Results of the ISCD 2010 study ranking the levels of damage caused by drugs, in the opinion of drug-harm experts. When harm to self and others is summed, alcohol was the most harmful of all drugs considered, scoring 72.
Alcohol detoxification, or detox, for individuals with alcohol dependence, is the abrupt cessation of alcohol intake, a process often coupled with substitution of cross-tolerant drugs that have effects similar to the effects of alcohol in order to prevent alcohol withdrawal.
As such, the term "detoxification" may be somewhat of a misnomer since the process need not refer exclusively to the removal of toxic substances from the body. Detoxification may or may not be indicated depending upon an individual's age, medical status, and history of alcohol intake. For example, a young man who binge drinks and seeks treatment one week after his last use of alcohol may not require detoxification before beginning treatment for alcoholism.
The first option takes into consideration the varying degrees of tolerance. In it, a standard dose of the benzodiazepine is given every half hour until light sedation is reached. Once a baseline dose is determined, the medication is tapered over the ensuing 3–10 days.
Another option is to give a standard dose of benzodiazepine based on history and adjust based on withdrawal phenomenon.
A third option is to defer treatment until symptoms occur. This method should not be used in patients with prior, alcohol-related seizures. This has been effective in randomized controlled trials. A non-randomized, before and after, observational study found that symptom triggered therapy was advantageous.
Dosing of the benzodiazepines can be guided by the CIWA scale. The scale is available online.
Regarding the choice of benzodiazepine:
Chlordiazepoxide (Librium) is the benzodiazepine of choice in uncomplicated alcohol withdrawal due to its long half-life.
Lorazepam or diazepam is available as an injection for patients who cannot safely take medications by mouth.
Lorazepam and oxazepam are indicated in patients with impaired liver function because they are metabolised outside of the liver.
Nitrous oxide has been shown to be an effective and safe treatment for alcohol withdrawal. Over 20,000 cases of the alcoholic withdrawal state have been successfully treated with psychotropic analgesic nitrous oxide (PAN) in South Africa and Finland. In 1992 it was officially approved for the treatment of addictive withdrawal states by the medical authorities in South Africa. Consequently, patients receiving it can claim a refund from their medical insurance. The gas therapy reduces the use of highly addictive sedative medications (like benzopdiazepines and barbiturates) by over 90%. The technique thus reduces the danger of secondary addiction to benzodiazepines, which can be a real problem amongst alcoholics who have been treated with these agents.
GHB sold in Italy for therapeutic use.
Some hospitals administer alcohol to prevent alcohol withdrawal although there are potential problems with this practice.
Various vitamins, especially from the B group, are often used during alcohol withdrawal treatment.
Sodium oxybate is the sodium salt of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). It is used for both acute alcohol withdrawal and medium to long-term detoxification. This drug enhances GABA neurotransmission and reduces glutamate levels. It is used in Italy in small amounts under the trade name Alcover.
Baclofen has been shown in animal studies and in small human studies to enhance detoxification. This drug acts as a GABA B receptor agonist and this may be beneficial.
Detoxification, the process, real or perceived, of removing toxins from the body.
^Mayo-Smith MF (1997). "Pharmacological management of alcohol withdrawal. A meta-analysis and evidence-based practice guideline. American Society of Addiction Medicine Working Group on Pharmacological Management of Alcohol Withdrawal". JAMA278 (2): 144–51. doi:10.1001/jama.278.2.144. PMID9214531.Full text at OVID
^Saitz R, Mayo-Smith MF, Roberts MS, Redmond HA, Bernard DR, Calkins DR (1994). "Individualized treatment for alcohol withdrawal. A randomized double-blind controlled trial". JAMA272 (7): 519–23. doi:10.1001/jama.272.7.519. PMID8046805.
^Daeppen JB, Gache P, Landry U, et al. (2002). "Symptom-triggered vs fixed-schedule doses of benzodiazepine for alcohol withdrawal: a randomized treatment trial". Arch. Intern. Med.162 (10): 1117–21. doi:10.1001/archinte.162.10.1117. PMID12020181.
^Jaeger TM, Lohr RH, Pankratz VS (2001). "Symptom-triggered therapy for alcohol withdrawal syndrome in medical inpatients". Mayo Clin. Proc.76 (7): 695–701. doi:10.4065/76.7.695. PMID11444401.
^Sullivan JT, Sykora K, Schneiderman J, Naranjo CA, Sellers EM (1989). "Assessment of alcohol withdrawal: the revised clinical institute withdrawal assessment for alcohol scale (CIWA-Ar)". British Journal of Addiction84 (11): 1353–7. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.1989.tb00737.x. PMID2597811.
^Malcolm R, Ballenger JC, Sturgis ET, Anton R (1989). "Double-blind controlled trial comparing carbamazepine to oxazepam treatment of alcohol withdrawal". The American Journal of Psychiatry146 (5): 617–21. PMID2653057.
^Gillman M.A, Lichtigfeld, F.J. Enlarged double-blind randomised trial of benzodiazepines against psychotropic analgesic nitrous oxide for alcohol withdrawal, Addictive Behaviors, Volume 29, Issue 6, August 2004, Pages 1183–1187