Alberta general election, 2012

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Alberta general election, 2012
Alberta
2008 ←
members
April 23, 2012 (2012-04-23)
members
→ 29th

87 seats in the Legislative Assembly of Alberta
44 seats needed for a majority
Opinion polls
Turnout57%
 Majority partyMinority partyThird party
 Alison Redford 2012.jpgWildrose Leader Danielle Smith.jpgRaj Sherman cropped.jpg
LeaderAlison RedfordDanielle SmithRaj Sherman
PartyProgressive ConservativeWildroseLiberal
Leader sinceOctober 2, 2011October 17, 2009September 10, 2011
Leader's seatCalgary-ElbowHighwoodEdmonton-Meadowlark
Last election72 seats, 52.7%0 seats, 6.8%9 seats, 26.4%
Seats before6648
Seats won61175
Seat change-5+13-3
Popular vote567,060442,429127,645
Percentage44.0%34.3%9.9%
Swing–8.8pp+27.5pp–16.5pp

 Fourth partyFifth party
 Brian Mason.jpgGlenntaylor-crop.jpg
LeaderBrian MasonGlenn Taylor
PartyNew DemocraticAlberta Party
Leader sinceJuly 13, 2004May 28, 2011
Leader's seatEdmonton-Highlands-Norwoodran in West Yellowhead (lost)
Last election2 seats, 8.5%0 seats, 0.0%
Seats before21
Seats won40
Seat change+2-1
Popular vote126,75217,172
Percentage9.8%1.3%
Swing+1.3pp+1.3pp

Alta2012.png

Map of Alberta's ridings coloured in to indicate winning party and popular vote.

Premier before election

Alison Redford
Progressive Conservative Association of Alberta

Premier after election

Alison Redford
Progressive Conservative Association of Alberta

 
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Alberta general election, 2012
Alberta
2008 ←
members
April 23, 2012 (2012-04-23)
members
→ 29th

87 seats in the Legislative Assembly of Alberta
44 seats needed for a majority
Opinion polls
Turnout57%
 Majority partyMinority partyThird party
 Alison Redford 2012.jpgWildrose Leader Danielle Smith.jpgRaj Sherman cropped.jpg
LeaderAlison RedfordDanielle SmithRaj Sherman
PartyProgressive ConservativeWildroseLiberal
Leader sinceOctober 2, 2011October 17, 2009September 10, 2011
Leader's seatCalgary-ElbowHighwoodEdmonton-Meadowlark
Last election72 seats, 52.7%0 seats, 6.8%9 seats, 26.4%
Seats before6648
Seats won61175
Seat change-5+13-3
Popular vote567,060442,429127,645
Percentage44.0%34.3%9.9%
Swing–8.8pp+27.5pp–16.5pp

 Fourth partyFifth party
 Brian Mason.jpgGlenntaylor-crop.jpg
LeaderBrian MasonGlenn Taylor
PartyNew DemocraticAlberta Party
Leader sinceJuly 13, 2004May 28, 2011
Leader's seatEdmonton-Highlands-Norwoodran in West Yellowhead (lost)
Last election2 seats, 8.5%0 seats, 0.0%
Seats before21
Seats won40
Seat change+2-1
Popular vote126,75217,172
Percentage9.8%1.3%
Swing+1.3pp+1.3pp

Alta2012.png

Map of Alberta's ridings coloured in to indicate winning party and popular vote.

Premier before election

Alison Redford
Progressive Conservative Association of Alberta

Premier after election

Alison Redford
Progressive Conservative Association of Alberta

The 2012 Alberta general election, formally the 28th general election of Alberta, Canada, took place April 23, 2012, to elect members of the Legislative Assembly of Alberta. A Senate nominee election was called for the same day.[1]

During the 2011 Progressive Conservative Association leadership election, eventual winner Alison Redford stated that if she became Premier she intended to pass legislation setting a fixed election date. After taking office, her government introduced a bill relating to the timing of elections, which was passed on December 6, 2011.[2] Unlike other fixed election date legislation in Canada, the 2011 Election Amendment Act fixes the election to a three-month period, between March 1 and May 31 in the fourth calendar year. However, like other legislation, this does not affect the powers of the Lieutenant Governor to dissolve the Legislature before this period.[3] The writs of elections were dropped March 26, 2012.

Although the Wildrose Party led opinion polls for much of the campaign, on election night the Progressive Conservatives defied expectations to win 61 seats — a net loss of only five — en route to their 12th consecutive majority government. The victory makes Redford the third woman elected in her own right as a provincial premier in Canada, and the first woman elected premier in a province outside Atlantic Canada. If the Tories serve out the full four-year term, they will become the longest-running provincial government in Canadian history.

Background[edit]

27th Legislature[edit]

The 27th Alberta Legislature saw a significant decline in the polls for the governing Progressive Conservatives (PCs) and the popularity of Premier Ed Stelmach.

The Wildrose Party has been the primary beneficiary of voter migration in opinion polls from the governing party, after former leader Paul Hinman won a by-election, and the party elected Danielle Smith as leader. On January 4, 2010, the Wildrose caucus became the third party, displacing the New Democrats, when PC MLAs Rob Anderson (Airdrie-Chestermere) and Heather Forsyth (Calgary-Fish Creek) joined the Wildrose. Later in 2010, former PC cabinet minister Guy Boutilier (Fort McMurray-Wood Buffalo) joined the Wildrose, becoming its fourth MLA. However, their support has waned in the past year, as have polling fortunes for the Liberal Party. Alberta's NDP has doubled their results in recent polls compared to their percentage in the last election.

The Liberals have lost two MLAs since the previous election — Dave Taylor (Calgary Currie) to sit as an independent, before becoming the first MLA for the Alberta Party; and Bridget Pastoor (Lethbridge-East) who crossed the floor to join the PC caucus, in November, 2011. However, the Liberals gained one in selecting Raj Sherman (Edmonton-Meadowlark) as their leader in September 2011, who had been ejected from the PC caucus in November 2010.

On January 25, 2011, Ed Stelmach abruptly announced that he would not seek re-election, and would resign as leader of the Progressive Conservatives and as premier after a successor was chosen. Alison Redford was chosen as Stelmach's successor on October 1, 2011, and her election has improved the fortunes of her party in opinion polls. Her new government presented six pieces of legislation, the most notable of which regarded fixed election dates, an investigation into health care, and tougher penalties for impaired driving. All six bills were passed in the fall 2011 sitting of the 27th Legislature.[4] The 2012 election is a result of the fixed election legislation, which fixed the date of the next provincial election in Alberta between March 1 and May 31, 2012, and requires subsequent elections in that period in the fourth calendar year thereafter. The law does not affect the ability of Alberta's Lieutenant-Governor to dissolve the assembly and call an election before that time. However, that is not likely to occur during majority governments. The legislature was dissolved and the writs were dropped on March 26, 2012.

Green Party dispute[edit]

A year after the previous general election the Alberta Greens became mired in an internal dispute that resulted in the collapse of the party, and its de-registration by Elections Alberta. Some of the former Green party executive, including former deputy leader Edwin Erickson, eventually joined the Alberta Party, while others regrouped and founded the Evergreen Party of Alberta.[5]

Results[edit]

As indicated on the maps, the rural vote split largely on regional lines. Wildrose support was concentrated largely in Southern Alberta while the party won only one seat north of the 53rd parallel, while the PCs were reduced to just one seat in rural Southern Alberta. Wildrose won only three urban seats (two in Calgary and one in Medicine Hat) while the PC's won the majority of seats in both Calgary and Edmonton, swept Edmonton's suburbs and swept the two seats contested in each of Fort McMurray, Grande Prairie, Lethbridge and Red Deer. The Liberals were confined to the two largest cities, winning three seats in Calgary and two in Edmonton. The New Democrats won all four of their seats in Edmonton.

The PCs polled about 44 percent of the popular vote, and four cabinet ministers were defeated. The Wildrose won 17 seats to become the Official Opposition for the first time. It was a net increase of thirteen seats for the party, although two of the four Wildrose incumbents (Guy Boutilier and Paul Hinman) were defeated by their PC challengers. The party polled more than 34 percent of the popular vote, more than five times their share in the previous election, and finished a close second in dozens of constituencies.

The Liberals saw their share of the vote plummet by almost two thirds and polled under ten percent for the first time since 1982. The result therefore appeared to give credence to speculation that Liberal voters from last election would vote "strategically" in a bid to defeat the Wildrose Party. Nevertheless, the five Liberal incumbents seeking re-election all managed to hold on their seats, with the Liberals losing the three seats where their incumbents did not run again. It is the Liberals' lowest seat total since the 1986 election. The Liberals were relegated to third party status in the Legislature for the first time since 1993.

The New Democrats won four seats, double their previous total and enough to secure official party status in the Legislature. Both NDP incumbents were re-elected. The NDP polled just under ten percent of the vote, marginally less than the Liberals' share and a modest increase from the last election.

Summary[edit]

e • d Summary of the April 23, 2012 Legislative Assembly of Alberta election results
PartyParty leaderNumber of
candidates[6]
SeatsPopular vote
2008Dissol.2012% Change#1%Change (pp)
Progressive ConservativeAlison Redford87726661–7.85567,06043.95–8.77
WildroseDanielle Smith87417+325442,42934.29+27.51
LiberalRaj Sherman87985–37.5127,6459.89–16.54
New DemocraticBrian Mason87224+100126,7529.82+1.34
Alberta PartyGlenn Taylor381–10017,1721.33+1.32
EvergreenLarry Ashmore2525,0820.394–4.162
    Independent121–1003,5110.272–0.53
Social CreditLen Skowronski32940.0228–0.19
CommunistNaomi Rankin22100.0163+0.01
SeparationBart Hampton313680.005270.00
    Vacant1
Total429838387+4.821,290,223100.00%

Notes:

  1. Results at the count.[7]
  2. Results change is compared to the Alberta Greens in 2008.
  3. Elections Alberta lists Bart Hampton as leader of the Separation Party of Alberta, however the party's only candidate is party president Glen Dundas.[8]

The voter turnout was 57%.[9]

Vote and seat summaries[edit]

Results by riding
Popular vote
PC
  
43.95%
Wildrose
  
34.29%
Liberal
  
9.89%
New Democratic
  
9.82%
Alberta Party
  
1.33%
Others
  
0.71%
Seat totals
PC
  
71.11%
Wildrose
  
19.54%
Liberal
  
5.75%
New Democratic
  
4.60%

By region[edit]

PartyCalgaryEdm.Leth.Red DeerNorthCentralSouthTotal
Progressive ConservativeSeats2013221013161
Popular vote46.16%40.37%38.65%41.60%47.70%46.94%38.33%43.95%
WildroseSeats200015917
Popular vote35.61%18.80%29.45%34.24%39.69%37.82%51.49%34.29%
LiberalSeats32000005
Popular vote11.89%16.13%10.19%12.08%4.29%5.41%4.90%9.89%
New DemocraticSeats04000004
Popular vote4.79%21.56%20.88%9.17%7.64%6.88%4.68%9.82%
Total seats25192211181087
Alberta PartyPopular vote0.80%2.46%0.84%2.92%2.05%1.33%
EvergreenPopular vote0.65%0.36%0.16%0.27%0.37%0.39%
IndependentsPopular vote0.04%0.28%0.52%0.58%0.20%0.27%
Social CreditPopular vote0.03%0.02%0.04%0.02%
CommunistPopular vote0.04%0.02%0.02%
SeparationPopular vote0.04%0.01%

Gains, holds, and losses[edit]

Gains, holds, and losses by party
PartySeats
(dissol.)
Seats
(2012)
GainsHoldsLossesNet change
Progressive Conservative6661115016–5
Wildrose4171522+13
Liberal85053–3
New Democratic24220+2
Alberta Party10001–1
Independents10001–1
Total8287285923+5
Gains and losses between parties
Loser\GainerPCWPNDPTotal losses
Progressive Conservative14216
Wildrose202
Liberal3003
Alberta Party1001
Independents1001
    New and vacant seats4105
Total gains1115228

Defeated incumbents[edit]

Defeated incumbents and winners
Defeated incumbentAffiliationWinnerAffiliationElectoral district
    Hinman, PaulPaul HinmanWildroseJohnson, LindaLinda JohnsonProgressive ConservativeCalgary-Glenmore
    Morton, TedTed MortonProgressive ConservativeMcAllister, BruceBruce McAllisterWildroseChestermere-Rocky View1
    Mitzel, LenLen MitzelProgressive ConservativeBarnes, DrewDrew BarnesWildroseCypress-Medicine Hat
    Hayden, JackJack HaydenProgressive ConservativeStrankman, RickRick StrankmanWildroseDrumheller-Stettler
    Vandermeer, TonyTony VandermeerProgressive ConservativeBilous, DeronDeron BilousNew DemocraticEdmonton-Beverly-Clareview
    Benito, CarlCarl BenitoIndependent2Quadri, SohailSohail QuadriProgressive ConservativeEdmonton-Mill Woods
    Boutilier, GuyGuy BoutilierWildrose3Allen, MikeMike AllenProgressive ConservativeFort McMurray-Wood Buffalo
    Ouellette, LukeLuke OuelletteProgressive ConservativeTowle, KerryKerry TowleWildroseInnisfail-Sylvan Lake
    Danyluk, RayRay DanylukProgressive ConservativeSaskiw, ShayneShayne SaskiwWildroseLac La Biche-St. Paul-Two Hills4
    Beger, EvanEvan BegerProgressive ConservativeStier, PatPat StierWildroseLivingstone-Macleod
    Lund, TyTy LundProgressive ConservativeAnglin, JoeJoe AnglinWildroseRimbey-Rocky Mountain House-Sundre5
    Doerksen, ArnoArno DoerksenProgressive ConservativeHale, JasonJason HaleWildroseStrathmore-Brooks

Notes:

  1. Morton was an incumbent in Foothills-Rocky View
  2. Benito sat as a Progressive Conservative in the 27th Legislative Assembly, lost the candidate nomination, and ran as an independent
  3. Boutilier was elected as a Progressive Conservative in the 2008 election
  4. Danyluk was an incumbent in Lac La Biche-St. Paul
  5. Lund was an incumbent in Rocky Mountain House

Opinion polls[edit]

The following is a summary of polling firms, used by Alberta's media, with percentages of decided voters[dubious ] whom had been asked for what party they would vote for.

Polling FirmDate of PollingPCWildroseLiberalNDPAlbertaEvergreenOther
Election 2012April 23, 201244.034.39.99.81.30.40.3
Forum ResearchApril 22, 20123638101231
Forum ResearchApril 21, 20123241101322
Angus ReidApril 20–21, 2012324113112
Campaign ResearchApril 19, 2012344111113
Abacus DataApril 18–19, 2012314112133
ThinkHQ Public AffairsApril 17–18, 20123341111131
Forum ResearchApril 16, 20123340101222
Leger MarketingApril 13–16, 2012364291020.31
Return on InsightApril 13–14, 2012364311910
Campaign ResearchApril 11, 201234.442.89.69.73.5
Abacus DataApril 9–11, 2012294610122
Think HQ Public AffairsApril 9–10, 20122943121321
Forum ResearchApril 9, 20123143101122
Leger MarketingApril 5–8, 201234.235.512.513.22.71.30.6
Abacus DataApril 2–4, 2012314312113
Leger MarketingApril 2–4, 201233.941.39.511.72.21.4
Campaign ResearchApril 3, 201228.445.511.310.24.6
Forum ResearchApril 3, 20122943131033
Think HQ Public AffairsApril 2–3, 20123043111231
Abacus DataMarch 26–28, 2012284116123
Campaign ResearchMarch 26, 201230.339.613.011.65.5
Forum ResearchMarch 26, 20123141121123
Leger Marketing[1]3734121126
Think HQ Public AffairsMarch 22–25, 20123633131323
Ipsos-ReidMarch 20–25, 2012383811122
Abacus DataMarch 5–7, 2012342918145
Think HQ Public AffairsFebruary 20124229121322
Forum ResearchFebruary 10, 2012373014136
Abingdon ResearchJan 30 – Feb 2, 201237.929.413.714.44.5
Return on InsightJanuary 25–31, 20124624121440
Forum ResearchJanuary 17, 20123829141334
Leger MarketingJanuary 13–18, 20125316111326
Election 2008March 3, 200852.666.7726.378.520.001.12

MLAs not running again[edit]

Progressive Conservative
Liberal
Alberta Party
Independent

Timeline[edit]

Nominated candidates[edit]

PartySeatsSecondThirdFourthFifthSixthSeventhEighthTotal
Progressive Conservative612510000087
Wildrose1756113000087
Liberal533739300087
New Democratic433643100087
Alberta Party00223040038
Evergreen000014101025
Independents0000740112
Communist0000112
Separation000011
Social Credit000001203
Total87878787572031429
PartyAverage number
of votes
Progressive Conservative6,518
Wildrose5,083
Liberal1,467
New Democratic1,457
Alberta Party452
Evergreen203
Communist105
Social Credit98
Separation68

Bold indicates cabinet members, and party leaders are italicized.

Northern Alberta[edit]

Electoral DistrictCandidatesIncumbent
Progressive
Conservative
WildroseLiberalNDPOther
     
Athabasca-Sturgeon-RedwaterJeff Johnson
7,377 (48.40%)
Travis Olson
5,297 (34.75%)
Gino Akbari
476 (3.12%)
Mandy Melnyk
2,091 (13.72%)
Jeff Johnson
Athabasca-Redwater
Barrhead-Morinville-WestlockMaureen Kubinec
7,447 (44.74%)
Link Byfield
7,106 (42.67%)
Leslie Penny
929 (5.58%)
Trudy Grebenstein
983 (5.90%)
Lisa Grant
(Evergreen)
188 (1.13%)
Ken Kowalski
Bonnyville-Cold LakeGenia Leskiw
4,815 (49.10%)
Roy Doonanco
4,126 (42.07%)
Hubert Rodden
536 (5.47%)
Luann Bannister
330 (3.36%)
Genia Leskiw
Dunvegan-Central Peace-NotleyHector Goudreau
3,983 (45.05%)
Kelly Hudson
3,756 (42.48%)
Carole Carby
256 (2.90%)
Nathan Macklin
846 (9.57%)
Hector Goudreau
Dunvegan-Central Peace
Fort McMurray-ConklinDon Scott
2,591 (49.00%)
Doug Faulkner
2,121 (40.11%)
Ted Remenda
157 (2.97%)
Paul Pomerleau
419 (7.92%)
New district
Fort McMurray-Wood BuffaloMike Allen
3,611 (49.06%)
Guy Boutilier
3,165 (43.00%)
Amy McBain
222 (3.02%)
Denise Woollard
363 (4.93%)
Guy Boutilier
Grande Prairie-SmokyEverett McDonald
5,474 (45.93%)
Todd Loewen
4,901 (41.12%)
Kevin McLean
578 (4.85%)
Mary Dahr
757 (6.35%)
Andrew Muise
(Ind.)
209 (1.75%)
Mel Knight
Grande Prairie-WapitiWayne Drysdale
6,710 (51.62%)
Ethane Jarvis
4,511 (34.71%)
Alya Nazarali
365 (2.81%)
Paula Anderson
1,208 (9.29%)
Anthony Barendregt
(Ind.)
204 (1.57%)
Wayne Drysdale
Lac La Biche-St. Paul-Two HillsRay Danyluk
5,417 (42.40%)
Shayne Saskiw
5,950 (46.57%)
John Nowak
704 (5.51%)
Phil Johnson
706 (5.53%)
Ray Danyluk
Lac La Biche-St. Paul
Lesser Slave LakePearl Calahasen
3,518 (48.71%)
Darryl Boisson
2,847 (39.42%)
Steven Townsend
235 (3.25%)
Steve Kaz
427 (5.91%)
Donald Bissell
(Ind.)
195 (2.70%)
Pearl Calahasen
Peace RiverFrank Oberle
4,334 (55.67%)
Alan Forsyth
2,213 (28.43%)
Remi Tardif
509 (6.54%)
Wanda Laurin
729 (9.36%)
Frank Oberle

Central Edmonton[edit]

Electoral DistrictCandidatesIncumbent
Progressive
Conservative
WildroseLiberalNDPAlberta
Party
Other
      
Edmonton-Beverly-ClareviewTony Vandermeer
5,018 (35.38%)
Don Martin
2,851 (20.10%)
Chris Heward
899 (6.34%)
Deron Bilous
5,264 (37.11%)
Trey Capnerhurst
(Evergreen)
151 (1.06%)
Tony Vandermeer
Edmonton-CalderBev Esslinger
5,183 (34.75%)
Rich Neumann
2,787 (18.69%)
Alex Bosse
970 (6.50%)
David Eggen
5,729 (38.41%)
David Clark
194 (1.30%)
Margaret Saunter
(Socred)
52 (0.35%)
Doug Elniski
Edmonton-CentreAkash Khokhar
4,289 (30.87%)
Barb de Groot
1,759 (12.66%)
Laurie Blakeman
5,589 (40.22%)
Nadine Bailey
2,258 (16.25%)
Laurie Blakeman
Edmonton-GlenoraHeather Klimchuk
6,176 (38.20%)
Don Koziak
2,732 (16.90%)
Bruce Miller
1,668 (10.32%)
Ray Martin
4,141 (25.61%)
Sue Huff
1,451 (8.97%)
Heather Klimchuk
Edmonton-Gold BarDavid Dorward
6,689 (32.97%)
Linda Carlson
3,175 (15.65%)
Josipa Petrunic
4,072 (20.07%)
Marlin Schmidt
5,809 (28.63%)
Dennis O'Neill
344 (1.70%)
David Parker
(Evergreen)
201 (0.99%)
Hugh MacDonald
Edmonton-Highlands-NorwoodCristina Basualdo
2,778 (21.96%)
Wayde Lever
2,025 (16.40%)
Keegan Wynychuk
587 (4.64%)
Brian Mason
6,823 (53.93%)
Cam McCormick
200 (1.58%)
Dari Lynn
(Evergreen)
188 (1.49%)
Brian Mason
Edmonton-Mill CreekGene Zwozdesky
6,633 (55.07%)
Adam Corsaut
2,193 (18.21%)
Mike Butler
1,640 (13.64%)
Evelinne Teichgraber
1,336 (11.09%)
Judy Wilson
198 (1.64%)
Naomi Rankin
(Communist)
44 (0.37%)
Gene Zwozdesky
Edmonton-Mill WoodsSohail Quadri
4,943 (35.23%)
Joanne Autio
3,314 (23.62%)
Weslyn Mather
2,983 (21.25%)
Sandra Azocar
1,982 (14.13%)
Robert Leddy
263 (1.87%)
Carl Benito
(Ind.)
547 (3.90%)
Carl Benito
Edmonton-RiverviewSteve Young
7,196 (38.94%)
John Corie
2,860 (15.48%)
Arif Khan
4,238 (22.93%)
Lori Sigurdson
3,794 (20.53%)
Timothy Wong
391 (2.12%)
Kevin Taft
Edmonton-RutherfordFred Horne
6,945 (42.19%)
Kyle McLeod
2,769 (16.82%)
Rick Miller
3,624 (22.02%)
Melanie Samaroden
1,364 (8.29%)
Michael Walters
1,673 (10.16%)
David Tonner
(Evergreen)
86 (0.52%)
Fred Horne
Edmonton-StrathconaEmerson Mayers
3,093 (20.38%)
Meagen LaFave
1,778 (11.72%)
Ed Ramsden
681 (4.49%)
Rachel Notley
9,403 (61.96%)
Terry Noel
(Evergreen)
222 (1.46%)
Rachel Notley

Suburban Edmonton[edit]

Electoral DistrictCandidatesIncumbent
Progressive
Conservative
WildroseLiberalNDPAlberta
Party
Other
      
Edmonton-Castle DownsThomas Lukaszuk
8,057 (52.61%)
John Oplanich
3,297 (21.53%)
Kim Cassady
1,767 (11.54%)
Brian Labelle
1,934 (12.63%)
Jeff Funnell
260 (1.70%)
Thomas Lukaszuk
Edmonton-DecoreJanice Sarich
5,724 (42.54%)
Chris Bataluk
2,909 (21.61%)
Ed Ammar
2,157 (16.03%)
Ali Haymour
2,669 (19.83%)
Janice Sarich
Edmonton-EllerslieNaresh Bhardwaj
5,682 (42.99%)
Jackie Lovely
3,249 (24.58%)
Jennifer Ketsa
1,512 (11.44%)
Rod Loyola
2,115 (16.00%)
Chinwe Okelu
523 (3.96%)
Athena Bernal-Born
(Ind.)
137 (1.04%)
Naresh Bhardwaj
Edmonton-ManningPeter Sandhu
5,446 (39.58%)
Peter Rodd
3,411 (24.76%)
Jonathan Huckabay
1,094 (7.94%)
Cindy Olsen
3,386 (24.61%)
Mark Wall
188 (1.37%)
Sam Hachem
(Ind.)
135 (0.98%)
Chris Vallee
(Evergreen)
100 (0.73%)
Peter Sandhu
Edmonton-McClungDavid Xiao
7,179 (46.65%)
Peter Janisz
2,756 (17.91%)
Mo Elsalhy
3,800 (24.69%)
Lorne Dach
1,134 (7.37%)
John Hudson
418 (2.72%)
Nathan Forsyth
(Evergreen)
102 (0.66%)
David Xiao
Edmonton-MeadowlarkBob Maskell
5,032 (34.67%)
Rick Newcombe
2,978 (20.52%)
Raj Sherman
5,150 (35.49%)
Bridget Stirling
1,091 (7.52%)
Neil Mather
262 (1.81%)
Raj Sherman
Edmonton-South WestMatt Jeneroux
8,505 (56.42%)
Allan Hunsperger
2,714 (18.00%)
Rudy Arcilla
2,250 (14.93%)
Muriel Stanley-Venne
1,298 (8.61%)
Bryan Peacock
308 (2.04%)
New district
Edmonton-WhitemudDave Hancock
12,087 (60.55%)
Ian Crawford
3,381 (16.94%)
Rick Szostak
2,356 (11.80%)
Jim Graves
1,694 (8.49%)
Julia Necheff
444 (2.22%)
David Hancock
Sherwood ParkCathy Olesen
8,742 (45.60%)
Garnett Genuis
5,957 (31.07%)
Dave Anderson
1,835 (9.57%)
Lyndsay Pinder
1,209 (6.31%)
Chris Kuchmak
230 (1.20%)
James Ford
(Ind.)
1,063 (5.54%)
Gordon Barrett
(Socred)
137 (0.71%)
Iris Evans
St. AlbertStephen Khan
10,481 (53.76%)
James Burrows
4,130 (21.18%)
Kim Bugeaud
2,011 (10.31%)
Nicole Bownes
1,679 (8.61%)
Tim Osborne
1,195 (6.13%)
Ken Allred

Western and Central Alberta[edit]

Electoral DistrictCandidatesIncumbent
Progressive
Conservative
WildroseLiberalNDPAlberta
Party
Evergreen
      
Drayton Valley-DevonDiana McQueen
7,358 (51.56%)
Dean Shular
5,462 (38.36%)
Chantelle Lillycrop
538 (3.78%)
Doris Bannister
879 (6.17%)
Diana McQueen
Drayton Valley-Calmar
Innisfail-Sylvan LakeLuke Ouellette
6,149 (40.08%)
Kerry Towle
7,091 (46.22%)
Les Vidok
641 (4.18%)
Patricia Norman
712 (4.64%)
Danielle Klooster
749 (4.88%)
Luke Ouellette
Olds-Didsbury-Three HillsDarcy Davis
6,633 (36.99%)
Bruce Rowe
10,181 (56.77%)
Garth Davis
555 (3.09%)
Kristie Krezanoski
565 (3.15%)
Vacant
Red Deer-NorthMary Anne Jablonski
5,091 (38.95%)
Randy Weins
4,430 (33.90%)
Michael Dawe
2,330 (17.83%)
Derrek Seelinger
970 (7.42%)
Brent Chalmers
248 (1.90%)
Mary Anne Jablonski
Red Deer-SouthCal Dallas
7,044 (43.74%)
Nathan Stephan
5,558 (34.52%)
Jason Chilibeck
1,193 (7.41%)
Lorna Watkinson-Zimmer
1,704 (10.58%)
Serge Gingras
604 (3.75%)
Cal Dallas
Rimbey-Rocky Mountain House-SundreTy Lund
6,145 (41.49%)
Joe Anglin
7,647 (51.26%)
Mason Sisson
422 (2.83%)
Doreen Broska
703 (4.71%)
Ty Lund
Rocky Mountain House
Spruce Grove-St. AlbertDoug Horner
10,722 (54.67%)
Travis Hughes
5,340 (27.23%)
Chris Austin
1,779 (9.07%)
Juliette "J.J." Trudeau[49]
1,773 (9.04%)
Doug Horner
Spruce Grove-Sturgeon-St. Albert
Stony PlainKen Lemke
7,496 (45.54%)
Hal Tagg
6,153 (37.37%)
Arlin Biffert
1,126 (6.84%)
Linda Robinson
1,319 (8.01%)
Kurtis Ewanchuk
217 (1.32%)
Matthew Burnett
149 (0.91%)
Fred Lindsay
West YellowheadRobin Campbell
4,405 (44.86%)
Stuart Taylor
2,642 (26.41%)
Michael Martyna
310 (3.16%)
Barry Madsen
794 (8.09%)
Glenn Taylor
1,668 (16.99%)
Robin Campbell
Whitecourt-Ste. AnneGeorge VanderBurg
6,373 (45.93%)
Maryann Chichak
6,003 (43.26%)
Vern Hardman
745 (5.37%)
Blue Knox
754 (5.43%)
George VanderBurg

East Central Alberta[edit]

Electoral DistrictCandidatesIncumbent
Progressive
Conservative
WildroseLiberalNDPAlberta
Party
Other
      
Battle River-WainwrightDoug Griffiths
7,205 (46.71%)
Dave Nelson
6,710 (43.50%)
Amber Greenleese
469 (3.04%)
Terry Zawalski
775 (5.02%)
Midge Lambert
265 (1.72%)
Doug Griffiths
Drumheller-StettlerJack Hayden
6,572 (43.58%)
Rick Strankman
7,451 (49.40%)
Cam Roset
362 (2.40%)
Aditya "Adi" Rao
416 (2.76%)
Andrew Berdahl
282 (1.87%)
Jack Hayden
Fort Saskatchewan-VegrevilleJacquie Fenske
8,366 (49.28%)
Shannon Stubbs
5,800 (34.17%)
Spencer Dunn
845 (4.98%)
Chris Fulmer
1,556 (9.17%)
Matt Levicki
(Evergreen)
229 (1.35%)
Peter Schneider
(Ind.)
180 (1.06%)
Ed Stelmach
Lacombe-PonokaSteve Christie
5,354 (35.87%)
Rod Fox
6,573 (43.96%)
Kyle Morrow
754 (5.04%)
Doug Hart
1,482 (9.91%)
Tony Jeglum
780 (5.22%)
Ray Prins
Leduc-BeaumontGeorge Rogers
8,417 (51.31%)
David Stasiewich
5,222 (31.83%)
Jasen Maminski
723 (4.41%)
Hana Razga
1,397 (8.52%)
William Munsey
453 (2.76%)
Jennifer Roach
(Evergreen)
193 (1.18%)
George Rogers
Leduc-Beaumont-Devon
Strathcona-Sherwood ParkDave Quest
9,698 (50.77%)
Paul Nemetchek
6,424 (33.63%)
John Murray
1,354 (7.09%)
Michael Scott
1,625 (8.51%)
Dave Quest
Strathcona
Vermilion-LloydminsterRichard Starke
6,245 (51.92%)
Danny Hozack
4,507 (37.47%)
Corina Ganton
463 (3.85%)
Ray Stone
413 (3.43%)
Richard Yaceyko
(Ind.)
399 (3.32%)
Lloyd Snelgrove
Wetaskiwin-CamroseVerlyn Olson
7,489 (52.32%)
Trevor Miller
4,552 (31.80%)
Owen Chubb
502 (3.51%)
Bruce Hinkley
1,578 (11.02%)
Mike Donnelly
(Evergreen)
192 (1.34%)
Verlyn Olson

Central Calgary[edit]

Electoral DistrictCandidatesIncumbent
Progressive
Conservative
WildroseLiberalNDPEvergreenOther
      
Calgary-AcadiaJonathan Denis
6,846 (45.71%)
Richard Jones
6,312 (42.15%)
Nicole Hankel
940 (6.28%)
Nick Lepora
676 (4.51%)
Antoni Grochowski
202 (1.35%)
Jonathan Denis
Calgary-Egmont
Calgary-BuffaloJamie Lall
3,505 (30.66%)
Mike Blanchard
2,413 (21.11%)
Kent Hehr
4,744 (41.49%)
Rebecca Eras
541 (4.73%)
Cory Mack Wilson
(Alberta)
230 (2.01%)
Kent Hehr
Calgary-CrossYvonne Fritz
5,492 (43.77%)
Happy Mann
4,884 (38.93%)
Narita Sherman
1,276 (10.17%)
Reinaldo Contreras
634 (5.05%)
Susan Stratton
261 (2.08%)
Yvonne Fritz
Calgary-CurrieChristine Cusanelli
7,395 (44.96%)
Corrie Adolph
4,758 (28.93%)
Norval Horner
2,640 (16.05%)
Robert Scobel
893 (5.43%)
Dean Halstead
224 (1.36%)
Norm Kelly
(Alberta)
539 (3.28%)
Dave Taylor
Calgary-EastMoe Amery
5,929 (45.59%)
Jasbir "Jesse" Minhas
4,995 (38.41%)
Ali Abdulbaki
780 (6.00%)
Robyn Luff
1,135 (8.73%)
Bonnie Devine
(Communist)
166 (1.28%)
Moe Amery
Calgary-ElbowAlison Redford
11,181 (58.01%)
James Cole
5,523 (28.66%)
Beena Ashar
1,065 (5.53%)
Craig Coolahan
761 (3.95%)
William Hamilton
226 (1.17%)
Greg Clark
(Alberta)
517 (2.68%)
Alison Redford
Calgary-Fish CreekWendelin Fraser
7,626 (43.51%)
Heather Forsyth
7,700 (43.93%)
Nazir Rahemtulla
1,241 (7.08%)
Eric Leavitt
961 (5.48%)
Heather Forsyth
Calgary-FortWayne Cao
4,576 (41.13%)
Jeevan Mangat
4,358 (39.17%)
Said Abdulbaki
1,126 (10.12%)
Don Monroe
761 (6.84%)
Janice Dixon
305 (2.74%)
Wayne Cao
Calgary-GlenmoreLinda Johnson
9,721 (48.02%)
Paul Hinman
7,880 (38.93%)
Dan MacAulay
1,437 (7.10%)
Rick Collier
1,204 (5.95%)
Paul Hinman
Calgary-KleinKyle Fawcett
6,852 (41.21%)
Jeremy Nixon
5,755 (34.61%)
Christopher Tahn
1,980 (11.91%)
Marc Power
1,687 (10.15%)
Roger Gagné
354 (2.13%)
Kyle Fawcett
Calgary-North Hill
Calgary-Mountain ViewCecilia Low
5,293 (30.77%)
Shane McAllister
3,942 (22.92%)
David Swann
6,849 (39.82%)
Christopher McMillan
863 (5.02%)
Inshan Mohammed
(Alberta)
255 (1.48%)
David Swann
Calgary-VarsityDonna Kennedy-Glans
8,099 (45.65%)
Rob Solinger
4,586 (25.85%)
Bruce Payne
3,713 (20.93%)
Jackie Seidel
855 (4.82%)
Carl Svoboda
234 (1.32%)
Alex McBrien
(Alberta)
255 (1.44%)
Harry Chase

Suburban Calgary[edit]

Electoral DistrictCandidatesIncumbent
Progressive
Conservative
WildroseLiberalNDPAlberta
Party
EvergreenOther
       
Calgary-BowAlana DeLong
6,997 (47.16%)
Tim Dyck
5,700 (38.42%)
Stephanie Shewchuk
1,302 (8.78%)
Jason Nishiyama
606 (4.08%)
Ellen Phillips
232 (1.56%)
Alana DeLong
Calgary-FoothillsLen Webber
8,260 (53.54%)
Dustin Nau
5,117 (33.55%)
Kurt Hansen
1,414 (9.16%)
Jennifer Carkner
578 (3.75%)
Len Webber
Calgary-GreenwayManmeet Bhullar
6,509 (53.80%)
Ron Leech
3,898 (32.22%)
Iqtidar Awan
1,285 (10.62%)
Al Brown
407 (3.36%)
Manmeet Bhullar
Calgary-Montrose
Calgary-HawkwoodJason Luan
9,050 (46.99%)
David Yager
7,046 (36.58%)
Maria Davis
1,629 (8.46%)
Collin Anderson
893 (4.64%)
Kevin Woron
241 (1.25%)
Janet Keeping
198 (1.03%)
Len Skowronski
(Socred)
105 (0.55%)
Ed Torrance
(Ind.)
99 (0.51%)
New district
Calgary-HaysRic McIver
8,614 (55.07%)
Wayne Anderson
5,670 (36.25%)
Brian MacPhee
897 (5.73%)
Regina Vergara
461 (2.95%)
Arthur Johnston
Calgary-LougheedDave Rodney
7,849 (50.26%)
John Carpay
5,995 (38.39%)
Fred Stenson
1,160 (7.43%)
Brent Kelly
612 (3.92%)
Dave Rodney
Calgary-Mackay-Nose HillNeil Brown
6,594 (46.42%)
Roy Alexander
5,458 (38.43%)
Don Thompson
1,103 (7.77%)
Anne Wilson
844 (5.94%)
Jason Webster
205 (1.44%)
Teresa Woo-Paw
Calgary-Mackay
Merged district
Neil Brown
Calgary-Nose Hill
Calgary-McCallMuhammad Rasheed
3,093 (29.33%)
Grant Galpin
3,183 (30.18%)
Darshan Kang
3,854 (36.54%)
Colette Singh
226 (2.14%)
Heather Brocklesby
144 (1.47%)
Tanveer Taj
(Ind.)
46 (0.44%)
Darshan Kang
Calgary-North WestSandra Jansen
9,164 (50.82%)
Chris Challis
6,879 (38.15%)
Robert Prcic
1,166 (6.47%)
Brian Malkinson
551 (3.06%)
Troy Millington
123 (0.68%)
Bryan Hunt
150 (0.83%)
Lindsay Blackett
Calgary-Northern HillsTeresa Woo-Paw
7,353 (49.37%)
Prasad Panda
5,580 (37.46%)
Kirstin Morrell
1,195 (8.02%)
Stephanie Westlund
766 (5.14%)
Teresa Woo-Paw
Calgary-Mackay
Calgary-ShawFarouk Adatia
6,864 (42.13%)
Jeff Wilson
7,366 (45.22%)
John Roggeveen
1,109 (6.81%)
Ashley Fairall
615 (3.78%)
Brandon Beasley
337 (2.07%)
Cindy Ady
Calgary-South EastRick Fraser
7,162 (48.57%)
Bill Jarvis
6,355 (43.09%)
Brad Carroll
756 (5.13%)
Marta Warszynski
474 (3.21%)
New district
Calgary-WestKen Hughes
8,148 (49.95%)
Andrew Constantinidis
6,090 (37.33%)
Wilson McCutchan
1,217 (7.46%)
Mary Nokleby
491 (3.01%)
Pam Crosby
158 (0.97%)
Karen Huggins
209 (1.28%)
Ron Liepert
Chestermere-Rocky ViewTed Morton
6,156 (35.34%)
Bruce McAllister
10,168 (58.37%)
Sian Ramsden
564 (3.24%)
Nathan Salmon
533 (3.06%)
Ted Morton
Foothills-Rocky View>
Merged district
Rob Anderson
Airdrie-Chestermere

Southern Alberta[edit]

Electoral DistrictCandidatesIncumbent
Progressive
Conservative
WildroseLiberalNDPOther
     
AirdrieKelly Hegg
5,364 (32.94%)
Rob Anderson
9,415 (57.81%)
Joel Steacy
523 (3.21%)
Bryan Young
687 (4.22%)
Jeff Willerton
(Ind.)
297 (1.82%)
Rob Anderson
Airdrie-Chestermere
Banff-CochraneRon Casey
6,632 (41.82%)
Tom Copithorne
5,933 (37.41%)
Pete Helfrich
2,234 (14.09%)
Jamie Kleinsteuber
1,059 (6.68%)
Janis Tarchuk
Cardston-Taber-WarnerPatrick Shimbashi
4,208 (38.35%)
Gary Bikman
5,967 (54.37%)
Helen McMenamin
332 (3.03%)
Aaron Haugen
467 (4.26%)
Broyce Jacobs
Cypress-Medicine HatLen Mitzel
4,737 (35.61%)
Drew Barnes
7,112 (53.47%)
Jon Mastel
775 (5.83%)
Manuel Martinez
678 (5.10%)
Len Mitzel
HighwoodJohn Barlow
8,167 (42.57%)
Danielle Smith
10,104 (52.59%)
Keegan Gibson
548 (2.85%)
Miles Dato
392 (2.04%)
George Groeneveld
Lethbridge-EastBridget Pastoor
6,592 (40.94%)
Kent Prestage
5,147 (31.97%)
Rob Miyashiro
2,374 (14.75%)
Tom Moffatt
2,007 (12.45%)[50]
Bridget Pastoor
Lethbridge-WestGreg Weadick
5,757 (36.32%)
Kevin Kinahan
4,261 (26.88%)
Bal Boora
881 (5.56%)
Shannon Phillips
4,683 (29.55%)
David Walters
(Alberta)
268 (1.69%)
Greg Weadick
Little BowJohn Kolk
4,477 (35.90%)
Ian Donovan
6,756 (54.18%)
Everett Tanis
470 (3.77%)
Bev Muendel-Atherstone
767 (6.15%)
Barry McFarland
Livingstone-MacleodEvan Berger
7,403 (41.46%)
Pat Stier
8,565 (47.97%)
Alex Macdonald
597 (3.34%)
Matthew Halton
944 (5.29%)
Larry Ashmore
(Evergreen)
347 (1.94%)
Evan Berger
Medicine HatDarren Hirsch
5,341 (38.56%)
Blake Pedersen
6,030 (43.53%)
Matthew Sandford
1,101 (7.95%)
Dennis Perrier
1,168 (8.43%)
Graham Murray
(Evergreen)
212 (1.53%)
Rob Renner
Strathmore-BrooksArno Doerksen
5,737 (39.11%)
Jason Hale
8,158 (55.61%)
Alex Wychopen
297 (2.02%)
Brad Bailey
409 (2.79%)
Glen Dundas
(Separation)
68 (0.46%)
Arno Doerksen

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Voters to elect Senate nominees in upcoming election". Global Edmonton. March 26, 2012. Retrieved March 26, 2012. 
  2. ^ a b "Bill 21: Election Amendment Act, 2011 (Olson)". The Legislative Assembly of Alberta. Retrieved December 7, 2011. 
  3. ^ "Bill 21, Election Amendment Act, 2011". The Legislative Assembly of Alberta. December 6, 2011. Retrieved December 7, 2011. 
  4. ^ "Bill Status Report for the 27th Legislature – 4th Session (2011)". Legislative Assembly of Alberta. December 8, 2011. Retrieved January 18, 2012. 
  5. ^ "Vision2012 Society". Evergreen Party of Alberta. Retrieved January 2, 2012. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g "Nominated Candidates". Elections Alberta. Retrieved April 10, 2012. 
  7. ^ "Unofficial Results". Elections Alberta. Retrieved April 24, 2012. 
  8. ^ "Parties". Elections Alberta. Retrieved April 9, 2012. 
  9. ^ "57% of Alberta voters cast ballot". CBC. April 24, 2012. Retrieved April 25, 2012. 
  10. ^ This poll paid for and provided to the press by the Wildrose Alliance
  11. ^ Ady, Cindy (March 5, 2012). "Public Announcement". Cindy's Blog. Retrieved March 5, 2012. 
  12. ^ Ryan Tumilty (December 7, 2011). "Allred out". St. Albert Gazette. Retrieved December 7, 2011. 
  13. ^ Wood, James (January 12, 2012). "Family, ‘other interests’ see MLA Blackett leaving after one term". Calgary Herald. Retrieved January 13, 2012. 
  14. ^ "Not Seeking Re-Election". Dougelniski.com. January 19, 2012. Retrieved January 27, 2012. 
  15. ^ "Tory veteran Evans will retire when spring election called". Calgary Herald. Edmonton Journal. December 7, 2011. Retrieved December 7, 2011. 
  16. ^ a b "Alberta Tory 'old boys' clogging the pipes of renewal". December 2, 2011. Retrieved December 9, 2011. 
  17. ^ Braid, Don (December 8, 2011). "Ron Liepert won't run for re-election: sources". Calgary Herald. Retrieved December 8, 2011. 
  18. ^ "Speaker Ken Kowalski announces retirement". Calgary Herald. December 9, 2011. Retrieved December 9, 2011. 
  19. ^ "Big shoes to fill for Little Bow Riding". Vauxhall Advance. November 24, 2011. Retrieved December 9, 2011. 
  20. ^ "Alberta Tories do something about ‘do-nothing committee’". The Globe and Mail (Canada). March 20, 2012. 
  21. ^ "Nominations Close In PC Race". CJCY. January 22, 2012. Retrieved February 12, 2012. 
  22. ^ "Tarchuk stepping down at term's end". Cochrane Times. December 8, 2011. Retrieved December 9, 2011. 
  23. ^ "Year-end interview: Alberta Liberals 'back on track'". Canada.com. 
  24. ^ Kleiss, Karen (September 28, 2011). "MacDonald opts to step down". Edmonton Journal. Retrieved September 28, 2011. 
  25. ^ "MLA Taylor won't run again". Calgary Sun. 
  26. ^ Contenti, Justina (December 7, 2011). "Snelgrove officially steps down as MLA". Vermilion Standard. Retrieved December 8, 2011. 
  27. ^ "Leaving Wildrose Alliance". Robert Leddy. August 29. Retrieved August 29, 2009.  [dead link]
  28. ^ White, Tarina (January 4, 2010). "Tories crossing floor to Wildrose". Calgary Sun. Retrieved January 4, 2010. 
  29. ^ Bell, Rick (April 12, 2011). "Dave Taylor to leave Alberta Liberals". Edmonton Sun. Retrieved December 14, 2011. 
  30. ^ Bennett, Dean (June 25, 2010). "Former Alberta cabinet minister joins Wildrose Alliance". Globe and Mail (Canada). Archived from the original on June 28, 2010. Retrieved June 27, 2010. 
  31. ^ "New electoral boundaries reflect Alberta's growing population". Government of Alberta. December 1, 2010. Retrieved September 17, 2011. 
  32. ^ "Conservative showdown prompts Stelmach’s resignation". Globe and Mail (Canada). January 25, 2011. 
  33. ^ Stelmach, Ed (January 25, 2011). "Premier Ed Stelmach's comments today". Your Alberta Blog. Government of Alberta. 
  34. ^ "Alberta Liberal Leader bows out as political landscape shifts". Globe and Mail (Canada). 
  35. ^ "Leadership election results announced". Alberta Party. May 28, 2011. Retrieved May 28, 2011. 
  36. ^ "Wildrose drops 'Alliance' from name". CBC News. June 26, 2011. Retrieved July 24, 2011. 
  37. ^ "Liberal leader Sherman now caucus member". CBC News. September 12, 2011. Retrieved September 12, 2011. 
  38. ^ "Alison Redford sworn in as Alberta Premier". CBC News. October 7, 2011. Retrieved October 7, 2011. 
  39. ^ Cryderman, Kelly (November 21, 2011). "Lethbridge MLA Pastoor crosses floor to join Conservatives". Calgary Herald. Retrieved November 21, 2011. 
  40. ^ Smith, Dawn (January 2, 2012). "Green party back on Alberta's political scene". Rocky View, Alberta: Rocky View Weekly. Archived from the original on January 3, 2012. Retrieved January 3, 2012. 
  41. ^ Wood, James (December 29, 2011). "Evergreen Party rises from ashes of Alberta Greens". Calgary, Alberta: Calgary Herald. Archived from the original on January 3, 2012. Retrieved January 3, 2012. 
  42. ^ "Snelgrove resigns from Tory caucus". Edmonton Journal. January 27, 2012. 
  43. ^ "Contact Information for Olds-Didsbury-Three Hills". Legislative Assembly of Alberta. Retrieved March 21, 2012. 
  44. ^ Kleiss, Karen (March 26, 2012). "Alberta political leaders fire opening election shots". Edmonton Journal. Retrieved March 26, 2012. 
  45. ^ a b c d e f g "Key Dates". Elections Alberta. Retrieved March 28, 2012. 
  46. ^ "Alberta Election 2012: Historic debate highlights vastly different plans for Alberta’s future". Edmonton Journal. April 13, 2012. Retrieved April 13, 2012. 
  47. ^ Ewart, Stephen (April 24, 2012). "Tories surge past Wildrose to extend 41-year political dynasty in Alberta". canada.com. Retrieved April 25, 2012. 
  48. ^ Duncan, Zoey (April 24, 2012). "A PC majority in Alberta: The narrative the media missed". The Canadian Journalism Project. Retrieved April 25, 2012. 
  49. ^ Trudeau, Juliette (2001). "Easter 5". Easter Sermon Series 2001. Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada. Retrieved March 8, 2012. 
  50. ^ http://results.elections.ab.ca/wtResultsPGE.htm

External links[edit]