Albany, Georgia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

City of Albany, Georgia
—  City  —

Nickname(s): The Good Life City, The Artesian City
Location in Dougherty County and the state of Georgia
Coordinates: 31°34′56″N 84°9′56″W / 31.58222°N 84.16556°W / 31.58222; -84.16556Coordinates: 31°34′56″N 84°9′56″W / 31.58222°N 84.16556°W / 31.58222; -84.16556
CountryUnited States
Incorporated (city)December 27 1838
 • MayorDorothy Hubbard (D)
 • City55.9 sq mi (144.7 km2)
 • Land55.5 sq mi (144.8 km2)
 • Water0.3 sq mi (0.9 km2)
Elevation203 ft (62 m)
Population (2010)[1]
 • City77,434 (city proper)
 • Density1,385.5/sq mi (535.0/km2)
 • Metro157,308
 2010 metro pop.[2]
Time zoneEST (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST)EDT (UTC-4)
ZIP code(s)31701, 31705, 31707, 31721, 31763
Area code(s)229
FIPS code13-01052[3]
GNIS feature ID0310424[4]
Jump to: navigation, search
City of Albany, Georgia
—  City  —

Nickname(s): The Good Life City, The Artesian City
Location in Dougherty County and the state of Georgia
Coordinates: 31°34′56″N 84°9′56″W / 31.58222°N 84.16556°W / 31.58222; -84.16556Coordinates: 31°34′56″N 84°9′56″W / 31.58222°N 84.16556°W / 31.58222; -84.16556
CountryUnited States
Incorporated (city)December 27 1838
 • MayorDorothy Hubbard (D)
 • City55.9 sq mi (144.7 km2)
 • Land55.5 sq mi (144.8 km2)
 • Water0.3 sq mi (0.9 km2)
Elevation203 ft (62 m)
Population (2010)[1]
 • City77,434 (city proper)
 • Density1,385.5/sq mi (535.0/km2)
 • Metro157,308
 2010 metro pop.[2]
Time zoneEST (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST)EDT (UTC-4)
ZIP code(s)31701, 31705, 31707, 31721, 31763
Area code(s)229
FIPS code13-01052[3]
GNIS feature ID0310424[4]

Albany is a city in and the county seat of Dougherty County, Georgia, United States, in the southwestern part of the state.[5] It is the principal city of the Albany, Georgia metropolitan area and the southwest part of the state. The population was 77,434 at the 2010 U.S. Census, making it the eighth-largest city in Georgia.[1]



The area where Albany is located was formerly inhabited by the Creek Indians, who called it Thronateeska after their word for "flint" because of the mineral flint that was found near the river.[6] The Creeks used this flintstone to make tools and weapons such as arrowheads.

Nelson Tift (1810-1891), the founder of Albany, Georgia

American settlement began with Nelson Tift, a businessman from Connecticut, who took land along the Flint River in October 1836 after Indian removal. The Creek were forced to relocate to Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River. Tift named his new town Albany after the capital of New York; both were located at the navigable heads of rivers. Alexander Shotwell laid out the town in 1836. It was incorporated as a city by an act of the General Assembly of Georgia on December 27, 1838.[7]

Tift for decades was its leading entrepreneur. An ardent booster, he promoted education, business, and railroad construction. During the Civil War he provided naval supplies and helped build two ships. He opposed Radical Reconstruction inside the state and in Congress and was scornful of the Yankee carpetbaggers who came in. Fair concludes that Tift became "more Southern than many natives." His pro-slavery attitudes before the war and his support for segregation afterward made him compatible with Georgia's white elite.[8]

The area was developed by planters using slave labor for clearing land and cotton cultivation. By 1840, Dougherty County's majority population was black, comprised overwhelmingly enslaved. The market center for cotton plantations, Albany was in a prime location for shipping cotton to markets by steamboats on the river. In 1858 Tift hired Horace King, a former slave and bridge builder, to construct a toll bridge over the river. King's bridge toll house still stands.

Nicknames for Albany include:
    • The Artesian City
    • The Good Life City
    • The Pecan Capital of the World
    • The Quail Hunting Capital of the World

Already important as a shipping port, Albany later became an important railroad hub in southwestern Georgia. Seven lines were constructed to the town. An exhibit on trains is located at the Thronateeska Heritage Center in the former railroad station.

While integral to the economic life of the town, the Flint River has flooded regularly. There was extensive property damage in 1841 and 1925. Late twentieth-century floods have been extreme. In 1994, a severe flood was caused by rainfall from Tropical Storm Alberto; it killed 14 people and displaced 22,000. The state supported a $150 million renovation of the Albany State University campus to repair storm damage and accomplish upgrades. In addition, new housing was built on the south side of town to replace what had been destroyed. In 1998, the Flint River crested at 35 feet (11 m) above its bed and flooded parts of the city.

Because of flooding, the city has decided against redeveloping areas along the riverfront floodplain for commercial or residential purposes. It is being improved for other uses, with a riverfront walkway and a new aquarium built over a tributary creek.

On February 10, 1940, a severe tornado hit Albany, killing eighteen people and caused large-scale damage.

Albany, Texas, was named in 1873 by county clerk William Cruger after his former home of Albany, Georgia.

On April 11, 1906, the Carnegie Library, created by matching funds from the philanthropist Andrew Carnegie, was opened downtown. Originally a segregated facility under Jim Crow laws, it was not open to African Americans until after the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. It functioned as a library through 1985. In 1992, after renovation, the building was reopened as the headquarters of the Albany Area Arts Council.

In 1912, the downtown U.S. Post Office and Courthouse building opened. Other federal projects have been important to the city and region. In 1937, Chehaw Park was constructed as a part of a New Deal program under the administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt during the Great Depression.

W. E. B. Du Bois wrote about Albany in his book, The Souls of Black Folk (1903). He described it as a typical African-American majority-populated rural town in the Deep South. Du Bois discussed the culture, agribusiness, and economy of the region. Du Bois described Albany as a small town where local sharecroppers lived. Much of the soil had been depleted of nutrients because of intensive cotton cultivation, and people found it hard to make a living. Once a bustling small city with an economy dependent on cotton, it had numerous cotton gins. The planters were dependent on slave labor, Albany had declined steadily in the late 19th century. After the disruption of the Civil War and poor economy of the late nineteenth century, the local agricultural economy suffered. Du Bois wrote that Dougherty County had many decaying one-room slave cabins and unfenced fields. Despite the problems, local folklore, customs, and culture made Albany a notable small city in the South.

The city founded the Albany Museum of Art, which has one of the best African and African-American art collections in the Southeast.

Major changes came with the expansion of military facilities in the city. A U.S. Army Air Corps training base was built near Albany, with construction of the base and of the airfield by the Army Corps of Engineers beginning in March 25, 1941. The airfield was temporarily deactivated after World War II, between August 15, 1946 and September 1, 1947.

After the beginning of the Cold War and the founding of the U.S. Air Force in late 1947, the airfield was reactivated and upgraded with runways for a U.S. Air Force base. It was named Turner Air Force Base. The Air Force used this base for very heavy bomber jets, such as the B-52 Stratofortress. A number of other Air Force units were also housed at this Air Force Base. [9] as the base was renamed. Among them were the 1370th Photomapping Group,[10] and refueling and maintenance functions. The Turner Air Force Base was abandoned by the Air Force. In 1951, the U.S. Marine Corps established a logistics base on the eastern outskirts of Albany. During the 1950s and 1960s, so many white servicemen and associated workers arrived that the town briefly became majority white for the first time since 1870.

In 1967 the base was transferred to the U.S. Navy for its use. Naval Air Station Albany was used as the shore base of nearly all the Navy's RA-5C Vigilante twin-jet, carrier-based reconnaissance aircraft. This naval base was permanently deactivated and relinquished to civilian control in 1974.

In 1979, the Miller Brewing Company purchased part of the old naval base's property to build a new brewing plant.[11]

In 1960, the population of Albany reached 50,000 people. In 1961–1962, African Americans in Albany played a prominent role in the Civil Rights Movement (see the Albany Movement). They led protests and non-violent demonstrations to end segregation of public facilities, gain the ability to vote, and restore their dignity. Assisted by activists from SCLC, CORE, SNCC, and the NAACP, African Americans and supporters took a stand to fight segregation through nonviolence. The city repealed its Jim Crow laws in 1963, but it took federal legislation to secure the franchise.

The decline in military bases and railroad restructuring led to job losses. Much of the remaining white population moved to suburbs and newer housing out of the city, which became majority African American in the 1970s. Struggling with a poor economy, in 1988, Albany made national headlines as the "Murder Capital of America," with the highest murder rate per capita in the United States. Other cities have since taken that title.

In 2011, Albany made headlines when Tom Knighton, owner of Knighton Media, Inc, announced that his company was purchasing The Albany Journal. Knighton Media was formed to managed Knighton's blog, Laws-n-Sausages, and this was the first known time that a blog had purchased a newspaper anywhere in the world.[12][13][14] However, The Albany Journal's print edition was short-lived. Because of high costs and declining subscriptions, the paper announced in August 2012 that it would cease its print edition and be an online-only paper. Knighton said in August: "Our advertising revenue took a big hit after I took over the paper. We kept going for as long as we could, but we finally reached a point where we had two choices: We could go to online only, or we could shut the doors forever.” [15]


Albany is located at (31.582273, −84.165557)[16]. It lies in a belt of historically rich farmland in the East Gulf coastal plain, on the banks of the Flint River.


Albany lies in the Upper Coastal Plain of Georgia.[17]

Tree Canopy

As of 2010, the City of Albany had been a member of The Arbor Day Foundation's Tree City USA Program for 23 years.[18] Tree lined streets are common, with large, mature oaks and other native trees. The City has a Tree Ordinance[19] and a Certified Arborist on staff.[20]

Parks, Gardens, Trails


The new archway over Oglethorpe Boulevard at Front Street welcomes visitors to downtown Albany.

The City of Albany's Recreation and Parks Department provides a diverse and comprehensive system of 77 park facilities throughout the City of Albany. Including the following:



Albany's Garden Club was established in 1996 and is located on the northeast side of Hillsman Park in the Palmyra Heights Neighborhood.[22]


Albany's Riverfront Trail is a 2.4-mile (3.9 km) paved trail along the Flint River that connects Riverfront Park in Downtown Albany to the Cox Landing Boat Ramp in Northeast Albany, near Chehaw Park. The Oxford Environmental Park Nature Trail is an off-shoot of the trail, which provides information about the ecological features of the area.[23]


  • Albany State University
  • Arcadia
  • Avalon
  • Avondale
  • Catalina Beach Estates
  • Central Business District
  • CME
  • Coachman Park
  • Colonial Forest
  • Colonial Village
  • Columbia Heights
  • Country Club Estates
  • Culver Park
  • Cutliff
  • Dixieland
  • East Gate
  • East Towne
  • Emily G. Henderson
  • Flintland
  • Gordon Heights/Clearview
  • Grove Park
  • Isabella Heights
  • Jackson Heights
  • Maple City
  • Massey
  • Mayfair Haven
  • North Radium Springs
  • Northend
  • Palmyra Heights
  • Ragsdale
  • River Road/Charity Lane
  • Riverview
  • Sandy Bottom
  • Shakelford/Mulberry Heights
  • West Highlands
  • West Town

This is a work in progress...[24]


Climate data for Albany, GA
Record high °F (°C)83
Average high °F (°C)60
Average low °F (°C)35
Record low °F (°C)1
Precipitation inches (mm)6.12
Source: [25]



Historical populations

According to the United States Census Bureau, the Albany, Georgia Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) had an estimated population of 157,308 and ranked 252nd in the U.S. in 2010.[26] The MSA consists of Dougherty, Terrell, Lee, Worth, and Baker Counties.


The postmodern Albany Government Center downtown

As of the census of 2010, there were 77,434 people, 29,781 households, and 18,515 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,385.5 people per square mile (535.0/km²). There were 33,436 housing units at an average density of 577.3 per square mile (222.9/km²).

The racial makeup of the city was 71.6% African American and Black, 25.2% White, 0.2% Native American, 0.8% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.9% from other races, and 1.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.1% of the population.

Of the 29,781 total households, 29.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 29.7% were married couples living together, 27.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.8% were non-families. Households of individuals living alone made up 31.8% of the total, and 9.4% were someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 3.11.

In the city, the population was spread out, with 27.8% under the age of 18, 13.0% from 18 to 24, 27.7% from 25 to 44, 19.6% from 45 to 64, and 11.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31.4 years. For every 100 females there were 85.6 males. For every 100 males age 18 and over, there were 116.7 females.

The median household income in the city was $25,191, and the median income for a family was $35,067. Males had a median income of $31,104 versus $27,407 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,117. About 31.9% of families and 39.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 55.4% of those under age 18 and 13.8% of those persons age 65 and over.[27]


An M88 Recovery Vehicle at the Marine Corps Logistics Base Albany undergoes depot maintenance in 2005.

Today, although the city is surrounded by pecan groves, pine trees, farms and plantations, almost none of the population is employed in agriculture. It is heavily mechanized.

Health care, education and the Marine Corps Logistics Base Albany are the largest employers. Manufacturing, transportation, and retail trade are also important foundations of Albany's economy and the city acts as a hub for commerce in southwest Georgia.

On December 17, 2008, Cooper Tire and Rubber, one of Albany's largest employers, announced plans to close the local manufacturing facility. Approximately 1,400 employees at the plant were projected to lose their jobs.

Business environment

As a result of the recent economic downturn, unemployment remains higher in Albany than the state average. Albany continues to add more new jobs while other portions of the state are trying to stem the tide of joblessness. [28]

Albany provides opportunities to new businesses by providing a skilled workforce, continual upgrades to its infrastructure, improvements in public safety, such as its ISO fire rating of 2,[29] and numerous economic development initiatives, such as its Opportunity Zone which offers a $3,500 tax credit per job created.[30]

Top eight non-governmental employers in Dougherty County

(excludes the City of Albany, Dougherty County, and the Marine Corps Logistics Base Albany)


Arts and culture

In 1972 the manager of a local theater, Mr. Jenkins, was convicted of "distributing obscene material" for showing the film Carnal Knowledge, in Jenkins v. Georgia.

Museums and the arts

Albany Municipal Auditorium
Ray Charles statue, centerpiece of Ray Charles Plaza
Ray Charles Plaza in Downtown Albany

In addition, the city sponsors an annual music festival.

Registered historic places


Albany PanthersIndoor FootballProfessional Indoor Football LeagueJames H. Gray, Sr. Civic Center


Memorials and sights

Festivals and events


A monthly arts and music celebration in downtown Albany, always something new and exciting. Held on the 4th Friday of each month [40]

Albany marathon and 1/2 marathon

The race is a 26.2-mile (42.2 km) full marathon or a 13.1-mile (21.1 km) half marathon, and is ranked as one of the top Boston qualifiers in the country, with almost 20% of all marathon finishers qualifying. The 2012 event was held on Sunday March 3, 2012.[41]


The new Federal Courthouse in downtown Albany is dedicated in honor of the civil rights attorney C.B. King of Georgia.

Elected officials include a mayor and six city commissioners, all of whom serve four-year terms. The commissioners represent the wards from which they are elected. There is also an appointed city manager who acts as the chief administrative officer. The city has been governed by a city commission and city manager since January 14, 1924.[42]

City departments include:



Private schools

Several private schools provide primary and secondary education including:

Public schools

The Dougherty County School System operates a system of five learning centers, sixteen public elementary schools, six public middle schools and four public high schools. All schools are accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS) and the Georgia Accrediting Commission (GAC). The system had an enrollment in 2009–2010 of 15,838 students being taught by 1,070 teachers and 198 support and administrative personnel.[44]

The following schools have the following distinctions:

Higher education

Albany State University

Albany is the location of the historically black Albany State University, founded as a pre-collegiate school in 1903, as part of the drive for education among African Americans. Albany State is notable as one of the few historically black colleges to be part of the University System of Georgia.

Darton College

Albany is also home to Darton College, a two year college, which in 2011 was granted permission from the Georgia Board of Regents to begin offering a limited number of 4 year degrees.[45]

Albany Technical College

Albany Technical College [16] is part of the Technical College System of Georgia and teaches post-secondary vocational and occupational training subjects.


The Rosenberg Brothers Department Store, now headquarters of The Albany Herald.


Television stations

FM radio stations

AM radio stations




Southwest Georgia Regional Airport (ABY) is a non-hub commercial service airport with approximately 30,000 annual operations serviced by Atlantic Southeast Airlines, a regional carrier for Delta. Both UPS and DHL use the airport as a sorting facility. In 2010, a master plan was conducted which recommended moving forward with the Replacement Terminal Project.[48]


Freight rail service is provided by Georgia Southwestern Railroad, Georgia and Florida Railway, and Norfolk Southern Railway. Georgia and Florida Railway has its headquarters in Albany.


There is a Greyhound bus station in downtown Albany. Albany Transit System (ATS) has operated by the city since 1974, provides fixed-route and para-transit services in Albany and Dougherty County, including service to the airport. All buses are wheelchair accessible and are equipped with bicycle racks. The main transfer station is in downtown Albany at the corner of Oglethorpe and Jackson.[49]


Albany is located on Georgia State Route 300 (Georgia-Florida Parkway) which provides easy access to Cordele, Georgia and Interstate 75 to the northeast and south to Camilla, Georgia and Thomasville, Georgia. The Liberty Expressway spans 10 miles (16 km) serves as a bypass on Albany's north and east sides. Other highways that pass through Albany include: US 19, US 82, and State Routes 3, 62, 91, 133, 234, 520.[50]


Albany's historic Broad Avenue Memorial bridge was constructed in 1920 and is composed of a three open spandrel concrete deck arch main spans and eight closed spandrel deck arch spans.[51]

Interesting Facts

The intersection of Lonesome & Hardup was named the fourth wackiest street name according to a 2006 poll by Car Connection website.[52]

Energy Infrastructure

Albany Water Gas and Light

Georgia Power

Portions of Albany are serviced by Georgia Power, which operates two electrical power plants within Dougherty County: coal fired Plant Mitchell and the hydroelectric dam at Lake Worth[dead link] also known as Lake Chehaw.

Water Management Infrastructure

The Albany Water, Gas & Light Commission (WG&L) is a municipally-owned and operated utility system furnishing water, gas and electricity to its broad–based customers. Albany WG&L, was founded in 1892 as the Albany Water Works, as the largest municipal user in Georgia.[53]

The publlic water supply source for Albany-Dougherty County is groundwater obtained from four aquifers:

The water quality is considered to be excellent, needing only chlorination and fluoridation treatment.[54]

Communications infrastructure

Both WG&L and AT&T offer communications infrastructure within the City of Albany.[53]

Solid waste management

Albany is serviced by the Dougherty County Landfill located at 900 Gaissert Road, approximately 7.5 miles (12.1 km) southeast of the City of Albany.[55]

Health care

Albany is the home of a not-for-profit regional health system with a 26-county cachement area with Phoebe Putney Memorial Hospital [35] at its hub.

Public safety

Law enforcement

Albany is serviced by the Albany Police Department (APD) which is divided into three districts, each having its own police center. Additionally, the Dougherty County Police Department is responsible for the unincorporated area of Dougherty County. Lastly the Dougherty County Sheriff's Department is a law enforcement agency under the direction of the County Sheriff, an elected officer.[56]

Fire protection

The Albany Fire Department consists of more than 150 assigned personnel operating 11 fire stations in Dougherty County, seven of which are within the city limits.[56]

EMS/EMT service

Dougherty County EMS has over 60 employees and services the county through one headquarters and five satellite stations.[56]

Notable natives and residents

Composer, pianist, and singer Ray Charles


Deion BranchSuper Bowl MVP football player
Ray CharlesPianist, songwriter and soul singer
Alice CoachmanOlympic gold medal high jumper
William L. DawsonU.S. Representative from Illinois
Leroy GilbertChaplain of the United States Coast Guard
Reginald D. HunterStand-up comedian
Harry JamesBig Band leader and jazz trumpeter
Alexander Johnsonprofessional basketball player
Hamilton Jordanformer White House Chief of Staff
Ray KnightWorld Series MVP, also managed the Cincinnati Reds
Russell Malonejazz guitarist
Shannon McArdlesongwriter, The Mendoza Line
Merritt RanewMilwaukee Braves baseball player
Wallingford RieggerConductor and composer
Bobby RushU.S. Representative from Illinois
Daryl Smithprofessional football player
Montavious Stanleyprofessional football player
Ray Stevenscountry music singer


Nellie Brimberrybecame the first Postmistress of a major U.S. Post Office in 1910
Mary Francis Hill Coleymidwife in Albany 1930–1966, inducted into Georgia Women of Achievement 2011[57]
Paula Deenchef and host of Paula's Home Cooking on the Television Food Network
Jim Fowleranimal expert and host of the television show, Mutual of Omaha's Wild Kingdom
Lee JamesOlympic silver medalist weightlifter attended Westover High School in Albany
Wadsworth Jarrellartist
Rob Jones2010 Grammy Award Winning Designer[58]
Alex Kendrick
Stephen Kendrick,
filmmakers and authors, reside in Albany
Haley Kilpatrickthe founder of Girl Talk Inc.
Nancy LopezProfessional Golfer
Kregg Lumpkinprofessional football player
Field Mobrap duo signed to Disturbing Tha Peace Records
Jo Marie Paytonactress that played in Family Matters and The Proud Family
Buster PoseyWorld Series Champion and 2010 NL Rookie of the Year with the San Francisco Giants was born and raised in nearby Leesburg, Georgia
D. A. PowellAmerican poet, author of Chronic and Cocktails, born in Albany
Travis RichterRecord producer, Dubstep producer Modified Noise, guitarist and screamer/singer for From First To Last, now lead singer of The Human Abstract
Stephen Tannerbassist for the band Harvey Milk
Angelo TaylorOlympic gold medal hurdler
Mark TaylorFormer Lieutenant Governor of Georgia


  1. ^ a b "Albany (city) QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". Retrieved April 14, 2012. 
  2. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas:April 1 2000 to July 1, 2007 (CBSA-EST2007-01)" (CSV). 2007 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. March 27 2008. Retrieved May 22, 2008. 
  3. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 31 January 2008. 
  4. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 25 October 2007. Retrieved 31 January 2008. 
  5. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 7 June 2011. 
  6. ^ "". 
  7. ^ [1], City of Albany, Georgia website[dead link]
  8. ^ Fair, John D. "Nelson Tift: A Connecticut Yankee in King Cotton's Court," Georgia Historical Quarterly (2004) 88#3 pp 338-374
  9. ^ "Turner AFB". Archived from the original on May 13 2006. Retrieved May 11, 2006. 
  10. ^ "1370th Photomapping and Charting Group". Archived from the original on May 17 2006. Retrieved May 11, 2006. 
  11. ^ "History of Turner Field Albany Georgia". Archived from the original on May 24 2006. Retrieved May 11, 2006. 
  12. ^ "Blogger acquires Albany Journal". Albany Herald. October 10, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2012. 
  13. ^ Kaufman, Rachel (October 11, 2011). "Blogger Buys Newspaper(?!) – MediaJobsDaily". Retrieved April 14, 2012. 
  14. ^ Stableford, Dylan (June 21, 2011). "Blogger buys newspaper | The Cutline – Yahoo! News". Retrieved April 14, 2012. 
  15. ^ "Journal to Print Online Only". 
  16. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 12 February 2011. Retrieved 23 April 2011. 
  17. ^ "accessed January 30, 2012". Retrieved April 14, 2012. 
  18. ^ "accessed January 31, 2012". Retrieved April 14, 2012. 
  19. ^ "accessed January 31, 2012" (PDF). Retrieved April 14, 2012. 
  20. ^ "accessed January 31, 2012". Retrieved April 14, 2012. 
  21. ^ "accessed January 31, 2012". Retrieved April 14, 2012. 
  22. ^ Garden Club Center Federated. "accessed on January 31, 2012". Retrieved April 14, 2012. 
  23. ^ "accessed on January 31, 2012". Retrieved April 14, 2012. 
  24. ^ City of Albany GIS Subdivision/Neighborhood Layer or
  25. ^ "Average Weather for Albany, GA – Temperature and Precipitation". July 2011. Retrieved August 27, 2010. 
  26. ^ Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data, U.S. Census Bureau, 2010. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
  27. ^ 2010 U.S. Census Bureau American Fact Finder Tables DP-1 Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics, 2010 and DP03 Selected Economic Characteristics Accessed on January 31, 2012
  28. ^ "accessed January 30, 2012". January 21, 2012. Retrieved April 14, 2012. 
  29. ^ "accessed January 30, 2012". Retrieved April 14, 2012. 
  30. ^ "accessed January 30, 2012". Retrieved April 14, 2012. 
  31. ^ [2][dead link]
  32. ^ "Thronateeska Heritage Center". Retrieved April 14, 2012. 
  33. ^ [3][dead link]
  34. ^ "Albany, GA : This picture is of the Albany police station downtown. User comment: I'm from Albany, GA and this is NOT a picture of the Police Station downtown. This is a picture of the historic Albany Municipal Auditorium. photo, picture, image (Georgia) at". October 8, 2005. Retrieved April 14, 2012. 
  35. ^
  36. ^
  37. ^ "Albany, GA : Albany Heights Building photo, picture, image (Georgia) at". May 29, 2006. Retrieved April 14, 2012. 
  38. ^ "Historic Buildings". June 22, 2010. Retrieved April 14, 2012. 
  39. ^ accessed January 31, 2012
  40. ^ accessed January 31, 2012
  41. ^ accessed January 30, 2012
  42. ^ "Board on City Commissioners". Official City of Albany and Dougherty County Website. City of Albany, GA. Retrieved October 11, 2011. 
  43. ^ "accessed January 30, 2012". April 28, 2008. Retrieved April 14, 2012. 
  44. ^ Dougherty County School System
  45. ^ Emert, Jennifer. "accessed January 30, 2012". Retrieved April 14, 2012. 
  46. ^
  47. ^ "WGEX-FM – 97.3 – Hit Music NOW". Retrieved April 14, 2012. 
  48. ^ "accessed January 31, 2012". Retrieved April 14, 2012. 
  49. ^ "accessed January 31, 2012". Retrieved April 14, 2012. 
  50. ^ "accessed January 30, 2012" (PDF). Retrieved April 14, 2012. 
  51. ^ "accessed January 30, 2012". 31.576896;-84.147276: Retrieved April 14, 2012. 
  52. ^ See the entry for September 19 on Ben Scott, Schott's Miscellany Calendar 2009 (New York: Workman Publishing Company, 2008).
  53. ^ a b accessed January 30, 2012
  54. ^ "accessed January 30, 2012". Retrieved April 14, 2012. 
  55. ^ "(Chapter 5: Community Facilities) accessed January 30, 2012". Retrieved April 14, 2012. 
  56. ^ a b c (Chapter 5) retrieved 30, January 2012
  57. ^ "Georgia Women of Achievement". 
  58. ^ "Animal Rummy Designs". 

Further reading

External links