001,962 cc128 PS (94 kW; 126 hp)178 N·m (131 lb·ft)1982–198910,170**
Aerodinamica 16001,570 cc104 PS (76 kW; 103 hp)142 N·m (105 lb·ft)1983–19895,400**
Quadrifoglio Verde1,962 cc132 PS (97 kW; 130 hp)-1985–19892,598**
Serie 421,407
Type 4 20001,962 cc126 PS (93 kW; 124 hp)166 N·m (122 lb·ft)1990–199318,456
Type 4 16001,570 cc109 PS (80 kW; 108 hp)-1990–19922,951

*combined with 1750 Veloce
**this does not include 19,040 US-market cars

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Spider 1600 Duetto". hem.passagen.se. Archived from the original on 21 February 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-23. 
  2. ^ "Designer". ajovalo.net. Retrieved 2012-02-08. 
  3. ^ a b "Affordable Classic: 1991-94 Alfa Romeo Spider 2000". sportscarmarket.com. Archived from the original on 27 June 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-22. 
  4. ^ "Fiat and Mazda announce co-operation program". fiatspa.com. 2012. Retrieved 2012-05-23. 
  5. ^ "Alfa Romeo, Mazda confirm roadster project". Retrieved 2012-01-18. 
  6. ^ "1966 Alfa Romeo 1600 Spider Duetto". carfolio.com. Retrieved 2007-10-27. 
  7. ^ a b "Used Car Test: 1968 Alfa Romeo 1750 Spider". Autocar. 136. (nbr 3967): pages 22–23. date 27 April 1972. 
  8. ^ a b "History 1960-1970". alfaromeo.com.au. Archived from the original on 2007-02-19. Retrieved 2007-06-22. 
  9. ^ "1967 Alfa Romeo Duetto". conceptcarz.com. Retrieved 2007-06-22. 
  10. ^ "Design director". tom-tjaarda.net. Retrieved 2012-02-09. 
  11. ^ http://www.nadaguides.com
  12. ^ The Encyclopedia of Classic Cars 1945–1975
  13. ^ "Affordable Classic: 1971-81 Alfa Romeo Spider". .sportscarmarket.com. Archived from the original on 9 June 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-22. 
  14. ^ Willson, Quentin (1995). The Ultimate Classic Car Book. DK Publishing, Inc. ISBN 0-7894-0159-2. 
  15. ^ a b "Affordable Classic: 1991-94 Alfa Romeo Spider 2000". ..sportscarmarket.com. Archived from the original on 27 June 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-22. 
  16. ^ Jim Talbott & Stuart Taylor. "Series 4 Spider". aroc-uk.com. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-20. 
  17. ^ "PRODUZIONE COMPLESSIVA" (PDF). pininfarina.it. Archived from the original on 2011-06-05. Retrieved 2007-08-03. 

External links[edit]